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ISSOED  AMWMXT 


MINERAL  INDUSTRY 

ITS  STATISTICS,  TECfWOLOGY  AND  TBAfiE 

IN  THE  UNITED  STATES  AND  OTHER  COUNTRIES 


N  annual  technical  encyclopedia, 
incorporalkg  tke  most  recent  de- 
velopments and  advances  evolved 
in   ike  mining    and   metallurgical 

world.       Fmhrjiriafl  ik^   lafA«»  •»« 


«f  tbe 

•Ulntvcreit^  of  Mteconsln 


VOL.  L    FRvM  iliK  KARLIEST  TIMES  TO  THE  CLOSE  OF  1892.  Sa  50 

VOL.  n.  "  «  «  -  -  jg^^^   J  ^ 

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VOL.  Vn.  -  «  «  -  «  ,g^g^    5  00 

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The  Engineering  &  Mining  Journal 


26J  Broadway,  New  York 
20  Bucklersbury,  London^  E*  C 


The  Mineral  Industry 

ITS 

STATISTICS,  TECHNOLOGY  AND  TRADE 

IN  THE 

UNITED  STATES  AND  OTHER  COUNTRIES 

TO  THE  END  OP 

1902 


FOUNDBD  BY  THB  hkTB 

RICHARD  P.  ROTHWELL 

EDITED  BY 

JOSEPH  STRUTHERS,  Ph.D 


VOL.  XI 

SUPPLEMBNTING  YOLnilBS  I  TO  X 

SECOND    IMPRESSION 


NEW  YORK  AND  LONDON 

THE  ENGINEERING  AND  MINING  JOURNAL 

1905 


COPTRIORT,    1903 
BY 

THE  ENGINEERING  AND  MINING  JOURNAL 


155832 

JUL  1  4  1911     CONTENTS  OF  VOLUME  XL 


(Artldee  marlrod  With  an  asteriqic  (*)  are  mustnted.  and  those  wiUi  tttles  in  ^ 

ML  

■  7  M  &6  INTRODUCTION. 

BAM 

/  /  Total  Value  of  the  Mineral  and  Metal  Production  of  the  United 
States — ^Methods  of  Compiling  the  Statistics — Statistical  Tables  of  the 
Production  of  Ores  and  Mineral^.in  the  United  States — ^Production  of 
Metals — Secondary  Mineral  Products — ^American  Production  of  Metals 
from  Foreign  Ores — Summary  of  the  Mineral  Industry  of  the  United 
States  in  1902  —  Metals  —  Aluminum  —  Antimony— Copper— rFerro- 
manganese — Ferromolybdenum — Gold — Iron — Iridium — ^Lead — ^Molyb-  . 
denum  —  Mckel — Platinum — Quicksilver — Silver — ^Tungsten — ^Zinc — 
Ores  and  Non-metallio  Substances — Asbestos — ^Asphaltum  and  As- 
phaltic  Products — ^Barytes  —  Bauxite  —  Bromine  —  Calcium  Borate  — 
Cement — Chrome  Ore — Clay  Products— Coal — Cobalt  Oxide — Corun- 
dum and  Emery — ^Feldspiar  —  Fluorspar — Fullers  Earth — Garnet — 
Graphite — Gypsum  —  Iron  Ore — Magnesite — ^Manganese  Ore — ^Mica — 
Molybdenum  Ore — ^Monazite — Natural  Gas — Ocher  and  Iron  Oxide  Pig- 
ments— ^Petroleum — Phosphate  Rock — ^Precious  Stones — ^Pyrites— Salt 
— Silica  (including  Diatomaceous  Earth,  Flint>  Pumice  Stone,  Grind- 
stones and  Whetstones,  and  Tripoli)— Slate — Soapstone — ^Lithographic 
Stone — Strontium  Sulphate — Talc — ^Tungsten  Ore — ^Uranium  Ore- 
Zinc  Ore — Secondary  Products — ^Alum — ^Aluminum  Sulphate — ^Am- 
monium Sulphate — Carborundum — Coke — CJopperas — Copper  Sulphate 
— Crushed  Steel — ^White  Lead,  Red  Lead,  Orange  Mineral,  and  Litharge 
— ^Mineral  Wool — Soda— Venetian  Red — ^Zinc  Sulphate— Zinc  White —      1 — ^10 

ALUMINUM  AND  ALUM. 
(By  Joseph  Struthers) — Bauxite — Statistics  of  the  United  States 
— Imports  and  Exports  of  French  Bauxite — ^World's  Production  of 
Bauxite — ^France — Italy — ^Alabama  —  Georgia  —  Arkansas — Corundum 
and  Emery — Production  in  and  Imports  into  the  United  States — 
Progress  in  the  Corundum  and  Emery  Industry  during  1902  (by  Joseph 
Hyde  Pratt,  p.  1%)— Montana— {By  L.  S.  Ropes,  p.  isy-^anador^^ 
(by  B.  A.  C.  Craig,  p.  19) — Emery  in  Greece — ^Turkey — ^Emery  Wheel 
Manufacture — Cryolite — Imports  into  the  United  States — Aluminum-^ 
Production,  Imports  and  Consumption  in  the  United  States — ^Duly— 
World's  Production  and  Commerce — Progress  in  the  Aluminum  Indus- 
try  in  1902  (by  John  B.  C.  Kershaw,  p.  23) — Production,  Market  and 
Prices — Companies — Utilization  of  Aluminum — Use  for  Electric  Con- 
ductors— ^Alloys — Balloon,  Cycles  and  Motor  Cars— Printing — ^Foun- 
dry and  Metallurgical  Uses — ^Miscellaneous  Uses — ^Properties  of  Alu- 
minum— Alum  and  Aluminum  Sulphate — Production,  Imports  and 
Consumption  of  Artificial  Alum  in  the  United  States — ^Market  Condi- 
tions— Natural   Alum — Italy 11 — 36 


iv  CONTENTS. 

AMMONIA  AND  AMMONIUM  SULPHATE- 


»JiiA 


(By  Henry  Fisher.) — ^Production  of  Ammonia  and  Imports  of  Am- 
monium Sulphate  in  the  United  States — ^World^s  Production  of  Am- 
monium Sulphate  and  Sodium  Nitrate — ^Prices — Germany — ^United 
Kingdom 86—38 

ANTIMONY. 
(By  Joseph  Struthers) — ^Production,  Imports  and  Consumption  in  , 

the  United  States — World^s  Production  of  Antimony  Ore  and  Metal-^ 
Algeria — Australasia — ^Austria — ^Bolivia  —  Borneo— Canada — China — 
France — Hungary — ^Italy  —  Japan — Mexico — Portugal — Servia — Spain 
— ^Turkey — Market  Conditions  in  New  York — ^Technology — ^Electrolytic 
Extraction  of  Antimony  from  Ores— Improved  Method  of  Antimony 
Smelting — White  Antimony  Oxide — ^Determination  of  Antimony  and 
Arsenic — Specific  Grayily  and  Composition  of  Hard  Lead 89—46 

ARSENIC. 
(By  Joseph  Struthers) — ^Production  and  Imports  into  the  United 
States-^Market  Conditions — ^World's  Production  of  Arsenic — Canada — 
France — Germany— India — ^Italy — Spain — ^United  Kingdom — Determi- 
nation of  Arsenic  and  Copper  in  Iron  Ores — ^Determination  of  Arsenic 
and  Antimony  in  Sulphides — ^Becovery  of  Arsenic  Fume  from  Furnaee 
Gases   46—49 

ASBESTOS. 

(By  Henry  Fisher) — Production,  Imports  and  Market  Conditions 
in  the  United  States — Fireproof  Asbestos  Preparation — ^World^s  Pro- 
duction of  Asbestos — Canada 60 — 61 

ASPHALTUM. 

(By  Joseph  Struthers) — Production  of  Asphaltum  and  BituminouB 
Sock  in  the  United  States — ^Asphalt  Companies — ^Arkansas — Califor- 
nia— ^Indian  Territoiy— JSTen/wciy  (by  William  E.  Burk^  p.  64) — Texas 
— ^Utah — World's  Production  of  Asphaltum  and  Asphaltic  Eock — ^As- 
phaltum in  Foreign  Countries— <7w6o  (by  H.  C.  Brown,  p.  66) — 
France — Germany — Italy — ^Trinidad  and  Tobago— Turkey — ^Venezuela 
— ^The  New  York  &  Bermudez  Co. — Ozokerite — Austria — ^United  States 
— Petroleum  and  Maltha  Products  Used  in  the  Paving  Industry  (by  A. 

W.  Dow,  p.  60)— Patents 68—63 

BAEYTES. 

(By  Joseph  Struthers  and  Henry  Fisher) — ^Production,  Imports 
and  Consumption  in  the  United  States — Production  of  Baiytes  in  the 
World — Missouri — North  Carolina — ^Tennessee  —  Virginia — ^Market 
Conditions — Canada — ^Technology — ^Barium  Chloride — ^Barium  Oxide— 

Lithophone — Patents  64—67 

BISMUTH. 

(By  Joseph  Struthers) — ^Production  of  Bismuth  Ores  in  the  United 
States — ^Market — ^Bismuth  in  Colorado — Imports  of  Bismuth  into  the 


OONTBNTa. 

United  States — ^AuBtralasia— Beview  of  Analytical  Ghemistiy — ^Leach- 
ing Frooeea  for  Bismuth  Ore 68 — 69 

BOBAX. 
(By  Joseph  Struthers) — ^Production  and  Imports  of  Borax  in  the 
United  States — ^The  California  Borax  Fields — Oregon  Borax  Deposito— 
Market — ^World's  Production — Borax  Consolidated,  Ltd. — Argentina — 
Bolivia— ChUe— Italy— Peru— Turkey    70—72 

BROMINE. 
(By  Joseph  Struthers) — ^Production  of  Bromine  in  the  United 
States — ^Michigan — Companies   Manufacturing  Bromine — Process   for 
Beeovering  Bromine — Dow  Process 73—74 

CALCIUM  CAEBIDE  AND  ACETYLENE. 
(By   Henry   Fisher) — ^Acetylene   Generators — Patents — ^Lamps^— 
Car  Lighting — ^Acetone  as  Absorbent  for  Acetylene — Explosion  of  Acet- 
ylene— ^Burners — ^Purification — Calcium  Carbide  Market — ^XJnion  Car- 
bide Co. — ^Uses  of  Carbide — Carbide  as  a  Reducing  Agent 75—77 

CARBORUNDUM. 
Production  and  Consimiption  of  Carborundum  in  the  United  States 
—Grades 78 

CEMENT.* 
Production  of  Portland  and  Natural  Hydraulic  Cement  in  the 
United  States— Output  of  Slag  Cement — ^Imports  and  Exports— Tfca 
Cement  Industry  in  the  United  States  during  1902  (by  Charles  F. 
McKenna,  p.  80) — ^Portland  Cement — ^Rate  of  Increase  in  the  Annual 
Production — Consumption  in  the  United  States — ^Testing  of  Cement — 
Technology — ^Prices — Natural  Hydraulic  Cement — Slag  Cement  and 
Slag  Brick  Manufacture  during  1902  (by  Edwin  C.  Eckel,  p.  85) — 
Slag  Cenmit — ^Method  of  Mlanuf acture  at  the  Stewart  Iron  Co.— In 
France — Slag  Bricks — Analyses — Slag  Blocks — The  Mechanical  Equip- 
ment  of  a  Modem  Portland  Cement  Plant*  (by  Frederick  H.  Lewis, 
p.  88) — History — Quarrying — Reduction  of  Raw  Materials — Crushing 
Plant  of  Lehigh  Portland  Cement  Co.,  Ind. — ^Belt  Conveyors  and  Stone 
House — Grinding  Raw  Materials — ^Arrangement  of  Griffin  Mills — Mill 
Layout — Kominuter  Ball  Mill — Tube  Mill — Plan  and  Vertical  Section 
of  a  60-Ton  Plant  for  Crushing  Raw  Materials — ^Arrangement  of  Mod- 
em Ball  and  Pebble  Mill — ^Kiln  Practice — ^Rotary  Kilns  for  Burning 
Portland  Cement— Cylindrical  Kiln — Clinker  Cooler— Wet  Raw  Mate- 
rials— Grinding  Clinker — Coal  Grinding — Cummer  Dryer — Machinery 
in  Coal  Grinding  Building— Packing  and  Shipping — Coal  Dryer 79 — 119 

CHROMIUM  AND  CHROME  ORE. 
(By  Joseph  Struthers  and  Henry  Fisher) — ^Production,  Imports 
and  Congmnption  of  Chrome  in  the  United  States — Output  of  Ferro- 
chromium — California — Chrome   Ore   Mines — ^World's   Production   of 
Chrome  Ore — Canada — Greece — ^New  Caledonia — ^New  South  Wale 


vi  00NTSNT8. 

PJJStL 

New  Zealand — ^Norway — ^Turkey — ^Technology — Composition  of  Metal- 
lic Chromium — Duty  on  Ferrochrome — Chrome  Solutions  for  Tanning 
Leather — ^Use  of  Hydrazine  Sulphate  in  the  Estimation  of  Chromates. . .  120 — 124 

CLAY. 
Economic  Conditions — ^Production  of  Brick,  Clay  Wares,  and  Clay 
Building  Material  in  the  United  States — ^Value  of  the  Clay  Products — 
Review  of  the  Literature  of  Clay  and  Clay  Products  in  1902  (by  Hein- 
rich  Eies,  p.  129) — Clay  Deposits — Colorado — Missouri — North  Caro- 
lina— ^Washington — ^Austria — Canada  —  France  —  Germany — Russia — 
Properi;ies  of  Clay — Softening  Temperature — Dehydration — Plasticity 
—Permeability — Composition — Mechanical  Analyses — Chemical  Analy- 
ses— ^Pyrometers — ^Manufacture  of  Zinc  Retorts — Pottery  Qlazes — 
Bodies— Porcelain— Tiles— Brick 125—133 

COAL  AND  COKE.* 
(By  Samuel  Sanford,  D.  H.  Newland  and  Henry  Fisher) — Statis- 
tics of  Production,  Imports,  Exports  and  Consumption  of  Coal  and  Coke 
in  the  United  States — Ohio— Pennsylvania — ^West  Virginia — Other 
States — Production  of  Coal  in  the  Chief  Countries  of  the  World — ^Africa 
— ^Australasia — Canada — China  —  Europe  —  India — Japan — Mexico — 
South  America — Anthracite  Coal  Trade  in  1902  (by  Samuel  Sanford, 
p.  140) — Trade  by  Months — Seaboard  Bituminous  Coal  Trade  (by  Sam- 
uel Sanford,  p.  143) — Trade  by  Months— fieccn^  developments  in  the 
Anthracite  Coal  Trade  (by  Samuel  Sanford,  p.  145) — General  Review 
— Shipments  from  the  Anthracite  Regions  and  Percentage  of  Coal 
Handled  by  Each  Road — Circular  and  Selling  Prices  of  Stove  Coal  at 
New  York  Harbor — By-Product  CoJce  Ovens*  (by  F.  Schniewind,  p. 
158) — ^By-Product  Coke  Ovens  in  the  United  States  and  Canada  in 
1902 — Otto-Hilgenstock  By-Product  Coke  Oven — Quenching  Car— Test 
of  the  Temperature  of  the  Oven  Charge — ^Report  of  the  Chief  Inspector 
of  Alkali  Works  in  the  United  Kingdom 134—161 

COPPER.* 
(By  Joseph  Struthers,  D.  H.  Newland  and  Henry  Fisher) — Sta»- 
tistics  of  Production  and  Consumption  in  the  United  States — ^Imports 
and  Exports — ^Production  of  Copper  Sulphate — ^Alaska — Arizona  (by 
James  Douglas)  California — ^Idaho — ^Michigan  (by  D.  H.  Newland) — 
Reports  of-Michigan  Copper  Mines — Montana  (by  W.  H.  Weed)  Nevada 
— New  Jersey — ^New  Mexico — North  Carolina— South  Dakota — ^Tennes- 
see— ^Utah — Wyoming  (by  Wilbur  C.  Knight) — ^Philippine  Islands- 
Copper  Mining  in  Foreign  Countries — ^Australia — ^World's  Copper  Pro- 
duction, 1898-1902 — ^Argentina— Bolivia — Brazil — Canada  (by  Samuel 
S.  Fowler,  p.  177) — Cuba — Italy  (by  Giovanni  Aichino,  p.  179)Mexico 
(by  James  W.  Malcolmson,  p.  179) — ^Newfoundland — ^Norway — Portur 
gal — Russia — South  Africa— Spain — ^United  Kingdom — Copper  Mar- 
kets in  1902 — ^New  York  Market — ^London  Market — Progress  in  the 
Metallurgy  of  Copper  during  1902*  (by  Joseph  Struthers  and  D.  H. 


OOKTENTS,  Vii 

PAOB 

Newland,  p.  188) — Automatic  Ore  Sampling — Smelting  Ore  and  Matte 
.at  Leadville  and  Robinson,  Colo. — Smelting  Raw  Sulphide  Ores  at 
Duektown,  Tenn.  (by  W.  H.  Freeland,  p.  191) — New  Copper  and  Lead 
Smelters  at  Salida,  Colo. — Smelting  Practice  at  Santa  Fe,  Mexico. — 
Trail  Smelter  (by  W.  H.  Aldridge) — Granby  Smelter — New  Copper 
Smelter  at  Crofton,  B.  C. — Smelting  Practice  at  Greenwich,  B.  C. — 
Blast  Furnace  Capacity — Reverberatory  Furnaces  for  Smelting  Copper* 
(by  E.  P.  Mathewson,  p.  200)— Cost  and  Profit  in  Pyritic  Smelting  of 
Low-grade  Copper  Ores — Heated  Blast  in  Copper  Smelting — Herreshoflf 
Roasting  Furnace — Furnace  Construction* — Garreston  Furnace — 
Treatment  of  Low-grade  Siliceous  Copper  Ores  (by  Edward  E.  Peters, 
p.  206)^ — Proposed  Process  for  the  Extraction  of  Copper  from  Low- 
grade  Ores — Elimination  of  Impurities  from  Copper  Matte* — Process 
for  Treating  Copper  Matte — Copper  Residues,  Precipitates  avid  Scrap 
(by  H.  A.  Mather) — ^Analysis  of  Copper  Slags — Trogress  in  the  Elec- 
trolytic Refining  of  Copper  in  1902  (by  Titus  ITlke,  p.  216) — ^Electro- 
lytic Copper  Refineries — Output,  Cost,  etc.,  of  Copper  Refineries — Cur- 
rent Densities  in  Refining— Use  of  Heavy  Anodes — Regeneration  of 
Foul  Solution— Metallurgical  Crane 162—220 

COPPERAS. 
(By  Joseph  Struthers) — Production  of  Copperas  in  the  United 
States — Manufacture  and  Uses — ^Producers — Prices  at  New  York 221 — 222 

PROGRESS  IN  ELECTROCHEMISTRY  AND  ELECTROMETAL- 
LURGY IN  1902.* 
(By  John  B.  C.  Kershaw) — General  Progress — ^Alkalies  and  Bleach 
— Caustic  Soda — ^Aluminum — ^Antimony — ^Arsenic — ^Barium  Hydrate — 
Bullion  Refining — Calcium  Carbide — Carborundum — Chlorates — Cop- 
per— ^Ferrochromium  and  Similar  Alloys — Graphite — Hypochlorites — 
Iron  and  Steel — Electric  Furnaces — ^Lead — Magnesium — Molybdenum 
and  Other  Rare  Metals — Nickel — Nitric  Acid  and  Nitrates — Organic 
Products — Oxygen  and  Hydrogen — Ozone — Sodium,  Sodium  Peroxide 
and  Sodium  Cyanide— Tanning— Tin— Zinc 223—236 

FELDSPAR. 
Production  of  the  United  States — Market  and  Prices 237 

FLUORSPAR. 
(By  Henry  Fisher) — ^Production  and  Producers  of  Fluorspar  in  the 
United  States — Market — ^Arizona — Illinois  —  Kentucky — ^Tennessee — 
Production  in  the  Principal  Countries  of  the  World— TAe  Use  of  So- 
dium Fluoride  for  the  Purification  of  Water  (by  Chas.  A.  Doremus, 
p.  240) 238—240 

FULLERS  EARTH. 
(By  Henry  Fisher) — Production  and  Imports  of  Fullers  Earth  in 
the  United  States — New  York  Market — Arkansas — Florida — Georgia — 


viii  OONTEKTS. 

France — Tiirkey — Technology — Experiments  on  the  Diffusion  of  Crude 
Petroleum  through  Fullers  Earth 241 — ^242 

GARNET. 
Production  of  Garnet  in  the  United  States — ^North  Creek  Mines — 
Pennsylvania — ^Connecticut — North   Carolina — Prices 243 

GEMS  AND  PRECIOUS  STONES. 
(By  Joseph  Struthers  and  Henry  Fisher) — Production  of  Precious 
Stones  in  the  United  States — Diamonds — ^United  States — South  Afri- 
can Mines — ^Australasia — ^Brazil — British  Guiana — Dutch  East  Indies 
— India-r-Artificial  Diamonds — ^Technology — ^Emeralds — Opals — ^Ruby 
— Sapphires — ^Turquoise — Tourmaline — Chrysoprase — ^Amethyst   24X — ^251 

GOLD  AND  SILVER.* 
(By  Joseph  Struthers,  D.  H.  Newland  and  Henry  Fisher) — ^Pro- 
duction of  Gold  in  the  United  States — ^Production  of  Gold  in  the  World 
— Production  of  Silver  in  the  United  States — Silver  Production  of  the 
World — Charts  of  the  Gold  and  Silver  Production  of  the  Principal 
Countries  of  the  World — Coinage  of  the  Mints  of  the  United  States — 
Imports  and  Exports  of  Gold  and  Silver  of  the  United  States — Imports 
and  Exports  of  Coin  and  Bullion  of  Austria-Hungary — France — Ger- 
many— ^United  Kingdom — Gold  and  Silver  Mining  in  the  United 
States — ^Alaska — Arizona — California  —  Colorado  —  Gteorgia — ^Idaho— 
Montana  (by  W.  H.  Weed,  p.  261) — New  Mexico — ^North  Carolina — 
South  Carolina — South  Dakota — ^Tennessee — Utah — ^Virginia — ^Wash- 
ington — Wyoming  (by  Wilbur  C.  Kjiight) — Gold  and  Silver  Mining 
in  Foreign  Countries — British  Columbia  (by  Samuel  S.  Fowler,  p. 
267) — ^Dawson — Newfoundland — Nova  Scotia — Ontario — Mexico  (by 
James  W.  Malcolmson,  p.  270) — Costa  Rica — ^Honduras — ^Nicaragua — 
Salvador — Argentina — ^Bolivia  —  Brazil  —  Chile — Columbia — ^Ecuador 
— Guiana — ^Peru — ^Uruguay — Russia — Servia  —  Spain  — •  Egypt  —  Gold 
Coast — Ivory  Coast — Madagascar — ^Rhodesia — ^Transvaal — ^West  Africa 
— China — Dutch  East  Indies — India — Japan — Corea — ^Malay  Peninsula 
— New  South  Wales — New  Zealand — Queensland — ^South  Australia — 
Tasmania — Victoria — ^Western  Australia — New  Guinea — Progress  in 
Gold  Milling  during  1902  (by  R.  H.  Richards,  p.  296) — Stamp  Mill 
Construction — Mortar  Foundations  in  Oregon — ^Mortar  Foundations  in 
California — Individual  Mortar  Stamp  Mill — Sluice  Plates — Morison's 
Open-Front  Mortar  Box — ^Theory  of  the  Patio  Process  of  Amalgamation 
— Mill  Practice  in  Arizona — In  Colorado — ^In  South  Dakota — In  Cali- 
fornia— In  Bendigo— At  the  Kalgurli  Gold  Mines,  Ltd. — ^Hydrau- 
licking  and  Placer  Working — Hydraulic  Mining — Gold  Bug  Mining 
Co.,  Cal. — ^Distribution  of  Gold  in  Sluice  Boxes — ''Crown  Gold"  Dry 
Concentrating  Plant — ^Dry  Blowers  in  Australian  Gold  Placers — ^Placers 
of  La  Cienga,  Mex. — Hydraulic  Practice  in  Oregon — Gold  Dredging — 
Recovery  of  Fine  Gold  from  Snake  River  Sands— Snake  River  Suction 
Dredge — ^Advance  Stripping,  New  Z^and — Dredging  in  New  Zealand 


aONTBNTS,  ix 

PAGI 

— ^In  Britiah  Columbia— In  California — ^In  Nevada — ^In  West  Siberiar— 
Platinum  Washing  in  the  Urals — A  Review  of  the  Cyanide  Process  in  the 
Year  1902*  (by  Charles  H.  Pulton,  p.  305)— Arizona— California- 
Colorado*— Idaho— M0ntana—-Neyada — New  Mexico— Oregon — South 
Dakota — Utah — ^Warfiington — Cyanide  Practice  in  Foreign  Countries 
— ^West^3i  Australii^-New  Zealand — ^Wet  Crushing  and  Direct  Cyanid- 
ing — Treatment  of  Slimes — ^Bromo-Cyanogen  Process — Befining  of 
Precipitates — ^Treatmient  of  Concentrates — Commercial  Pbtassium — 
Cyanides — ^Treatment  of  Cuperiferous  Gold  Ores — ^Patents — MisceUa<- 
neous — Cyanide  Poisoning — Cyanide  Patent  Decisions — Cyaniding  Sul- 
phO'Telluride  Ores  (by  Phillip  Argall,  p.  334)— Diehl  Process- 
Comparison  of  Cost  of  Diehl  and  Boasting  Processes — The  Treatment 
of  Sulpho-Telluride  Ores  at  Kalgoorlie  (by  W.  A*  Prichard  and  H.  C. 
Hoover,  p.  338) — Introductory — ^Diehl  Process — ^Boasting  Process — 
Workii^j  Costs  262—342 

GBAPHITE. 
(By  Joseph  Struthers) — Production,  Imports  and  Consumption  of 
Graphite  in  the  United  States — Grinders — ^Manufacturers  of  Crucibles 
— ^Paint — Stove  Polish — Foundry  Facings — Grease  and  Lubricants — 
Dealers — Beview  of  Progress  in  the  Graphite  Industry  in  1902 — Ala- 
bama— ^Massachusetts  —  Montana — New  Mexico— New  York — ^North . 
Carolina — ^Pennsylvania — ^Bhode  Island  — •  Washington  —  Wisconsin — 
Wyoming — ^World's  Production  of  Graphite — Australasia — Canada — 
Graphite  Industry  in  Canada  in  1902  (by  W.  E.  H.  Carter,  p.  349) — 
McDonald  Mine — ^McConnell  Mine — Artificial  Graphite — ^Production 
and  Value  from  1897  to  1902 — ^Manufacture — Graphite  Electrodes — 
Analytical  Determination  of  Graphite  in  Ores 343 — 353 

GYPSUM. 
Production  and  Imports  of  Gypsum  into  the  United  States — ^Produc- 
tion of  Gypsum  in  the  Principal  Countries  of  the  World — California — 
Washington — Oypsum  and  Oypsum  Cement  Plaster  Industries  in  Kanr 
SOS  during  1902  (by  Erasmus  Haworth,  p.  356) — United  States  Gyp- 
sum Co. — ^lowa — ^Kansas — Michigan — New  York — Oklahoma — Canada 
— France 354r-^6 

IBON  AND  STEEL. 
(By  Frederick  Hobart) — (General  Conditions  of  the  Iron  and  Steel 
Industries  during  1902 — ^Iron  Ore — Iron  Ore  Mined  and  Consumed  in 
the  United  States— Production  of  Lake  Superior  Iron  Ore  by  Banges, 
1899-1902— Pig  Iron— Pig  Iron  Production  According  to  the  Puer 
Used — Pig  Iron  Production  by  States — ^Annual  Consumption  of  Pig 
Iron  in  the  United  States — ^Pig  Iron  Production  by  Grades— Pennsyt 
vania  and  Ohio— Steel — ^Production  of  Steel  in  the  United  States- 
Finished  Iron  and  Steel — Steel  Bails — Iron  Manufactures — United 
States  Steel  Corporation — Production — Imports  and  Exports-  of  Iron 
Steel— Technical  Changes— /ron  and  Steel  Markets  in  iPO«— Oenerally 


X  CONTENTS. 

PAOI 

— Alabama  (by  L.  W.  Friedman,  p.  376) — Ohio  (by  George  H.  Gush- 
ing, p.  377) — Iron  Ore  Receipts  at  Lake  Erie  Ports — ^Pig  Iron — ^Prices 
— Bar  Iron  and  Steel — Bar  Iron  and  Steel  Market — Sheet  Market — 
Plates  and  Structural  Material  Market — Steel  Rails — Pennsylvania  (by 
S.  F.  Luty,  p.  383) — Average  Prices  of  Iron  and  Steel  in  Pittsburg — 
Iron  and  Steel  Production  of  the  World — Gharts  of  the  Production  of 
Pig  Iron  and  Steel  in  the  Principal  Countries  of  the  World — ^Austria- 
Hungary  —  Belgium  —  Canada  —  France — Germany — ^Italy — ^Russia — 
Spain— Sweden — United  Kingdom — Other  Countries — Iron  Ores  in 
Sweden  and  Norway — Notes  on  Progress  in  Iron  and  Steel  Metallurgy 
during  1902  (by  Frederick- Hobart,  p.  398) — ^Electric  Furnaces— New 
Economic  Possibility  of  the  Electric  Reduction  of  Iron  Ore — ^Establish- 
ment of  an  Electrometallurgical  Iron  Industry  in  Countries  Possessing 
no  Iron  Industry — Steel  Obtained  from  the  Reduction  of  Iron  Ores — 
New  Blast  Furnaces — ^The  Blast  Furnace  as  a  Power  Plant 357—404 

LEAD.* 
(By  Joseph  Struthers,  D.  H.  Newland  and  Henry  Fisher) — ^Produc- 
tion and  Consumption  of  Lead  in  the  United  States — Review  of  Lead 
Mining  in  1902 — Colorado — Idaho — Iowa — ^Kansas — Missouri — Mon- 
tana— Nevada — Tennessee — Texas — Utah — ^World's  Production  of  Lead 
— Chart  of  the  Production  of  Lead  in  the  Principal  Countries  of  the 
World — ^Production,  Imports,  Exports  and  Consumption  of  Lead  in  the 
Principal  Countries  of  the  World — Lead  Mining  in  Foreign  Countries — 
Algeria — ^Australasia — Austria — Hungary — Bolivia— Canada  (by  Sam- 
uel S.  Fowler,  p.  415) — Chile — France — Germany — Italy — Mexico  (by 
James  W.  Malcolmson,  p.  417) — Portugal — Spain — Turkey — ^Lead  Mar- 
kets in  1902 — Monthly  Prices  of  Lead  in  New  York — ^London  Market — 
Production  and  Imports  of  White  Lead,  Litharge  and  Orange  Mineral 
— Price  in  New  York  of  Corroding  Pig  Lead  and  White  Lead  in  Oil — 
Progress  in  the  Manufacture  of  White  Lead  (by  Parker  C.  McUheney, 
p.  423) — General  Progress — Gabel  Process — Manufacture  of  Orange 
Mineral — Recent  Improvement  in  Lead  Smelting*  (by  H.  0.  Hoffman^ 
p.  425) — New  Publications — ^Distillation  of  Lead — Market  Lead — Cor- 
rosion of  Lead  Service  Pipes  by  Water — Melting  and  Boiling  Points — 
Lead-Tellurium  Alloys — ^Lead  Ores  of  Southeast  Missouri — ^Importation 
of  Lead  Ores — Sampling  Ores — Johnston  Sampler — Sampling  Milla— 
Foster-Coolidge  Sampler — ^Assay  Balances — Assay  Furnaces— Cupels — 
Assay  of  Lead  Ores — Assay  of  Lead  in  Slags — Silver-Gold  Assays — ^De- 
termination of  Antimony  in  Hard  Lead — ^Lead  Smelting  in  Southeast 
Missouri — ^Lead  at  Freiberg — Laurin — Murcia — Smelting  of  Lead  Ores* 
— Roasting  Furnaces — Blast  Furnace  Table — ^Blast  Furnace  Construc- 
tion— Mechanical  Feeding  of  Blast  Furnaces — Chemistry  of  the  Blast 
Furnace — ^Blast  Furnace  Slags — ^Waste  Heat  of  Blast  Furnaces — Flue 
Dust-^Briquetting  of  Ores — Cost  of  Smelting — Crude  Oil  in  Smelting 
— New  Method  of  Smelting  Galena — Electrolytic  Reduction  of  Galena 


CONTENTS.  xi 

PAOS 

— Desilverization  of  Base  Bullion — Pattinson  Process — Parkes  Process 

— ^Howard  Alloy  Press — Electrolytic  Refining  of  Base  Bullion 405—454 

MAGNESITE  AND  EPSOM  SALT. 
(By  Joseph  Struthers) — Production  of  Magnesite — Uses — ^Value 
— Imports — Magnesite  in  Hungary — Epsom   Salt — Monthly   Prices — 
Epsom  Salt  in  Wyoming  (by  Wilbur  C.  Knight,  p.  458) — Analyses 465—458 

MANGANESE. 
(By  D.  H.  Newland) — Production — Prices — Imports  and  Consump- 
tion of  Manganese  Ore  in  the  United  States — Colorado — Georgia  (By 
Thos.  L.  Watson,  460) — North  Carolina — Virginia — Production  of 
Manganese  Ore  in  Foreign  Countries— ^Brazil — Colombia — Cuba — 
France — India — Italy — Queensland — Russia  459 — 465 

MICA. 

(By  Henry  Fisher) — Production  in  the  United  States— Market — 
Mica  Plant  at  Ottawa — Patent  Machine  for  Separating  Flake  Mica — 
California — Idaho — North  Carolina — South  Dakota — Brazil — Canada 
— India — Mica  Industry  of  New  Hampshire  during  1092  (by  Albert  J. 
Hoskins,  p.  468) 466—469 

MANUFACTURE  OF  MINERAL  WOOL. 
(By  Edwin  C.  Eckel) — Mineral  Wool — Production — Growth  of  the 
Industry — ^Rock  Wool — Method  of  Manufacture — Physical  Properties 
— Analyses — Bibliography 470 — 476 

MOLYBDENUM. 
Production — Ferromolybdenum — California — Canada — Newfound- 
and — Australasia — Technology — ^Mechanical  Concentration — Analytical 
Determination  of  Molybdenum 477 — 478 

MONAZITE. 
(By   Henry    Fisher) — Production   of    Monazite   in   the   United 
States — North    Carolina  —  South    Carolina — Technology — Analytical 
Determination  of  Thorium  in  Monazite  Sands .479 — 480 

NATURAL  GAS  INDUSTRY. 
(By  W.  H.  Hammon) — Production  and  Consumption  of  Natural 
Gas  in  the  United  States — Indiana — Kansas  and  Indian  Territory^— 
Ohio — Pennsylvania — ^West  Virginia — Other  Fields — Consolidation  of 
Gas  Companies 481 — 483 

NICKEL  AND  COBALT. 
(By  Joseph  Struthers  and  D.  H.  Newland) — Production — Imports 
and  Exports  of  Nickel  in  the  United  States — Production  and  Imports 
of  Cobalt  Oxide — Nickel  Market — National  Nickel  Co. — Canada — Mond 
Nickel  Co.,  Ltd.— Canada  Nickel  (by  A.  McCharles,  p.  487)— Chile- 
Germany — New  Caledonia  (by  F.  Dan  vers  Power,  p.  488) — New  South 
Wales — Switzerland — Cohdlt  in  New  Caledonia  (by  F.  Danvers  Power, 
p.  A%^)— Progress  in  the  Metallurgy  of  Nickel  during  1902  (by  Titu5 


xii  CONTENTS. 

PlOl 

Ulke,  p.  490) — ^Developments  at  Sault  Ste.  Marie,  Ontario — ^Develop- 
ment in  the  Sudbury  District — ^Mond's  Hefinery  at  Clydach,  Wales — 
Developments  in  Germany — Magnetic  Behavior  of  Nickel  Alloys — Per- 
ron's Process  of  Treating  Copper-Nickel  Ores — ^Haas'  Process  of  Melt- 
ing Nickel — Browne's  Process  for  Separation  of  Copper  and  Nickel — 
Present  Development  of  Electrolytic  Nickel  Refining — Nickel-Steel 
Hails 459—465 

OCHRE  AND  IRON  OXIDE  PIGMENTS. 
(By  Joseph  Struthers) — Production  of  Mineral  Paints  in  the 
United  States — California — Georgia — Illinois — New  York — Pennsyl- 
vania— ^Tennessee — ^Vermont — ^Chief  Manufacturers — Imports  of  Ocher, 
Umber  and  Sienna  into  the  United  States — Manufacture  and  Manufac- 
turers of  Iron  Oxide  and  Venetian  Red — Market — ^Uses 495 — 496 

PETROLEUM. 
(By  D.  H.  Newland) — ^Production  of  Petroleum  in  the  United 
States — Chart  of  the  Production  of  Petroleum  in  the  United  States  and 
Russia — Production  of  Petroleum  in  the  Countries  of  the  World — 
Monthly  Price  in  the  Appalachian  and  Lima  Fields — Exports  of  Mineral 
Oil  from  the  United  States — Exports  of  Oil  from  Russia — Imports  of 
Petroleum  into  the  United  Kingdom — Imports  into  Germany — Liquid 
Fuel — ^Alaska — ^Appalachian  Field — ^California — Colorado— Indiana — 
Kentucky — Louisiana — Montana — New  Mexico — ^Texas — ^Utah  —  Wyo- 
ming (by  Wilbur  C.  Knight) — Production  of  Petroleum  in  Foreign 
Countries  during  1902  (by  Paul  Dvorkovitz,  p.  507) — Austria — Canada 
— Dutch  East  India — Germany — India — Mexico — ^Persian-Peru — Rou- 
mania — Russia — Exports  of  Petroleum  from  Black  Sea  Ports — South 
Africa— Spain— Turkey 497—515 

PHOSPHATE  ROCK. 
(By  Josq^h  Struthers) — Production,  Prices,  Shipments,  Imports 
and  Exports  of  the  United  States — Phosphate  Mining  Industry  of  the 
United  States  during  1902  (by  C.  G.  Memminger,  p.  519) — ^Alabama — 
.  Arkansas — Florida — ^North  Carolina — Pennsylvania — South  Carolina — 
Tennessee — General — Porto  Rico — Phosphate  Mining  in  Foreign  Coun- 
tries—  Algeria  —  Australia  —  Canada — Dutch  West  Indies — Egypt — 
France — ^Polynesian  Islands — Norway — ^Russia — Tunis 516 — 525 

PLATINUM  AND  IRIDIUM. 
(By  Joseph  Struthers) — Production  and  Prices  of  Platinum  in  the 
United  States— Sources  of  Supply — ^New  Discoveries — Imports — ^Market 
— Production  of  Platinum  in  Foreign  Countries — Australia — Russia — 
Technology — ^Action  of  Potassium  Cyanide  on  Platinum — Markings  on 
Platinum 526—531 

POTASSIUM  SALTS.* 
(By  Joseph  Struthers  and  Henry  Fisher) — United  States  Potash 
Co. — Imports  and   Exports — The   Kali-Syndicate — Imports   and   Ex- 


aONTENTa.  xiu 


ports  of  Staesfurt  Salts  to  the  United  States — Stassfurt  Salt  Industry — 
Output  and  Utilization  of  Crude  Potassium  Salts — Production  of  Con- 
centrated Salts — ^History  of  the  Potash  Industry  at  Stassfurt — ^Markets 
in  1903 — ^United  States  Market — ^Alkaline  Hypochlorites  and  Chlorates 
— ^Aitkins^  Hypochlorite  Process — ^McDonald  Electrolytic  Cell* — ^Potas- 
sium Cyanide  532—639 

QUICKSILVER* 
(By  Joseph  Struthers) — ^Production  and  Exports  of  Quicksilver  in 
the  United  States — ^Monthly  Prices  at  New  York  and  San  Francisco — 
California — ^Oregon — ^Tezas — ^Utah — Quicksilver  Production  of  the 
World — ^London  Quicksilver  Statistics — Chart  of  the  Production  of 
Quicksilver  of  the  Principal  Countries  of  the  World — ^Algeria — ^Austria 
— ^Australia — ^Brazil — China — India — ^Italy  —  Mexico — ^Peru — ^Russia — 
Spain — ^Technology — ^Analytical  Determination,  of  Mercury — Spirek 
Furnaces* — Construction— Cost  of  Furnace 540 — 650 

—  EABE  ELEMENTS. 

(By  W.  J.  Huddle) — ^New  Discoveries — Cerium — Germanium — ^Hy- 
drides— Iridium — Neodymium — Nitrates — Osmium — Palladium — Polo- 
nium —  Badium — Strontium — Terbium — ^Tellurium — ^Thorium — ^Tita- 
nium — Uranium — Vanadium — ^Yttrium — ^Ytterbium — ^Zirconium 531 — 569 

SALT. 
(By  Joseph  Struthers) — Production  of  Salt  in  the  United  States — 
Imports  and  Exports — Chart  of  the  Production  of  Salt  in  the  Principal 
Countries  of  the  World — Salt  Production  of  the  Chief  Countries  of  the 
World ; 560—662 

SILICA. 
Diatomaceous-Earth — ^Arizona — Production  of  Diatomaceous  Earth  and 
Tripoli  in  the  United  States — Grindstones — Production  in  the  United 
States — Pumice — ^Utah — Silica — ^Quartz  Glass — Output  of  Quartz  in 
the  United  States — Siloxicon  Manufacture 563 — 664 

SODIUM  SALTS. 
(By  Joseph  Struthers  and  Henry  Fisher) — Production  of  Sodium 
Salts  in  the  United  States — Principal  Producers  in  the  United  States — 
Electrolytic  Alkali  Co.,  Ltd. — Imports  of  Soda  Products  into  the  United 
States — Market  Conditions  in  New  York — Natural  Sodium  Carbonate — 
Sodium  and  Potassium  Chlorates  and  Hypochlorites — Sodium  Nitrate 
(Chile  Saltpeter) — Production  in  Chile — Saltpeter  Companies — Con- 
sumption of  Chile  Saltpeter — ^Market  Conditions  in  New  York — So- 
dium   565 — 569 

STONE. 
Leading  Varieties  in  the  United  States — Value  of  the  Production — 
Limestone— Granite — Sandstone — Marble — Testing  of  Building  Stone 
,    (by  Edwin  C.  Eckel,  p.  571)— Crushing  Strength— Transverse  Strength 


xiv  CONTENTS, 

— Hardness — Expansion — ^Absorption — Chemical  Test — Microscopic  Ex- 
amination— Field  Examination 670 — 572 

SULPHUR  AND  PYRITES. 
(By  Joseph  Struthers) — Statistics  of  Production  and  Consumption 
in  the  United  States — Monthly  Price  of  Brimstone  in  New  York — Ne- 
vada— Utah — World's  Production  of  Sulphur — Chile — Hungary — Italy 
— Shipments  of  Sulphur  from  Sicily  to  the  United  States — Exports 
of  Sulphur  from  Sicily — Japan — Mexico — Peru — ^Russia — Spain — Py- 
rite — Production,  Consumption,  Exports  and  Imports  in  the  United 
States — Canada — Newfoimdland — Imports  and  Exports  of  the  United 
States — Market  Conditions — Pyrite  Mining  in  the  United  States  during 
1902 — Massachusetts — New  York  (by  W.  H.  Adams) — ^Virginia — Ten- 
nessee (by  W.  H.  Adams) — Domestic  Consumption  of  Sulphur  and  Py- 
rite— World's  Production  of  Pyrite — Monthly  Prices  of  Sulphuric  Acid 
— Progress  in  the  Sulphuric  Acid  Industry  in  the  United  States  during 
1902  (by  Frederick  J.  Falding,  p.  580) — Contact  Process — Chamber 
Process— Sulphuric  Acid  Plants 573—682 

TALC  AND  SOAPSTONE. 
Statistics  of  Production  and  Consumption  in  the  United  States — 
Talc  in  North  Carolina — in  Canada 583 

TIN. 
(By  D.  H.  Newland)— Tin  Deposits  in  the  United  States— Tech- 
nology— Manufacture  of  Tin  and  Scrap  Metal — Imports — The  World's 
Principal  Supply — Production  of  Tin  in  the  World — Alaska — Bolivia — 
Stocks  and  Consumption  of  Tin  in  England,  America  and  Holland — Bo- 
livia (by  J.  B.  Minchin,  p.  588) — Malay  States — New  South  Wales — 
Queensland — South  Africa — Spain — Tasmania — United  Kingdom — 
Western  Australia — Tin  Markets  in  1902 — New  York  Market — London 
Market .584—597 

TUNGSTEN. 
Production  of  Tungsten  Metal  and  Ore  in  the  United  States — 
Idaho — Uses — ^Tungsten  Alloys i . . .  598 

ZINC  AND  CADMIUM.* 
(By  Joseph  Struthers,  D.  H.  Newland  and  Henry  Fisher) — Pro- 
duction, Imports  and  Exports  of  Zinc  and  Zinc  Oxide  in  the  United 
States — Arkansas — Colorado — Kentucky — Missouri — Kansas — ^Leadand 
Zinc  Ore  Market  in  the  Joplin  District — New  Jersey — ^Virginia — Pro- 
duction of  Zinc  and  Zinc  Ores  in  the  Principal  Countries  of  the  World — 
Production  of  Cadmium  in  Foreign  Countries — Chart  of  the  Produc- 
tion of  Zinc  in  the  Principal  Countries  of  the  World — Algeria — Aus- 
tralia— Austria — Belgium — France — Germany  —  Italy  —  Spain — Swe- 
den— United  Kingdom — Spelter  Markets  in  1902 — New  York — T^ondon 
— Breslau — Review  of  Progress  in  the  Metallurgy  of  Zinc  in  1902  (by 
Walter  Renton  Ingalls,  p.  609) — Economic  Conditions — Reduction  of 


OOlTTBirTS  XV 


Zinc  Oxide — ^Physical  Properties  of  Zinc-Blende  Boasting — ^Roasting 
Fnmaces — Betorts — Distillation  Furnaces — Refining  Furnaces — Treat- 
ment of  Mixed  Sulphide  Ores — ^Magnetic  Concentration — Hydrometal- 
lurgical  Processes — Patents — Electrometallurgical  Processes — The  Prog- 
ress  in  the  Zinc  Industry  in  Missouri  during  1902*  (by  Frank  Nichol-  • 
son^.p.  624) — Mining  Operations — New  Machinery — Mills — ^New  Cen- 
tury Jig — Cost  of  Exporting  Ore  from  Joplin 599 — 631 

LITERATURE  OP  ORE  DEPOSITS. 
(By  J.  P.  Kemp) — Primary  Derivation  and  Distribution  of  the 
Metals  of  the  Earth — ^Primary  Concentration  of  the  Metals  in  Veins 
or  Other  Forms  of  Ore  Deposits — Study  of  Contact  Effects — Springs — 
Hot  Springs — Lime  Veins — Ore  and  Gangue  Mineral  Precipitation — 
Secondary  Changes^  Re-Arrangements  and  Enrichments  of  Ore  Deposits.632 — 638 

ORE  DRESSING.* 
(By  Robert  H.  Richards) — Crushing  Machinery — ^Pamell-Erause 
Stamp  Mill  Mortar — Perfection  Ore  Crusher — Mills  in  Australia — Great 
Boulder  GriflSn  Mills — Lake  View  Consols,  Ltd.,  Ball  Mills — Kalgurli 
Gold  Mines,  Ltd.,  Ball  Mills — Sturtevant  Toggle  Separator — Screen  vs. 
Hydraulic  Sizing — Klein's  Hydraulic  Classifier — Cammett  Table — 
Sampling  Machinery — ^Byme  Automatic  Pulp  Sampler — Johnson  Sam- 
pler— Sampling  and  Dry  Crushing  in  Colorado — Charts  showing  Peed 
Speed  Capaciiy  of  Rolls — Percentage  of  Reduction  and  Production 
of  Rolls — Notes  on  Sampling — Overstrom  Sampler — Brunton  Sampler 
— Vezin  Sampler — Park  City  Sampling  Works — General  Milling  Prac- 
tice— ^New  Anaconda  Reduction  Works — Mill  Practice  in  St.  Francois 
County,  Mo. — Standard  Mill,  Idaho— Morning  Mill,  Idaho — Silver 
King  Mill,  Utah— A.  M.  W.  Mill,  Colo.— Detroit  Copper  Co.,  Ariz. 
Australian  Practice — Concentration  Practice  in  Southeast  Missouri — 
Practice  in  the  Slocan  District,  B.  C. — Ore  Dressing  at  Santa  Fe, 
Mexico — Tin  Dressing — Treating  of  Tailings  in  Cornwall — Cornish 
Stamp  Mill — Tin  Dredging — Corundum  Dressiitg — Magnetic  Concen- 
tration— ^Wetherill  Separators,  Washington,  Ariz. — ^Mechernich  System 
of  Magnetic  Concentration — Magnetic  Separation  of  Zinc — Iron  Sul- 
phide— ^Wenstrom  Separators  at  Grangesberg,  Sweden — Separating 
Lead,  Zinc  and  Iron  Sulphide  at  Rico,  Colo. — Frodings'  Magnetic  Sepa- 
rator— Oil  Concentration— Expenmental  Results  of  th3  Elmore  Proc- 
ess— Coal  Washing* — ^Allard  Coal  Screening  Method — ^Maurice  Centri- 
fugal Coal  Washer — Craig  Coal  Washer — Campbell  Coal  Washing  Table 
— ^Baum  Washer — ^Washer  at  Bruay  and  Maries,  Prance — ^Seitz  Portable 
Coal  Loading  and  Screening  Machine 639—658 

PROGRESS  OF  METALLOGRAPHY  IN  1902.* 

(By  William  Campbell) — Publications — Metallographic  Laborabh 

ties— Crystalline  Structure  of  Metals — Platinum — Crystalline  Growth 

of  Metals — ^Aluminum — Platinum — Silver — Cadmium — ^Bismuth — ^Tin 

— ^Zinc — ^Lead — Electrolytically  Deposited  Metals — Fracture  of  Metals 


xvi  CONTENTS. 

under  Repeated  Alternations  of  Stress — Iron  and  Steel — ^Hardenite— 
Ferrite — Cementite — ^Martinsite — Overheating  of  Mild  Steel — Effect  of 
Beheating  Steels — Structiu^  and  Finishing  Temperature  of  Steel  Bail — 
Carbon  and  Graphite  in  Steel  Alloys — Copper  and  Iron — ^Antimony 
and  Tellurium — Lead  Tellurium — Lead,  Tin  and  Bismuth — Copper 
and  Tin — Aluminum  Alloys 659 — 670 

ALLOY  STEELS. 
(By  John  Alexander  Mathews) — ^Besearch  Work  on  Alloys — 
Chemical  Constitution  of  Steel  Alloys — Becently  Observed  (General 
Properties  of  Iron  Alloys — Segregation  in  Steel  Alloys — ^Electrical 
Activity  of  Steel  Alloys — High  Speed  Steels — Special  Properties  of 
Some  Steel  Alloys — Silicon — ^Phosphorus — Cadmium — Nickel — ^Man- 
ganese— ^Titanium — Copper — ^Boron 671 — 684 

NOTES  ON  PYBITIC  SMELTING. 
(By  E.  C.  Eeybold,  Jr.) — Carpenter  Smelter — ^Heat  of  Forma- 
tion—Specific Heat— Heat  Production — ^Heat  Consumption 685 — 692 

PBOGBESS  IN  THE  MANUFACTUBE  AND  USE  OP  TITANIUM  AND 

SIMILAB  ALLOYS. 
(By  A,  J.  Bossi) — ^Test  of  Ferrotitanium — ^Applications  of  Ti- 
tanium Alloys— Manufacture  of  Ferrotungsten  and  Other  Alloys 693 — 695 

CONCENTBATION  OP  OBES  BY  OIL.* 
(By  Walter  McDermott) — Elmore  Process — Experiments — ^Work- 
ing Plants — ^Plan  of  a  60-Ton  Oil  Concentration  Plant — ^Applications 
of  the  Process 696—707 

SAMPLING  AND  ESTIMATION  OF  OBE  IN  A  MINE.* 
(By  T.  A.  Bickard) — Introductory — ^Determination  of  Costs — 
Determination  of  the  Average  Value  of  the  Ore — ^Work  of  Sampling — 
Size  of  the  Sample — ^Beduction  of  the  Samples — Precautions  in  Sam- 
pling— Wrong  Methods  of  Sampling — Calculations  after  Sampling — 
Question  of  High  Assays — Possible  Discrepancies  between  Sampling 
and  Mining — Estimation  of  Ore  Beserves — Inferences  from  Sampling — 
Future  Prospects  of  a  Mine — Collateral  Evidence — Conclusion 708 — 749 

THE  MINING  STOCK  EXCHANGES  IN  1902. 
Sales   of   Mining   Stock   and    Fluctuations   in   Price — ^Boston — 
Colorado    Springs — ^New   York — Philadelphia — San    Francisco — Paris 
— London — Salt  Lake  City — Dividends  Paid  by  American  Mines  and 
Industrial  Companies  and  Assessments  Levied 751 — 775 

GENEBAL  SUMMAEY  OF  THE  IMPOET  DUTIES  OF  THE  PBINCIPAL 
COUNTBIES  IN  THE  WOBLD. 
Import  Duties  Levied  by  the  Principal  Countries — ^Alum — ^Alumi- 
num— ^Antimony  Ore  and  Metal — ^Arsenic  and  Arsenious  Acid — ^Asbes- 
tos— Asphalt — Barytes — Borax  —  Cement  —  Coal — Coke  —  Copper — 
Copper  Sulphate— Copperas — Fluorspar — Graphite — ^Hydrochloric  Acid 


ooirrjunnsL  xvii 


— ^Iron — Lead — ^Manganese  Ore — ^Nickel — Petroleum — ^Pyrites — Quick* 
slyer — Salt — Slate— Soda  —  Sodium  Nitrate  —  Sulphur — Sulphuric 
Acid— Tin— Zinc— Zinc  White  776 

MINERAL  STATISTICS  OF  FOREIGN  COUNTRIES. 
Summary  of  Statistics  of  Mineral  Production — ^Imports  and  Ex- 
ports— ^Australasia  (including  New  South  Wales,  New  Zealand^  Queens- 
land, South  Australia,  Tasmania,  Victoria  and  Western  Australia)-^ 
Austria-Hungary  (including  Bosnia) — ^Belgium — Canada  (including 
British  Columbia,  Nova  Scotia,  Ontario  and  Quebec) — Chile— China-^ 
France  (including  Algeria,  New  Caledonia  and  Tunis) — Germany  (in- 
cluding Baden,  Bavaria,  Prussia  and  Saxony) — Greece — India — Italy — 
Japan — ^Mexico— Norway — Portugal  —  Russia — Spain — Sweden — ^The 
United  Kingdom 77 7— 848 

THE  UNITED  STATES. 
Summary  of  Mineral  Imports  and  Exports 849—868 


THE  BUYERS'  MANUAL. 
THE  PROFESSIONAL  DIRECTORY. 


XVIU 


C0NVBR8I0K  TABLES. 


TABLES  VOR  CONYERTINO  UNITED  STATES  WEIGHTS  AND  MEASURfie  TO  METRIC. 


LlNSAB. 


H 


3 

i 


Capacity. 


il 


III 


Hi 

§3* 


85-4000 
00-8001 
76-8001 
101-6008 
127-0008 
168*4003 
177-8008 
808-8004 
888-6004 


0-804801 
0-609601 
0-914402 
1-219808 
1-684003 
1-828804 
2-188604 
8-488405 
2-748ii05 


0-914408 

1-888 

8*748805 

8-667807 

4-678009 

6-486411 

6*400618 

7-316816 

8-229616 


1-60986 
8-81869 
4-88804 
6-48789 
8-04674 
0-66606 
11-96643 
18-87478 
14-48418 


=  1  = 
=  8  = 
=  8  = 
=  4  = 

s6  = 

=  6  = 
=  7  = 
=  6  = 
=  9  = 


8-70 
7-80 
1109 
14-79 
18-48 
88-18 
85-88 
80-67 
88  86 


99-67 
50-15 
88-78 
118-80 
147-87 
177-44 
807-08 
886-69 
86616 


0-94686 
1-88872 
8-88906 
3-76544 
4-78180 
6-67816 
6-68458 
7-67088 
8-51734 


8*78544 
7-67086 
ll-8» 
16- 14176 
18-98780 
88-71864 
86-49606 
80-86358 
84-06800 


16*887 
88-774 
49-161 
66-649 
61-036 
96  883 
114-710 
131-097 
147-484 


0- 

0-06668 

0-06496 

0-11887 

0-14166 

0' 16090 

0- 19888 

088664 

085486 


0-785 
1-689 
8-894 
8-068 
8-888 
4-5«r 
fr-858 
6-116 
6-881 


0-3 

0-70485 

1-0679? 

1-40969 

1-76811 

8*11454 

8-46696 

9-81988 

8-17161 


SquARB. 


6-458 
18-608 
19-855 
85-807 
88-868 
86-710 
46161 
61-618 
68-066 


9-990 
18*661 
27*6n 
87*161 
46*458 
55-748 
65-038 

74-r' 

88-6131 


0-686 
1-679 
8-506 
8-844 
4-181 
6-017 
6-858 
6*689 
7-585 


0*4047 
0*8094 
1-8141 
1-6167 
8-0884 
8-4881 
8-8388 
3-8375 
8-6488 


WXIOHT. 


64*7960 
180-6078 
194*8968 
860-1957 
3880946 
388-7935 
453-5084 
518*8014 
583*1908 


88*8496 
66  0991 
85*0166 
118-8981 
141-7478 
170-0978 
196-4467 
886-7962 
855-1457 


0 

0-90719 

1-88078 

1-61487 

8*96796 

8-78166 

3*37:116  217 


308874 
4-08233 


1084H 
90696 
81044 
41809 
51740 


78487 

82765 
93183 


1  chain            ss  90*1189    meten. 

1  aquare  mfle  =  950         hectares. 

1  fathom           =  1-899      meten. 

1  nautical  mile  s  1868-97        meters. 
]  foot=0-aM801  meter,    0-4840168      log. 

1  avoir,  pound  s  468-6084877  gram. 

15489-85680  grains   s  1        kilogram. 


TABLES  FOR  CONVERTING  METRIC  TO  UNITED  STATES  WEIGHTS  AND  MEASI7RES. 


LcrxAR. 


I 


Capacrt. 


CS3§ 

ills 


1-^ 
ill 


■z'y 


II 


hi 
J 


3 

a=5 


^H 

¥" 


80-3700 
78-7400 
116*1100 
157-4800 
196-8500 
986-9200 
275-6900 
814-9600 
854-8300 


8*98063 
6*56167 
0*64950 
13-19888 
16*40117 
10-68600 
9806583 
86-94667 
90-58750 


1*008611 
9-187229 
8-880H38 
4-874444 
6-468056 
6-661687 
7-6658r8 
6-748880 
0-848500 


0-88137 
1*94874 
1*80411 
9*48546 
8*10685 
8*78899 
4-84050 
4*07096 
6*60933 


=  9  = 
=  8  = 
=  4  = 
s=6  = 
s6s 

=  6  = 
=  9  = 


0-97 
0-64 
0*61 
1*08 
1-86 
1*69 
1-89 
9*16 
9-48 


0-338 
0*076 
1*014 
1*858 
1091 
9090 
8*366 
8*706 
8*043 


10687 
9-1134 
8-1700 
4-9867 
6-9834 
6-8401 
7*8866 
6-4534 
0-5101 


2-6417 
6-8884 
7*9861 
10*5668 
18*8066 
15-8509 
18-4010 
91*1386 
93-77&8 


9-8875 
6-6780 
8-6185 
11*3600 
14-1875 
17-0850 
10-8886 
98-7000 
95-6876 


0-061C 
0198(] 
0-1881 
0-8441 
0-3061 
0-8661 
0-487S 
0-488S 
0-540^ 


85-814 
70-689 
105048 
141-868 
178-679 
811-887 
947-801 


1-808 
9*616 
8-994 
6*939 
6-640 
7-848 
0*156 
464 
817-830  11 -7?! 


1*516  10 


SquARl. 


0-1550 
0-8100 
0-4660 
O-690O 
0-7750 
0-0850 
1-0650 
1-9400 
1-3960 


10-764 
91-698 
88-908 
48*055 
68*810 
64*683 
75*847 
86*111 
06-874 


1-106 
9-802 
8*688 
4*784 
6-080 
7*178 
6-878 
0*668 
10*784 


9-471 
4-049 
7-418 
0-884 
19-855 
14-886 
17-897 
10-786 
28-8 


:1  = 

:8== 
:8  = 
:4  = 
:5  = 
:6  = 
:7  = 
:6  = 
:0=: 


Weight. 


15438-86 
80864-71 
46897-07 
61789*43 
77161-78 
085N-14 
106036-40 
183458-85 
188«91-81 


8-6874 
70548 
10-5828 
14-1096 
17-6370 
91-1644 
94-6918 
9R-9103 
81-7466 


9-90469 
4-40994 
6-61386 
6-81840 
11  08811 
13-88778 
15-43235 
17-68607 
19-84150 


0-03216 
0*06430 
000646 
0-18660 
0-16075 
0-19890 
0-88506 
0-85791 
0-5 


The  onlr  mat<*rial  standard  of  customary  length  authorized  by  the  U.  S.  Oovemment  Is  the  Troughton 
scale,  whose  length  at  60<>.68  Fahr.  conforms  to  the  British  standard.  The  yard  in  use  In  the  United  States  Is 
therefore  equal  to  the  British  yard.  .  _ 

The  only  authorised  material  standard  of  customary  weight  is  the  Troy  pound  (6«700  grains)  of  the  Mint 
It  is  of  bnas  of  unknown  density,  and  therefore  not  suitable  for  a  standard  of  mass.    It  was  derived  from 


CONVERSION  TABLM, 


ZIZ 


the  Britlah  standard  Troy  pound  of  1768  hj  direct  comparison.     The  British  avoirdupois  pound  was  also 
derived  from  the  latter,  and  containB  7,000  grains  troy. 

The  grain  Troj  is  therefore  the  same  as  the  srain  avoirdupois,  and  the  pound  avoirdupois  in  use  in  the 
United  States  is  equal  to  the  British  pound  avoirdupois. 

The  British  gfdlon  =  4  64846  liters. 

The  British  bushel  =  80-8477  liters. 

Bv  the  concurrent  action  of  the  principal  Governments  of  the  world  an  International  Bureau  of  Weights 
and  Measures  has  been  established  near  Paris.  Under  the  direction  of  the  International  Ck>mmittee,  two  ingots 
were  cast  of  pure  platinum-iridium  in  the  proportion  of  9  parts  of  the  former  to  1  of  the  latter  meiaL  FVom 
one  of  these  a  certain  number  of  kilograms  were  prepared,  from  the  other  a  definite  number  of  meter  bars. 
These  standards  of  weight  and  length  were  interoompared,  without  preference,  and  certain  ones  were  selected 
as  International  prototype  standaras.  The  others  were  distributed  by  lot  to  the  different  Qovemments  and  are 
called  National  prototype  standards. 

The  metric  system  was  legalized  in  the  United  States  in  1866. 

The  International  Standard  Meter  is  derived  from  the  Metre  des  Archives,  and  its  length  is  defined  by  the 
distance  between  two  lines  at  O''  Centigrade,  on  a  platinum-lridium  bar  deposited  at  the  Intemational  Bureau 
of  Weights  and  Measures. 

The  Intemational  Standard  Kilogram  is  a  mass  of  platlnum-iridium  deposited  at  the  same  place,  and  Its 
weight  in  vacuo  is  the  same  as  that  of  the  Kilogramme  des  Archives. 

•  The  liter  is  equal  to  a  cubic  decimeter  of  water,  and  it  is  measured  by  the  quantity  of  distilled  water  which, 
at  its  maximum  aensity,  will  counterpoise  the  standard  kilogram  in  a  vacuum,  the  volume  of  such  a  quantity 
of  water  being,  as  nearly  as  has  been  ascertained,  equal  to  a  cubic  decimeter. 

Long  ton:  2940  lb.  avoirdupois    =1016      kflogram.  Barrel  of  petroleum  =    48  gal.  =     1*50  hectoliter. 

Short  ton:  8000  "  "  =r    iWr-2  ^  "      "salt  =  2801b.    =127       kilogram. 

Pound  avoirdupois  =   4586     gromi.  •»      "  lime  =  900  "     =  W790      ^* 

Flask  of  Mercui7=:76'5  lb.  avoir.  =     847     kilograms.     "      ."  natural  cement     =800"     =186080        " 
Troy  ounce  =      81 '104  grams.  "      "  Portland  cement  =  400  "     =181*440        " 

Galloo  =        8-786  Uters.      Gold  coining  value  per  oz.  Troy  $80'6718a|0*6646  per  gram. 

Silver *       Troy   $1-2B29=$004157      " 


OFFICIAL  UNITED  STATES  VALUES  OF  FOREIGN  COINS,  JANUARY  1,  1008. 


Country. 


II 


Unit. 


Value 


U.S. 
Gold. 


Coins. 


Argentina. 


Gold 


AustriarHungary. .  'Gold 


Belgium 

Bolivia 

Brazil 

Canada  

Central  America. 

Costa  Rica 

British  Honduras 
Guatemala. . . 
Honduras.... 
Nicaragua.  .. 
Salvador 

Chile 


Peso... 
Crown.. 


China 

Colombia. 
Cuba 


Denmark . 
Ecuador. . 
Egypt.... 


Finland 

France 

German  I2mpire. 

Greece 

Haiti 

India 

Italy 

Japan ,.... 

Liberia 

Mexico 


Netherlands. 

Newfoundland... 

Norway 

Persia. 

^m 

Portugal 


Spain 

Sweden 

Switzerland 

Turkey 

United  Kingdom. 

Uruguay  

Venezuela. 


Gold 
Silver 
Gold 
Gold 

Gold 
Gold 

Silver 

Gold 

Silver 
Silver 
Gold 

Gold 
Gold 
Gold 

Gold 
Gold 
Gold 
Gold 
Gold 
Gold 
Gold 
Gold 
Gold 
Silver 

Gold 

Gold 

Gold 

Silver 

Gold 

Gold 

Gold 

Gold 
Gold 
Gold 
Gold 
Gold 
Gold 
Gold 


Franc 

Boliviano.. 
Milreis.... 
Dollar 


Colon.. 
Dollar.. 


Peso... 

Peso..* 

Tad*. 
Peso... 
Peso.. 


Crown., 
Sucre.., 
Pound... 


Mark 

Franc 

Mark 

Drachma.. 
Gourde... 
Pound  t... 

Lira 

Yen 

Dollar..... 
Dollar..... 


Florin... 
Dollar... 
Crown... 
Kran.... 

Sol 

Mflreis.. 
Ruble. . . 

Peseta... 
Crown.. 
Franc... 
Plaster  . 
Pound... 
Peso.... 
Bolivar . 


cts. 
96-5 

90-8 

19-8 
861 
54-6 
100-0 

46-6 
100-0 

861 

86-5 

69-4 
86-1 
98-6 

86-8 
48-7 
494-3 

19-8 
19-8 
888 
19-8 
96-6 

486-66 
19-8 
49-8 

1000 
80-8 

40-8 
101*4 

28-8 
66 

48-7 
108-0 

61-5 

19-8 

86-8 

19-8 

44 

486-66 

10:3-4 

19-3 


Gold:  argentine  ($4*884)  and  k  argentine.   Silver:  peso  and  divisions. 

(Gold:  former  system— 4  fiorins  ($1*989),  8  florins  ($8-868).  ducat 
\    ($8-887),  and  4  ducats  ($9149).    Silver:  1  and  8  florins. 

f  Present  system— (3old:  80 crowns  ($4'068> and  10 crowns  (88026). 
Gold:  10  and  80  francs.    Silver:  6  francs. 
Silver:  boliviano  and  divisions. 
Gold:  6, 10,  and  80  milreis.    Silver:  i,  1,  and  8  milrois. 

Gold:  8,  ^  10,  and  80  colons  (|9'807).  Silver:  6, 10, 8R,  and  60  oentlmoa. 


Silver:  peso  and  divisions. 

Gold:  e8cudo($l*ft26V,  doubloon  ($8*660),  and  condor  ($7*800).  Silver: 
peso  and  divisions. 

Gold:  condor  ($9  647)  and  double  condor.    Silver:  peso. 

(}old:  doubloon  Isabella,  centem ($6*017).  Alphonse  ($4*888).  Silver: 

peso. 
Gold:  10  and  SO  crowns. 

Gold :  10  sucres  ($4*8666).   SU ver:  sucre and  divisions. 
Gold:  pound  (100  piasters),  6, 10,  80,  and  60  piasters.    Silver:  1, 8  6, 

10  and  80  piasters. 
Gold:  80  marks  ($3-860),  10  marks  ($1-96). 
Gold:  5, 10,  80, 50,  and  100  francs.    Silver:  6  francs. 
Gold:  6. 10,  and  80  marks. 

Gold:  5, 10,  80,  50  and  100  drachmas.    Silver:  5  drachmas. 
Gold:  1,  8,  6  and  10  gourdes.    Silver:  gourde  and  divisions. 
Gold:  sovereign  (pound  Hterling).    Silver:  rupee  and  divisions. 
Gold:  5, 10, 80, 50  and  100  lire.    Silver:  5  lire. 
Gold:  5, 10,  and  80  yen.    Silver:  10,  80,  and  60  sen. 

Gtold:  dollar  ($0983),  8i,  6,  10,  and  80  doUara.    SUver:  dollar  (or 

peso)  and  divisions. 
Gold:  10  florins.    Silver:  i,  1,  and  2k  florins. 
Gold:  8  dollars  ($2-087). 
Gold:  10  and  80  crowns. 

Gk>ld:  14  1  and  8  tomans  ($8-409).    SUver:  U,  U,  1,  8  and  6  krans 
Gold:  fftra  ($4-8665).    SUver:  sol  and  divisions 
Gold:  1,  8,  5.  and  10  milreis. 
Gold:  imperial  15  rubles  ($7*718)  audi  imperial,  7U rubles  (18*869). 

Silver:  i,  i,  and  1  ruble. 
Gold:  85  pesetas.    Silver:  5  pesetas. 
Gold:  10  and  20  crowns. 

Gold:  5, 10,  20,  50  and  100  francs.    Silver:  5  francs. 
Gold:  25,  50, 100,  850.  and  500  piasters. 
Gold:  sovereign  (poun<1  sterlinir)  and  \  sovereign. 
Gold:  peso.    Silver;  peso  and  divisions. 
Gold:  5.  10,  80.  ,50,  and  lOObolivars.    SUver:  5 bolivars 


*  Haikwan  (Customs),   t  The  soverei^  is  the  standard  coin  of  India,  but  the  rupee  ($0*324)  is  the  money 
of  account,  current  at  15  to  the  sovereign. 


Fac-stmile  of  the  Gold  Medal  Awarded  to  The  Mineral.  Industry 

BY  THE 

SociiTK  d' Encouragement  pour  l'Industrie  Nationals  de  France, 

in  recognition  op 

Its  Services  to  the  World's  Industry  and  Commerce. 


JOSEl'H   STKUTHERS. 


CONTRIBUTORS. 


It  is  impossible  to  name  here  all  who  have  aided  us  in  the  collection  of  statistics  and 
other  information  for  the  present  volume,  but  we  give  in  the  following  pages  brief 
biographies  of  the  most  of  those  who  have  contributed  special  articles,  in  order  tiiat  readers 
may  appreciate  the  high  professional  standing  of  those  who  have  assisted  in  the  work. 

Besides  the  contributors  of  special  articles,  however,  the  preparation  of  this  volume  has 
been  aided  by  the  courteous  co-operation  of  many  thousands  of  producers  who  have 
furnished  statistics  of  their  output,  and  by  many  persons  prominent  in  various  branches 
of  the  mineral  industry  who  have  given  special  information.  Exceedingly  valuable 
assistance  has  been  furnished  also  by  the  officials  of  many  railways  in  the  United  States 
and  Mexico,  and  by  the  State  geologists,  commissioners  of  mines,  and  inspectors  of  mines 
in  most  of  the  States  of  the  Union.  The  statisticians  of  foreign  countries  have  been 
extre^iely  courteous  in  their  co-operation,  by  furnishing  copies  of  their  latest  publications, 
often  in  manuscripts.  Professional  men  and  experts  of  the  whole  world  have  rendered 
exceedingly  valuable  assistance,  as  have  also  the  officials  of  the  United  States  Government 
at  Washington  and  abroad,  and  have  added  greatly  to  the  value  of  this  work.  Among 
the  thousands  who  have  thus  aided  us,  and  by  their  assistance  made  possible  the  publica- 
tion of  this  volume,  as  well  as  its  predecessors,  it  would  be  invidious  to  select  names, 
and  in  making  such  an  attempt  we  should  not  know  where  to  draw  the  line,  since  the 
contributions  of  almost  all  have  been  indispensable.  Consequently  we  have  decided  to 
limit  ourselves  to  this  general  acknowledgment,  relying  upon  the  belief  that  each  of  our 
friends  will  feel  amply  repaid  for  his  work  in  the  knowledge  that  he  has  contributed  to 
the  preparation  of  a  volume  which  is  everywhere  recognized  to  be  of  the  highest  value 
to  the  mineral  industry  of  the  world.  This  high  appreciation  has  been  generously  and 
delicately  expressed  by  the  French  "Soci4t6  d'Encouragement  pour  Tlndustrie  Nationale," 
which,  since  the  appearance  of  Vol.  VI.,  has  granted  to  The  Mineral  Industry  and  its 
founder,  the  magnificent  gold  medal  of  the  society,  which  is  voted  tp  the  work  or  the 
author  of  the  work,  which,  during  the  six  preceding  years,  has  contributed  most  to  the 
cause  of  the  national  industry. 


Argall,  Phujp,  was  bom  in  1854,  near  Belfast,  Ireland,  and  gained  his  first  experience 
in  mining  at  the  Wicklow  copper  mines  of  that  island.  Since  then  he  has  been  engaged 
in  important  mining  and  metallurgical  work  in  Wales,  England,  France,  New  Zealand, 
Mexico,  and  elsewhere.  He  came  to  the  United  States  early  in  1887  as  manager  of  La  Plata 
Mining  ft  Smelting  Co.,  of  Leadville,  Colo.  During  the  last  nine  years  Mr.  Argall  has  de- 
voted his  attention  to  the  treatment  of  ores  by  the  cyanide  process,  and  has  taken  a  leading 
position  in  this  field.  He  designed  the  works  of  the  Metallic  Extraction  Co.,  at  Cyanide, 
Colo.,  in  1895,  and  managed  them  until  February,  1901,  when  he  resigned  to  resume  the 
practice  of  consulting  mining  and  metallurgical  engineer.  His  success  in  the  treatment  of 
telluride  ores  are  on  a  large  scale,  has  commanded  much  attention  in  metallurgical  circles. 
For  The  Mineral  Industry,  Volume  VI.,  he  wrote  an  article  on  "Cyaniding  Telluride 
Ores,"  which  is  recognized  as  the  most  authoritative  discussion  of  this  subject  published. 
To  the  present  volume  Mr.  Argall  contributes  the  paper  "Cyaniding  Sulpho-Telluride  Ores." 

Campbell,  William,  entered  the  University  of  Durham  College  of  Science,  England,  In 
October,  1895,  with  a  Yorkshire  County  Council  scholarship.  In  September,  1896,  was 
made  a  corporation  exhibitioner.  In  June.  1897,  obtained  the  title  of  A.  Sc,  and  the  follow- 
ing year  the  degree  of  B.  Sc.  (honors).    During  1898-9  acted  as  instructor  in  metallurgy 


xxii  CONTRIBUTORS, 

and  lecturer  in  geology.  In  June,  1899,  the  Royal  Commissioners  for  the  exhibition  of 
1851  awarded  him  a  scholarship  for  scientific  research.  Entered  the  Royal  School  of  Mines, 
London,  October  of  same  year.  Scholarship  renewed  for  a  second  year  to  continue  research 
under  Sir  William  Roberts- Austen,  and  renewed  June,  1901,  for  an  exceptional  third  year 
to  worlc  under  Prof.  H.  M.  Howe  at  Columbia  University.-  October,  1901,  post-graduate 
work  in  metallurgy.  Carnegie  scholar  of  Iron  and  Steel  Institute,  May,  1902;  University 
Fellow  in  Metallurgy,  June,  1902;  M.  Sc.  Durham  University,  June,  1903.  To  the  present 
volume  he  contributes  the  paper  "Progress  of  Metallography  in  1902." 

Douglas,  James,  was  born  in  Canada,  but  has  made  his  home  in  the  United  States  since 
1876.  His  first  experience  in  mining  and  metallurgy  was  acquired  in  trying  to  unravel  the 
complicated  affairs  of  an  unsuccessful  Canadian  mining  enterprise.  He  came  to  the  States 
in  order  to  take  charge  of  copper  works  established  in  PhoBnixville,  Pa.,  for  the  utilization 
of  local  copper  ores,  whose  supply,  however,  proved  deficient ;  but  he  is  best  known  through 
his  connection  with  the  copper  industry  of  Arizona  and  Northern  Sonora,  with  which  he  has 
been  intimately  associated  almost  since  its  initiation.  He  is  a  past  president  of  the  Ameri- 
can Institute  of  Mining  Engineers  and  president  of  the  Copper  Queen  Consolidated  Mining 
Co.,'  of  other  Arizona  and  Mexican  concerns,  including  the  El  Pa«o  and  Southwestern  Rail- 
road and  the  Nacazari  Railroad.  Such  original  work  as  he  has  done  was  chiefly  in 
connection  with  the  late  eminent  chemist.  Dr.  T.  Sterry  Hunt,  in  the  field  of  the  hydro- 
metallurgy  of  copper.  Mr.  Douglas  has  contributed  to  the  present  volume  the  notes  on  the 
copper  industry  in  Arizona. 

Dow,  Allan  W.,  was  graduated  from  the  course  of  analytical  and  applied  chemistry  of 
the  School  of  Mines,  Columbia  College  (now  Columbia  University),  New  York,  N.  Y., 
receiving  the  degree  of  Ph.  B.  in  the  year  1888.  He  spent  one  year  studying  in  the  quanti- 
tative laboratory  of  the  university,  and  in  1889  accepted  the  position  of  first  assistant 
chemist  in  the  laboratory  of  the  Barber  Asphalt  Paving  Co.  in  New  York  City.  This 
position  he  held  until  the  year  1894,  when  he  was  appointed  inspector  of  asphalt  and 
cements  for  the  District  of  Columbia  by  the  United  States  Government,  which  position  he 
still  holds.  Besides  his  work  for  the  Government,  he  has  >  private  practice  as  specialist 
on  oils,  bitumens  and  bituminous  paving  construction.  He  has  written  several  articles 
pertaining  to  hydraulic  cements,  bitumens  and  bituminous  paving,  and  to  the  present 
volume  he  has  contributed  the  paper  "Petroleum  and  Maltha  Products  Used  in  the  Paving 
Industry." 

DvoRKOViTZ,  Paul,  in  1877-78  was  appointed  sanitary  chemist  to  the  hospital  of  the 
Princess  of  Oldeburg  in  the  Russo-Turkish  war.  Afterward  he  studied  chemistry  at  the 
University  of  Moscow,  and  in  1883  he  took  the  position  of  technical  manager  of  an  oil  re-- 
finery  at  Baku.  There  he  discovered  a  method  of  utilizing  the  soda  and  acid  by-products 
obtained  in  course  of  refining,  and  invented  a  special  still  for  continuous  distillation. 
Later,  in  England,  Mr.  Dvorkovitz  worked  to  develop  the  use  of  solar  oil  for  enriching 
water  gas,  and  invented  an  apparatus  for  gasifying  oil  and  producing  aromatic  hydro- 
carbons. Five  years  ago  he  built  for  the  Mineral  Oils  Corporation  in  London  the  first  re- 
finery in  England,  and  prepared  all  the  plans  for  another  large  refinery  erected  by  the  Shell 
Transport  &  Trading  Co.,  Ltd.,  in  Borneo.  In  1899,  he  started  the  Petroletim  Review. 
In  August,  1900,  Mr.  Dvorkovitz  was  instrumental  in  forming  the  jsetroleum  con- 
gress in  Paris,  which  resulted  in  the  establishing  of  a  permanent  commission  for  organ- 
izing international  petroleum  congresses  every  two  years  in  the  future,  with  a  central 
committee  in  Paris,  and  local  committees  all  over  the  world.  In  1901  he  founded  the 
Petroleum  Institute  in  London.  Mr.  Dvorkovitz  contributes  to  this  volume  the  paper, 
"Petroleum  in  Foreign  Countries  during  1902." 

Eckel,  Edwin  C,  was  graduated  from  the  School  of  Civil  Engineering,  New  York  Uni- 
versity, in  1896,  and  supplemented  his  college  work  with  a  post-graduate  course  in 
geology  under  Prof.  J.  J.  Stevenson.  In  1899  he  became  connected  with  the  New  York 
State  Museum,  receiving  an  appointment  as  Assistant  in  Geology  in  1900.  While  holding 
this  position,  Mr.  Eckel  published  reports  or  the  cements  of  New  York  State,  on  the  quarry 


CONTmBtlTonS.  xxiil 

industry,  the  emery  deposits,  and  on  several  minor  economic  products.  In  1902  Mr. 
Eckel  received  an  appointment  on  the  U.  S.  Geological  Survey,  and  has  reported  on  the 
Mississippi  and  Tennessee  clays,  Virginia  salt  and  gypsum,  and  other  mineral  products. 
In  addition  to  this  work  in  economic  geology,  Mr.  Eckel  has  published  a  nimiber  of 
papers  on  various  phases  of  cement  technology  and  slag  utilization.  Mr.  Eckel  is  a  mem- 
ber of  the  American  Society  of  Civil  Engineers,  and  of  the  Society  of  Chemical  Industry, 
and  to  the  present  voluipe  he  contributes  the  articles  on  *'The  Manufacture  of  Mineral 
Wool"  and  "Slag  Cement  and  Slag  Brick  Manufacture  during  1902." 

Faldino,  F.  J.,  was  born  in  England  and  was  educated  at  Amersham  Hall,  London, 
and  at  the  Bergakadamie  at  Freiberg  in  Saxony,  although  he  did  not  graduate  from  the 
latter.  In  1878-79  he  made  a  study  of  the  Canadian  apatite  deposits,  and  in  1880 
returned  to  Europe,  where  he  studied  the  manufacture  of  sulphuric  acid  and  fertilizers 
in  England  and  Germany.  In  1881  he  returned  to  Canada  and  unwatered  the  Capelton 
pyrites  mines,  now  worked  by  the  Nichols  Chemical  Co.  From  1882  to  1886  he  practiced 
as  a  mining  engineer,  with  headquarters  in  New  York,  making  a  specialty  of  pyrites 
and  phosphate  mining.  In  1888  he  entered  the  employ  of  the  Grasselli  Chemical  Co.  as 
engineer,  in  charge  of  its  mines,  becoming  in  1890  the  chief  engineer.  During  this  time 
he  designed  the  company's  new  works  at  East  Chicago,  111.  In  1889  he  was  one  of  the 
charter  members  and  first  directors  of  the  Canadian  Institute  of  Mining  Engineers.     In 

1895  he  established  himself  in  New  York  as  a  consulting  chemical  engineer,  since  when 
he  has  constructed  and  rebuilt  many  sulphuric  acid  plants  in  various  parts  of  the  United 
States.  He  contributes  to  this  volume  the  paper,  "Progress  in  the  Sulphuric  Acid  Industry 
in  the  United  Stotes  during  1902." 

FisHEB,  Henry,  was  graduated  in  1895  from  the  College  of  the  City  of  New  York, 
and  in  1899  from  the  School  of  Chemistry,  Columbia  University,  receiving  the  degree  of 
B.  S.  from  both  institutions.  For  one  year  after  his  graduation,  he  was  assistant  in 
the  department  of  analytical  chemistry  and  assaying  at  Columbia  University,  and  then 
was  chemist  for  Ricketts  &  Banks,  New  York.  He  is  a  member  of  the  American  Chemical 
Society  and  of  the  Society  of  Chemical  Industry.  Mr.  Fisher  has  been  assistant  on  the 
editorial  staff  of  the  present  volume. 

FowTEB,  Samuel  S.,  born  in  New  York,  1860,  was  educated  at  Columbia  College  (now 
Columbia  University)  and  graduated  from  the  School  of  Mines  with  the  degree  of 
E.  M.  in  1884.  After  his  graduation  he  was  engaged  for  two  years  in  civil  engin.eering 
work  in  New  York  and  vicinity.  In  1886  he  was  connected  with  the  Iron  Hill  Minin'^ 
and  Milling  Company  at  Black  Hills,  Dak.,  and  from  1887  to  1889  he  was  engaged  in 
smelting  works  in  Texas  and  Idaho.     In   1889  he  went  to  British  Columbia,  and  since 

1896  he  has  been  affiliated  with  the  London  and  British  Columbia  Goldfields,  Whitewater 
Mines,  Ltd.,  Ymir  Gold  Miles,  Ltd.,  and  Enterprise  Mines.  To  the  present  volume  Mr. 
Fowler  has  contributed  notes  on  gold,  silver,  lead  and  copper  mining  in  British  Columbia. 

FuLTOW,  Charles  H.,  educated  in  the  Brooklyn  public  schools,  Pratt  Institute  Technical 
High  School,  and  the  School  of  Mines,  Columbia  University,  graduating  from  this  latter 
institution  with  the  degree  of  mining  engineer  in  1897.  He  has  been  assistant  in  assaying 
in  the  School  of  Mines,  Columbia  University,  assayer  and  superintendent  of  a  gold  mine 
and  cyanide  mill  in  Colorado,  and  instructor  in  mining  and  metallurgy  in  the  University 
of  Wyoming  for  a  year.  For  the  last  three  years  he  has  been  professor  of  mining  and 
metallurgy  in  the  South  Dakota  State  School  of  Mines,  and  has  had  a  private  practice 
as  mining  and  metallurgical  engineer.  Mr.  Fulton  has  written  for  the  technical  press  on 
metallurgical  subjects,  and  to  the  present  volume  contributes  "A  Review  of  the  Cyanide 
Process  in  the  Year  1902." 

HAMH017,  W.  H.,  was  bom  in  1860.  He  was  graduated  at  Allegheny  College,  Meadville^ 
Pa.,  in  1881, and  afterwards  spent  one  year  in  post-graduate  work  in  Columbian  University, 
Washington,  D.  C,  and  two  years  in  advance  physical  and  mathematical  work  at  Cornell 
University,  Ithaca,  N.  Y.  In  the  early  eighties  he  was  employed  on  the  engineering  corps 
of  the  Standard  Oil  interests  in  the  Bradford  and  adjacent  Helds,  and  was  afterward 


rxiv  C0NTBIBUT0R8. 

connected  with  the  United  States  Weather  Bureau,  serving  as  observer  at  Cleveland  and 
St.  Louis,  and  as  Forecast  Official  in  St.  Louis  and  San  Francisco.  Li  January,  1899, 
he  was  appointed  professor  of  meteorology  in  the  Weather  Bureau,  which  position  he 
shortly  afterward  resigned  to  accept  a  position  as  assistant  to  the  general  manager  of 
the  Philadelphia  Company,  at  Pittsburg,  Pa.,  which  position  he  has  held  for  the  past 
four  years.  Mr.  Hammon  contributes  to  this  volume  the  paper  ''The  Natural  Gas  Industry 
of  the  United  States  during  1902." 

HoBAST,  Fbedebick,  A.  M.,'was  graduated  from  the  College  of  the  City  of  New  York, 
and  served  in  the  United  States  Army.  He  has  been  connected  with  the  Jersey.  City 
Locomotive  Works,  the  Bullock  Ore-dressing  Machine  Co.,  Jersey  City;  the  Wrigley 
Machine  Works,  Newark,  N.  J. ;  the  Camden  &  Amboy  Railroad,  and  the  Grant  Locomotive 
Works,  Paterson,  N.  J.,  and  has  been  assistant  editor  of  the  Railroad  Cktzette,  as  well 
as  coiitributor  to  various  technical  periodicals  and  the  translator  of  "Notes  on  Steam 
Hammers,  Economies  in  the  Combustion  of  Fuel,"  and  other  technical  works.  Since 
1893,  Mr.  Hobart  has  been  an  associate  editor  of  the  Engineering  and  Mining  Journal, 
from  the  death  of  Mr.  R.  P.  Rothwell,  on  April  17,  1901,  until  the  appointment  of  Dr. 
David  T.  Day,  and  from  the  period  of  Dr.  Day's  resignation  until  the  close  of  1902, 
he  had  entire  charge  of  the  conduct  of  the  paper.  Mr.  Hobart  acted  as  associate  editor 
of  The  Minebal  Industbt,  Volumes  III.  and  IV.,  and  to  the  present  volume  he  con- 
tributes the  paper  on  "Iron  and  Steel,"  and  the  reviews  of  the  various  metal  markets. 

HoFMAX,  H.  O.,  was  born  in  1852  at  Heidelberg,  Germany.  He  studied  at  the  Berg- 
akademie  at  Clausthal,  where  he  graduated  in  1877  in  mining  engineering  and  metal- 
lurgy. He  was  then  appointed  chemist  and  assistant  at  the  smelting  and  refining  works 
at  Lautenthal  in  the  Harz.  In  1881  he  came  to  the  United  States  and  was  employed 
successively  at  Mine  La  Motte,  in  Missouri,  at  the  Argentine  smelting  and  refining  works 
of  the  Consolidated  Kansas  City  Smelting  &  Refining  Co.,  and  as  metallurgist  of  the 
Delaware  Lead  Co.,  in  Philadelphia.  When  the  last  named  works  were  closed  he  went 
to  Colorado,  and  after  running  the  Rico  smeltery  for  a  short  time  went  to  Park  City, 
Utah,  to  study  the  amalgamation  and  lixiviation  of  silver  ores  at  the  Onlario  mill. 
After  a  short  time  spent  in  charge  of  a  smeltery  in  Mexico  he  was  appointed  assistant 
to  Prof.  Richards  at  the  Massachusetts  Institute  of  Technology  in  Boston;  from  there 
he  went  to  the  School  of  Mines  of  South  Dakota  as  professor  of  metallurgy  and  assaying, 
where  he  remained  until  called  back  to  the  Massachusetts  Institute  of  Technology  to  the 
professorship  of  metallurgy,  which  he  now  holds.  Dr.  Hofman  has  made  numerous  con- 
tributions to  technical  literature,  his  most  important  work  being  the  admirable  treatise 
on  The  Metallurgy  of  Lead,  For  his  paper  on  the  "Dry  Assay  of  Tin  Ores"  the  degree 
of  Ph.D.  was  conferred  on  him  by  the  University  of  Ohio.  To  the  present  volimie  he  has 
contributed  the  article,  "Recent  Improvements  in  Lead  Smelting." 

Huddle,  W.  J.,  born  in  Attica,  Ind.,  in  1878,  was  graduated  from  the  course  of  chem- 
istry at  Indiana  University  in  1901,  receiving  the  degree  of  M.A.  in  1903.  In  1902 
he  was  engaged  by  the  Western  Storage  Battery  Co.,  Indianapolis,  Ind.  From  1902  to 
1903  he  has  been  a  member  of  the  staff  in  chemistry  at  the  University  of  Wisconsin.  Mr. 
Huddle  is  at  present  chemist  in  charge  of  the  by-products  recovery  plant  of  the  Western 
Gas  Construction  Co.,  Fort  Wayne,  Ind.  To  the  present  volume  he  contributes  the  review 
on  "Rare  Elements." 

IiVGALLS,  WALTira  Rentox,  was  bom  at  Lynn,  Mass.,  in  1865,  and  was  graduated  from 
the  Massachusetts  Institute  of  Technology,  in  1886.  In  1886-90  he  was  engaged  in  mining 
at  Leadville  and  elsewhere  in  Colorado.  In  1890-92  he  was  assistant  editor  of  the 
Engineering  and  Mining  Journal,  resigning  that  position  to  go  to  Mexico  to  open  tin 
mines  in  the  State  of  Durango  for  the  Pittsburg  &  Mexican  Tin  Mining  Co.  In  1893 
and  1894  he  established  himself  in  New  York,  and  visited  professionally  various  mining 
districts  in  the  United  States,  Canada,  Belgium,  Germany  and  Poland,  devoting  himself 
especially  to  the  metallurgy  of  zinc.  During  a  part  of  1894  he  had  charge  of  the 
operations  of  the  Illinois  Phosphate  Co.,  in  Florida,  and  later  in  the  year  became  -connected 


PHILIF   ARCALL. 


WILLIAM   CAMl'nELL. 


JAMES  DOUGLAS. 


ALLAN    W.   DOW. 


PAUL    DVORKOVITZ. 


FUEDEKICK   J.    FALDING. 


EDWIN   C.    ECKEL. 


TAMES   F.    KEMP. 


CONTRIBUTOBS.  xxv 

with  the  Gold  &  Silver  Extraction  Ck>.  of  America^  Ltd.»  as  metallurgist.  In  1895  he  was 
manager  of  a  cyanide  works  at  Cripple  Greek^  Ck>lo.,  and  in  1896  of  copper-matte  smelting 
works  in  Durango,  Mexico,  returning  to  New  York  in  1897.  He  was  assistant  editor  of 
The  Mineral  Iwdustbt,  Vols.  V.,  VI.  and  VII.,  and  is  now  located  in  Boston,  Mass., 
as  consulting  engineer.  For  this  volume  he  contributes  the  paper,  "A  Review  of  Progress 
in  the  Metallurgy  of  Zinc  in  1902." 

Kemp,  James  Fubman,  was  bom  in  New  York  in  1859,  and  was  graduated  from 
Adelphi  Academy,  Brooklyn,  in  1876,  from  Amherst  College  in  1881,  receiving  the  degree 
of  A.  B.,  and  from  the  School  of  Mines,  Columbia  College  (now  Columbia  University)  in 
1884  with  the  d^ree  of  £.  M.  After  graduation,  he  was  private  assistant  to  Prof.  J.  S. 
Newberry  for  one  year,  and  then  studied  at  the  University  of  Munich.  On  his  return  he 
became  instructor  of  geology  at  Cornell  University  and  assistant  professor  in  1888.  In 
1891  he  was  made  Adjunct  Professor  of  Geology  in  Columbia  College,  and  professor  in 
1892.  Professor  Kemp  has  been  connected  with  the  New  York  State  and  the  United 
States  Geological  Surveys.  He  is  a  member  of  many  scientific  societies,  vice-president  of 
the  American  Institute  of  Mining  Engineers,  and  associate  editor  of  the  Zeiiachrift  fuer 
praktiache  Oeologie,  He  has  also  been  vice-president  of  the  American  Association  for  the 
Advancement  of  Science,  and  the  New  York  Academy  of  Science.  He  is  the  author  of 
"Ore  Deposits  of  the  United  States  and  Canada*'  and  "Handbook  of  Rocks,"  and  has 
been  a  contributor  to  all  the  volumes  of  The  Mineral  Ikdustbt.  To  the  present  volume 
he  contributes  "A  Review  of  the  General  Literature  on  Ore  Deposits  during  1901  and 
1902." 

Kebshaw,  John  B.  C,  was  born  at  Southport,  £ng.,  and  was  educated  at  Bickerton 
House  School,  Southport,  and  at  Owens  College,  Manchester.  In  1879  Mr.  Kershaw 
entered  the  Sutton  Lodge  Chemical  Works,  St.  Helens,  Eng.,  and  remained  there  for 
twelve  years,  rising  in  this  period  to  the  position  of  chief  chemist  and  assistant  manager. 
In  1892  Mr.  Kershaw  went  to  Grermany  and  pursued  his  studies  of  chemistry  and  allied 
sciences  at  Bonn  University.  Since  1896  he  has  been  engaged  in  practice  as  consulting 
chemist,  and  as  a  technical  journalist  in  London  and  Liverpool  and  has  devoted  himself 
especially  to  work  relating  to  electrochemical  processes  and  industries.  He  is  a  member  of 
several  chemical  and  other  societies,  and  is  also  on  the  staff  of  abstractors  for  Science 
Abstracts,  Mr.  Kershaw  has  written  numerous  articles  in  recent  years  upon  electrochemi- 
cal and  electrometallurgical  subjects.  He  is  the  translator  and  editor  of  Dr.  Neumann's 
German  work  on  Electrolytic  Methods  of  Analysis,  and  is  at  present  engaged  upon  two  of 
the  volumes  of  the  series  of  monographs  upon  "Angewandte  Electro-Chemie,"  now  being 
published  by  Knapp  &  Co.,  of  Halle.  To  the  present  volume  he  contributes  the  articles, 
"Progress  in  the  Aluminum  Industry  in  1902,"  and  the  general  review  of  the  "Progress 
in  Electrochemistry  and  Electrometallurgy  in  1902." 

Lewis,  Fbedebick  H.,  studied  civil  engineering  at  the  University  of  Pennsylvania, 
graduating  in  1878.  He  then  became  heliotroper  on  the  United  States  Coast  Survey, 
serving  during  the  summer  of  1878,  and  for  three  years  afterwards  was  assistant  engineer 
of  the  construction  department  of  the  Pennsylvania  Railroad  Co.'s  lines  west  of  Pittsburg. 
From  1882  to  1885  he  was  superintendent  of  bridges  and  buildings  of  the  Northern  Pacific 
Railway,  being  situated  at  St.  Paul,  Minn.,  and  he  was  also  in  charge  of  the  location  of 
the  company's  terminal  lines  between  St.  Paul  and  Minneapolis.  In  1885  and  1886  he 
was  resident  engineer  of  the  South  Pennsylvania  Railroad,  at  Sideling  Hill  tunnel,  Fulton 
County,  Pa.  From  1886  to  1893  he  was  an  Eastern  manager  of  the  Pittsburg  Testing 
Laboratory  at  Philadelphia.  Since  1893  he  has  been  practising  as  consulting  engineer  at 
Philadelphia,  and  has  also  been  consulting  engineer  for  the  firm  of  Booth,  Garrett  &,  Blair, 
in  their  department  of  physical  tests  and  inspection.  He  is  manager  and  chief  engineer 
of  the  Virginia  Portland  Cement  Co.,  and  contributes  to  this  volume  the  paper  on  "The 
Mechanical  Equipment  of  a  Modem  Portland  Cement  Plant." 

Malcolmson,  James  W.,  was  born  in  1866,  learned  the  trade  of  machinist  at  Woolwich 
from  1880  to  1885,  and  obtained  a  Whitworth  Engineering  Scholarship  in  1886.    In  1889 


xxvi  CONTRIBUTORa. 

he  waa  graduated  in  mining  from  the  Associate  Royal  School  of  Mines.  He  then  went 
to  Mexico  as  assistant  mining  and  mechanical  engineer  for  the  Michoacan  Railway  & 
Mining  Co.  In  1802  he  was  engaged  by  the  Consolidated  Kansas  City  Smelting  and 
Refining  Co.  as  mining  engineer  and  ore  purchasing  agent,  becoming  assistant  manager 
in  1897.  Later  he  became  manager  of  the  mining  department  in  Mexico  of  the  American 
Smelting  &  Refining  Co.  Since  1902  he  has  been  engaged  in  a  general  consulting  business, 
acting  as  engineer  for  several  mines  in  New  Mexico  and  Mexico,  and  is  at  present  secretary 
of  the  Esmeralda  Mining  Co.  of  Santa  Eulalia,  Chihuahua.  He  has  contributed  papers 
to  the  transactions  of  the  Institution  of  Civil  Engineers  and  the  American  Institute  of 
Mining  Engineers.  To  the  present  volume  he  contributes  notes  on  gold,  silver,  lead  and 
copper  mining  in  Mexico. 

Mathews,  John  Alexander,  was  born  in  Washington,  Pa.,  May  20,  1872,  and  was 
graduated  from  Washington  and  Jefferson  College  in  1893  with  the  degree  of  B.Sc.  Later 
he  entered  Columbia  University  as  a  graduate  student  in  chemistry,  and  received  there- 
from the  degrees  of  M.A.  and  Ph.D.  He  was  awarded  by  Columbia  University  the 
University  Fellowship  in  Chemistry  in  1897,  and  the  Barnard  Fellowship  for  the  Encour- 
agement of  Scientific  Research  in  1900,  1901  and  1902,  by  the  Iron  and  Steel  Institute 
of  Great  Britain,  the  Andrew  Carnegie  Research  Scholarship  in  1901,. and  the  honorary 
degree  of  Sc.  D.  from  Washington  and  Jefferson  College  in  1902.  From  1897  to  1900 
Dr.  Mathews  was  instructor  in  the  department  of  chemistry  of  Columbia  University.  He 
resigned  in  1900  to  follow  research  work  on  alloys  in  the  laboratory  of  the  late  Prof. 
Sir  William  C.  Roberts-Austen,  London,  which  has  since  been  continued  at  Columbia 
University  under  Prof.  Henry  M.  Howe.  President  McKinley  appointed  Dr.  Mathews  a 
member  of  the  United  States  Assay  Commission  in  1900,  and  the  first  Andrew  Carnegie 
gold  medal  for  research  was  awarded  him  by  the  Iron  and  Steel  Institute  in  1902.  Dr. 
Mathews  is  a  member  of  several  societies,  and  is  on  the  committee  for  testing  the  magnetic 
properties  of  iron  and  steel  of  the  American  Society  for  Testing  Materials.  He  has 
written  many  scientific  articles,  and  to  the  present  volume  he  has  contributed  the  paper 
*Alloy  Steels." 

McIlhiney,  Parker  C,  was  born  in  1870,  at  Jersey  City,  N.  J.,  and  in  1892  he  was 
graduated  from  the  School  of  Mines,  Columbia  College,  in  the  course  of  chemistry,  receiv- 
ing in  1894  the  degree  of  Ph.D.  for  special  work  in  chemistry  and  physics.  From  1894 
until  1900  he  was  connected  with  the  departments  of  chemistry  and  metallurgy,  Colum- 
bia University,  and,  in  addition  to  general  chemical  practice  he  has  given  considerable 
time  to  the  manufacture  of  glass,  metal,  enamel  and  pottery  art  works.  Dr.  McIlhiney 
contributes  to  this  volume  the  paper,  "Progress  in  the  Manufacture  of  White  Lead 
during  1902." 

McKenna,  Charles  F.,  was  born  in  New  York  in  1861,  and  was  educated  in  arts  at 
St.  Francis  Xavier  College  and  in  science  at  the  School  of  Mines,  Columbia  College  (now 
Columbia  University),  receiving  the  degree  of  Ph.B.  from  the  latter  institution  in  1883, 
and  of  Ph.D.  in  1894.  He  is  consulting  chemist  to  the  Municipal  Explosives  Commission 
of  New  York  City,  a  member  of  several  societies  abroad  and  at  home,  and  is  engaged 
in  a  general  consulting  practice.  To  the  present  volume  Dr.  McKenna  contributes  the 
review  of  "The  Cement  Industry  in  the  United  States  during  1902." 

Memminqer,  C.  Gustavvs,  was  born  at  Charleston,  S.  C,  in  1864,  and  began  work  as 
mining  engineer  in  the  phosphate  industry  of  South  Carolina.  He  took  an  active  part 
in  the  mineral  development  of  the  South,  and  when  the  Florida  phosphate  deposits  were 
opened  he  was  prominent  in  the  furthering  of  the  new  industry  there.  After  building 
and  successfully  operating  the  largest  pebble  phosphate  mining  plant  in  Florida,  Mr. 
Memminger,  in  1900,  moved  to  Nashville,  Tenn.,  from  whence  he  removed  to  Florida  in 
1901,  and  is  at  present  actively  engaged  in  the  development  and  mining  of  phosphates. 
Mr.  Memminger  contributes  to  this  volume  the  paper,  "Phosphate  Mining  Industry  of 
the  United  States  during  1902." 


CONTRIBUTORS,  xxvii 

Xewland,  David  H.,  was  graduated  from  Hamilton  College  in  1894,  and  for  three 
years  thereafter  was  a  student  of  geologj'  and  related  sciences  at  the  Universities  of 
Munich,  Heiaeiberg  and  Columbia.  In  1897  and  1898  he  was  employed  by  the  State  of 
New  York  mapping  the  geology  of  portions  of  the  Adironaack  Mountains,  the  results 
of  this  work  appearing  in  the  Eighteenth  Annual  Report  of  the  State  Geologist.  He 
has  been  engaged  from  time  to  time  in  other  geological  investigations,  particularly  in 
determining  the  petrographical  relations  of  metamorphosed  rocks,  and  has  contributed 
to  scientific  journals  and  other  publications.  For  the  past  three  years  Mr.  Newland  has 
been  connected  with  the  editorial  stafT  of  The  Mineral  Industky. 

Nicholson,  Frank,  born  in  Dallas,  Texas,  in  1860,  was  graduated  from  the  School  of 
Mines,  Washington  University,  St.  l/ouis,  in  1880,  with  the  degree  of  M.E.,  and  in  1883 
received  the  degree  of  M.Sc.  from  the  same  institution.  Since  his  graduation  he  has 
acted  as  manager  for  smelting  works  in  Arizona,  Colorado,  Missouri,  New  Mexico  and 
Mexico,  and  also  as  consulting  engineer  for  a  large  number  of  properties.  Since  1898  he 
has  confined  himself  almost  exclusively  to  the  Joplin  zinc  district,  Missouri.  Mr.  Nicholson 
has  done  a  large  amount  of  expert  work  covering  properties  in  the  United  States,  British 
Columbia,  Nova  Scotia  and  Mexico,  and  is  a  member  of  several  engineering  and  technical 
societies.  To  the  present  volume  he  has  contributed  the  review  of  "The  Progress  in  the 
Zinc  Industry  in  Missouri  during  1902." 

Obalski,  J.,  was  born  in  France  in  1852,  and  studied  at  the  Ecole  des  Mines  at  Paris; 
after  graduation  he  occupied  several  positions  in  connection  with  the  mining  industry  in 
France  and  Spain,  and  visited  various  mining  districts  in  those  countries,  Belgium  and 
Portugal.  In  1881  he  was  called  by  the  government  of  the  Province  of  Quebec  to  fill  the 
position  of  mining  engineer  and  inspector  of  mines,  which  post  he  still  occupies.  He  has 
contributed  to  the  present  volume  notes  on  asbestos,  chrome  ore,  copper  ore,  graphite, 
phosphate  and  mica  mining  in  Quebec.  ^ 

Power,  Frederick  Danvers,  was  born  at  Lee,  England,  in  1861.  He  received  his 
technical  training  in  Swansea,  South  Wales;  at  the  Royal  School  of  Mines,  London,  and 
at  the  Bergakademie  of  Clausthal,  Germany.  He  has  travelled  in  South  Africa  and  North 
Africa,  but  has  spent  most  of  his  professional  life  in  various  parts  of  Australasia  and 
the  South  Seas,  having  arrived  in  Victoria  in  1885.  He  has  held  various  appointments 
for  British  and  Colonial  companies,  and  has  contributed  several  scientific  papers  to  English 
3nd  Colonial  journals  and  transactions  of  sclentiiic  societies.  He  is  also  the  author  of  a 
Pocketbook  for  Miners  and  Metallurgists,  published  by  Messrs.  Crosby,  Lockwood  & 
Son.  He  has  been  on  the  council  of  the  Australasian  Institute  of  Mining  Engineers  from 
its  foundation,  and  has  acted  both  as  vice  president  and  president;  he  was  formerly 
examiner  of  Mining  at  the  University  of  Melbourne;  vice-president  of  the  New  South 
Wales  Chamber  of  Mines,  and  is  a  life  member  of  the  American  Institute  of  Mining 
Eiigineers,  the  Institute  of  Mining  and  Metallurgy  and  the  Royal  Geological  Society, 
London.  To  the  present  volume  he  contributes  special  notes  on  the  mining  industries  in 
the  Australasian  States  during  1902,  and  "Cobalt  in  New  Caledonia." 

Retbolo,  Edwin  C,  Jr.,  was  graduated  from  Delaware  College  with  the  degree  of  A.B. 
in  1896;  and  received  the  degree  of  A.M.  in  1903.  From  1897  to  1900  he  was  employed 
at  the  smelting  works  of  the  Deadwood  &  Delaware  Smelting  Co.,  and  the  Golden  Reward 
Mining  Co.,  at  Deadwood,  S.  D.,  and  from  1900  to  the  present  time  he  has  been  with 
the  Clear  Creek  Mining  Co.,  operating  the  smelter  at  Golden,  and  mines  in  Gilpin  County, 
Colo.    Mr.  Reybold  contributes  to  the  present  volume,  "Notes  on  Pyritic  Smelting." 

Richards,  Robert  Hallowell,  professor  of  mining  and  metallurgy  at  the  Massachu- 
setts Institute  of  Technology,  was  born  in  1844  at  Gardiner,  Me.  He  graduated  in  1868 
from  the  Massachusetts  Institute,  being  a  member  of  its  first  class,  and  became  assistant 
in  chemistry  in  the  corps  of  instruction,  passing  successively  to  the  post  of  instructor, 
assistant  professor  of  chemistry,  professor  of  mineralogy  and  assaying,  professor  of 
mining  engineering,  and  in  1884  to  his  present  professorship  of  mining  and  metallurgy. 
Under  his  administration  the  mining  and  metallurgical  laboratory,  which  was  the  first 


xxviii  CONTRIBUTORS. 

of  its  kind  in  an  educational  institution,  has  been  developed  to  a  high  degree  of  excellence, 
and  has  been  a  model  for  similar  laboratories  in  other  colleges.  In  addition  to  his  pro- 
fessional duties,  Prof.  Richards  has  been  actively  engaged  as  a  consulting  engineer  in 
mining  and  metallurgical  Vork,  and  has  been  the  inventor  of  several  ingenious  devices, 
which  have  found  extended  use  in  practice.  He  has  contributed  many  valuable'  papers 
to  the  technical  press,  and  to  the  transactions  of  various  scientific  societies.  His  most 
recent  work  on  the  principles  of  ore  dressing  is  the  admiration  of  the  entire  body  of 
engineers  engaged  in  that  business.  To  this,  as  in  previous  volumes,  he  has  contributed 
the  reviews,  ''BeviewB  of  the  Literature  on  Ore  Dressing  in  1902,"  and  "Progress  in  (Sold 
Mining  during  1902." 

RiCKABD,  TH0MA8  A.,  was  bom  in  1864,  at  Pertusola,  Italy,  and  spent  his  boyhood  in 
Italy,  Switzerland  and  Russia  (the  Urals).  Educated  in  Russia  and  in  England,  he  gradu- 
ated from  the  Royal  School  of  Mines  in  1885  and  immediately  afterward  went  to  Colorado. 
In  1887  he  was  appointed  superintendent  of  the  Union  Mine  at  San  Andreas,  Cal.  In 
July,  1889,  he  went  to  Australia,  and  for  two  years  visited  and  studied  most  of  the 
important  mining  districts  of  New  Zealand,  Queensland,  New  South  Wales,  Victoria  and 
Tasmania.  In  1801  Mr.  Rickard  was  manager  of  mines  near  Allemont,  in  the  Isdre^ 
France.  During  1892  he  returned  to  Colorado  and  began  general  practice  as  consulting 
engineer  and  during  the  next  five  years  examined  mines  throughout  the  West;  in  1895 
he  was  appointed  State  geologist  of  Colorado  holding  this  honorary  office  for  three  successive 
terms,  covering  six  ydars.  In  1897  he  examined  a  number  of  mines  in  British  Columbia 
and  Western  Australia  for  a  London  financial  house  and  in  1899  became  consulting 
engineer  to  several  important  mines  in  Colorado.  On  January  1,  1903,  Mr.  Rickard 
became  editor  of  the  Engineering  and  Mining  Journal,  to  which  he  had  been  for  many 
years  a  frequent  contributor.  He  has  contributed  largely  to  technical  literature,  especially 
the  Tran9acti(m8  of  the  American  Institute  of  Mining  Engineers,  the  Institution  of  Mining 
and  Metallurgy  and  the  publications  of  other  technical  societies.  He  is  also  the  author 
oi  The  Stamp  Milling  of  Gold  Orea,  published  in  1897.  To  the  present  volume  he  con- 
tributes the  article  "The  Sampling  and  Estimation  of  Ore  in  a  Mine." 

RiES,  Heiitrich,  Ph.B.,  A.M.,  Ph.D.,  was  graduated  in  1892  from  the  School  of  Mines, 
Columbia  College  (now  Columbia  University),  New  York  City.  After  his  graduation  he 
was  employed  as  assistant  geologist  on  the  New  York  Stete  Geological  Survey,  and  during 
the  World's  Fair  at  Chicago  he  was  assistant  director  of  the  New  York  scientific  exhibit. 
From  1893  to  1895  he  held  the  University  Fellowship  in  Mineralogy  at  Columbia  Univer- 
sity, and  was  awarded  the  Barnard  Fellowship  for  scientific  research  by  the  same  institution 
from  1897  to  1900.  In  1898  he  was  appointed  Assistant  Professor  of  Economic  Greology  at 
Cornell  University,  Ithaca,  N.  Y.  Dr.  Ries  has  made  a  special  study  of  the  economic 
geology  of  clays,  has  made  extensive  investigations  of  both  domestic  and  foreign  deposite, 
and  since  1895  has  acted  as  clay  specialist  for  the  United  Stetes  Geological  Survey.  He 
has  prepared  special  reporte  on  Uie  clays  of  New  York,  Michigan,  North  Carolina,  Alabama, 
Louisiana,  Maryland  and  New  Jersey.  In  1895  he  was  judge  of  clays  at  the  Cotton 
States  Exposition,  and  a  member  of  the  jury  of  awards  at  the  Pan-American  Exposition 
at  Buffalo,  N.  Y.  To  the  present  volume  Dr.  Ries  contributes  the  paper,  "Review  of  the 
Literature  of  Oays  and  CTay  Producte  in  1902." 

Rossi,  Auouste  J.,  was  bom  in  Paris  in  1839.  In  1855  he  was  graduated  from  the  Uni- 
versity of  France,  receiving  the  degree  of  B.A.  and  6.S.  and  in  1859  received  the  degree 
of  civil  and  mining  engineer  from  the  Ecole  Ceotrale  of  Arts  and  Manufactures  of  Paris. 
Soon  afterward  he  came  to  the  United  States,  of  which  he  has  long  been  an  adopted  citizen. 
Mr.  Rossi,  in  the  course  of  his  professional  practice,  has  been  with  the  Morris  &  Essex 
Railroad,  with  the  Boonton  blast  furnaces  and  with  the  New  York  Ice  Machine  Co.  For 
the  past  eight  years  he  has  devoted  himself  particularly  to  electrometallurgy,  and  as 
consulting  mining  engineer  has  been  engaged  in  the  study  of  the  metellurgy  of  titenium. 
He  is  a  member  of  the  American  Institute  of  Mining  Engineers,  the  American  Chemical 
Society  and  of  the  American  Electro-Chemical  Society,  and  various  articles  from  his  pen 


PKBDERICK  H.   LBWIS. 


FRANK  NICHOLS«)N, 


1 

1 

1 

Jw  A 

1 

■  m 

r 

CHARLES  F.  MC  KENNA. 


JAMES  W.  MALCOLMSON. 


JOHN  A.  MATHF.WS. 


ROBERT  !f.   RICHARDS. 


F.    DAN\KRS   POWER. 


HEINKICII    RIES. 


THOMAS  A.    RICKARO.  M  ^^^M  I  AL'GUSTK  J.   ROSSI. 


p.  SCHNIEWIND. 


VINCENTE  SI'IKEK.  .^^^^^■^fc^  ^H  WALTER  H.   WEED. 


Tins  IM  KE. 


bave  appeared  in  the  published  proceedings  of  these  societies,  and  in  other  technical  publica- 
tions. To  this  volume  Mr.  Rossi  contributes  the  paper,  "Progress  in  the  Manufacture 
and  Use  of  Titanium  and  Similar  Alloys." 

Sanford,  Samuel,  born  in  Middfetown,  R.  I.,  1865;  after  taking  a  course  in  mining 
geology,  was  graduated  from  Harvard'  University  in  1890.  After  graduation  he  was 
engaged  in  landscape  work  in  New^  Jersey.  From  1891  to  1892  he, was  employed  by  the 
Lake  Superior  Geological  Survey  on  the  Marquette  and  Menominee  ranges  in  Michigan, 
and  in  1893  he  was  superintendent  of  the  field  operations  of  the  Duliith  Iron  Co.  on  the 
Mesabi  Range,  Minn.  From  1894  to  1897  he  was  engaged  in  research  work,  and  from  1899 
to  1902  Mr.  Sanford  has  been  on  the  editorial  staff  of  the  Engineering  and  Mining 
Journal,  To  the  present  volume  he  contributes  notes  on  anthracite  and  bituminous  -  coals 
in  the  Uilited  States.  ... 

SOHNIEWIND,  Fredebick,  was  born  at  Bochum,  Westphalia,  in  1861.  He  studied  at 
the  institutes  of  technolo^  at  Charlottenburg  and  Munich  and  at  the  un|i^|'^ties  of 
Berlin,  Munich  and  Heidelberg,  receiving  the  degree  of  Ph.D.  at  the  latter  university.  He 
then  entered  the  laboratory  of  a  Westphalian  blast  furnace  and  subsequently  had  ^charge 
of  analytical  laboratories  at  Cleveland,  O.,  and  Crystal  Falls,  Mich.  Since  its  inception 
he  has  been  connected  with  the  United  Coke  and  Gas  Co.,  which  bi^ilds  and  .Qperates 
by-product  coke  ovens,  especially  of  the  Otto-Hoffmann  t3rpe.  He  adapted  by-product, 
coke  ovens  to  the  manufacture  of  illuminating  gas  and  has  made  a  number  of  improve- 
ments in  their  construction.  He  is  the  author  of  numerous  articles  on  coal  distillation 
in  coke-ovens,  and  to  the  present  volume  he  contributes  the  paper,  "By-Product  Coke 
Ovens." 

Spibek,  Vikoente,  was  bom  in  1852,  at  Bubovice,  near  Prague,  Bohemia,  and  was 
graduated  from  the  Bergakademie  at  Pribram  in  1876.  He  entered  at  once  into  active 
mining  and  in  1878-1879  became  an  officer  of  the  government  mining  bureau  in  Bosnia 
and  Herzegovina.  He  was  employed  under  Exeli  in  Idria,  and  from  1876  to  1890  he  was 
associated  there  with  Cermak  in  the  remodeling  of  the  works  and  the  design  of  the  well- 
known  CermakrSpirek  quicksilver  furnace.  After  service  as  an  officer  in  the  army  in 
Bosnia  and  H«rz^ovina  he  resigned  his  position  of  Oberhuetteningenieur  in  the  State 
Mines  Direction'  to  take  charge  of  the  quicksilver  works  at  Monte  Amiata,  Italy.  Mr. 
Spirek  has  received  several  government  medals  in  recognition  of  his  special  work  as  an 
engineer,  and  he  has  written  a  number  of  technical  articles.  To  the  present  volume  he 
has  contributed  notes  on  the  recent  improvements  in  the  Cermak-Spirek  furnace  for  quick- 
silver ores. 

Stbuthebs,  Joseph,  was  bom  at  New  York  City  in  1865,  and  attended  the  School  of 
Mines,  Columbia  College  (now  Columbia  University),  graduating  therefrom  in  the 
course  of  chemistry  in  1885,  and  in  1895,  receiving  the  degree  of  Ph.D.  from  that  institu- 
tion. For  fifteen  years  after  his  graduation  he  was  on  the  staff  of  instructors  of  the 
department  of  metallurgy  at  Columbia  University,  first  assisting  Dr.  Thomas  Egleston, 
and  later  Prof.  Henry  M.  Howe;  later  becoming  honorary  lecturer  in  metallurgy  at 
Columbia  University.  In  1896  he  organized  and  conducted  the  first  summer  school  in 
practical  metallurgy  of  Columbia  University,  which  was  held  at  Butte,  Mont.  Dr.  Struthers 
has  visited  many  metallurgical  plants  in  the  United  States  and  Europe,  and  he  has 
carried  on  special  metallurgical  investigations.  He  has  written  numerous  articles  for 
the  Engineering  and  Mining  Journal,  Mineral  Resources  of  the  United  States,  Twelfth 
Census  of  the  United  States  and  School. of  Mines  Quarterly,  and  from  1892  to  the  present 
time  he  has  been  on  the  Board  of  Editors  of  the  latter  publication,  acting  for  most  of 
this  period  as  business  manager.  As  assistant  editor  of  The  Mineral  Industry,  Vols. 
VIII.  and  IX.  and  editor  of  Vols.  X.  and  XI.,  he  has  had  entire  charge  of  their  prepara- 
tion, and  has  contributed  to  them  by  far  the  greater  number  of  the  unsigned  articles.  In 
November,  1901,  Dr.  Struthers  was  appointed  Field  Assistant  to  the  United  States  Geo- 
logical Surrey  for  1901  and  1902,  and  in  May,  1903,  he  was  appointed  special  agent  for 
the  United  States  Census. 


XXX  CONTRIBUTORS. 

Ulke,  Titus,  was  born  in  1866,  at  Washington,  D.  C.  In  1889  he  was  graduated  from 
the  Royal  School  of  Mines  at  Freiberg,  Saxony,  as  metallurgical  engineer.  After  spending 
some  time  in  visiting  the  various  mines  and  metallurgical  works  in  Europe,  Mr.  Ulke 
returned  to  this  country  and  was  engaged  as  chemist  to  the  Harney  Peak  Tin  Co.,  in 
South  Dakota.  In  1891  he  became  assayer  for  the  United  Smelting  Co.,  and  afterwards 
was  engaged  by  the  Anaconda  Mining  Co.,  as  chemist  at  its  electrolytic  copper  refining 
works.  In  1893  Mr.  Ulke  acted  as  metallurgist  to  the  Mines  and  Mining  Department  of 
the  Chicago  Columbian  Fair,  and  was  later  employed  at  the  Guggenheim  works  at  Perth 
Amboy,  N.  J.  As  triangulator  for  the  U.  S,  Geological  Survey  in  1897,  he  had  charge 
of  a  party  to  survey  the  Montana  timber  reserves.  Soon  after  the  declaration  of  war 
with  Spain,  Mr.  Ulke  was  appointed  Assistant  Inspector  of  Ordnance,  U.  S.  A.,  and  in 
1900  he  became  metallurgical  engineer  to  the  Lake  Superior  Power  Co.,  Sault  Ste.  Marie, 
Ont.  He  is  now  connected  with  the  Ordnance  Department  at  Watervliet  Arsenal,  N.  Y. 
Mr.  Ulke  has  contributed  to  the  present  volume  the  reviews  of  "Progress  in  the  Electrolytic 
Refining  of  Copper"  and  "Progress  in  the  Metallurgy  of  Nickel  in  1902." 

Weed,  Walter  Habvet,  was  born  in  St.  Louis,  Mo.,  May  1,  1862,  and  was  graduated 
in  1883  from  Columbia  College  School  of  Mines  in  the  course  of  mining  engineering.  Mr. 
Weed  was  appointed  assistant  geologist  U.  S.  Geological  Survey  in  June,  1883;  in  1885 
discovered  the  vegetable  origin  of  the  siliceous  sinter  of  Yellowstone;  and  the  following 
year  discovered  and  described  Death  Gulch,  Yellowstone  Park.  Following  his  specialty 
of  economic  and  applied  geology,  Mr.  Weed  has  investigated  and  reported  on  various  coal, 
gold  and  silver  districts  of  Montana,  and  has  made  careful  studies  of  the  copper  and 
gold  regions  of  Virginia  and  the  Carolinas,  Cripple  Creek  district,  and  others  in  Colorado, 
Arizona,  California,  Wyoming  and  Mexico.  To  the  present  volume  Mr.  Weed  contributea 
notes  on  copper,  gold  and  silver  mining  in  Montana. 


INTRODUCTION. 


The  total  value  at  the  place  of  production  of  the  mineral  and  metal  output 
from  both  domestic  and  foreign  ores  and  bullion  of  the  United  States  in  1902 
was  $1,431,072,789,  as  compared  wii;^  $1,367,983,548,  in  1901,  a  gain  of 
$63,089,241  for  the  year. 

Of  these  vast  sums,  which  are  without  precedent  in  the  history  of  the  mineral 
industry,  ores  and  minerals  contributed  $758,562,272  in  1902  and  $721,938,333 
in  1901;  metals,  $510,553,421  in  1902  and  $486,981,619  in  1901;  secondary 
products,  $84,688,884  in  1902  and  $72,935,106  in  1901 ;  while  the  value  of  metals 
smelted  or  refined  from  foreign  material  was  $77,268,212  in  1902  and  $86,128,490 
in  1901.  In  these  gross  totals  of  value  are  included  certain  duplications,  such 
as  those  of  the  manganese  and  iron  ore  used  in  making  ferroraanganese  and 
pig  iron;  bauxite  used  in  making  aluminum  and  alum;  coal  used  in  making 
coke ;  lead  used  in  making  white  and  red  lead  and  litharge,  and  a  few  other  dupli- 
cations, the  whole  amounting  in  1902  to  $115,644,546  and  in  1901  to 
$93,629,061.  Deducting  these  amounts  and  also  the  values  of  the  crude  foreign 
ores  or  metals  smelted  or  refined  here,  the  net  value  of  the  mineral  industry  of 
the  United  States  was  $1,238,160,031  in  1902  and  $1,188,225,997  in  1901. 

In  the  preparation  of  the  statistics  for  this  volume,  the  figures  previously 
reported  for  1901  have  been  revised  in  the  light  of  later  and  more  minute 
investigation,  in  accordance  with  our  practice,  wherefore  it  is  important  for 
students  to  observe  the  caution  to  use  always  the  figures  in  the  latest  volume 
of  The  Mineral  Industey.  There  are  no  statistical  reports  of  this  nature 
which  are  absolutely  correct,  owing  to  the  practical  impossibility  of  obtaining 
accurate  reports  from  all  the  producers  in  some  extensive  and  greatly  subdivided 
industries,  the  absence  of  records  on  the  part  of  many  producers  which  prevents 
them  from  making  returns,  the  unwillingness  of  a  few  to  give  figures,  and 
confusion  as  to  the  stage  in  which  many  products  are  to  be  reported.  The  last 
difiiculty  is  especially  likely  to  lead  to  errors  in  values,  some  producers  estimat- 
ing the  worth  of  their  product  at  the  pit's  mouth,  and  others  reporting  it  in  a 
more  or  less  advanced  stage  of  completion,  including  thus  not  only  the  cost  of 
carriage,  but  also  the  cost  of  manipulation.  These  difficulties  appear  not  only 
in  our  own  statistics,  but  also  in  the  statistics  reported  by  various  governments. 
In  our  own  work,  however,  we  make  a  practice  of  going  backward  and  correcting 
figures  previously  reported,  whenever  mistakes  are  discovered  by  subsequent 
investigation. 

For  the  greater  part  of  the  statistics  relating  to  the  domestic  production  of 
the  United  States  during  1901  and  1902  we  have  been  indebted  to  Department 
of  Mineral  Resources  of  the  United  States  Geological  Survey,  and  for  the  pro- 
duction of  gold  and  silver  in  the  United  States  during  these  years  to  Mr.  George 
E.  Roberts,  Director  of  the  Mint.  Special  acknowledgment  is  due  to  both  of 
these  departments  for  their  active  and  hearty  co-operation. 

We  have  made  great  use  of  the  reports  of  several  State  geological  surveys. 


2 


TBS  MmSRAL  INDU8TR7. 


especially  those  of  Alabama,  Kansas,  Iowa  and  Indiana,  and  the  State  mining 
bureaus  of  California  and  Colorado.  We  have  generally  credited  these  figures 
to  the  proper  sources  in  the  subsequent  pages,  but  this  acknowledgment  may 
stand  for  any  unintentional  oversights. 

PRODUCTION  OF  ORBS  AND  MINERALS  IN  THB  UNITED  STATES.    (FIRST  PRODUCTS.) 


j 


CltB- 

uree. 


I  A8brato§, Bh.T. 

g  AnphAltutn Hh.T. 

.  A^phaLtJc  ILmestonc!^..  9h,  T. 

6  «aryt(s,.*..... SJi.T. 

B  Baiiiit*^ L.  T. . 

71  Bismuth  ore ,  Sli.T. 

elUromlfie,..,........,  U).. . 

9|Ca]c.ium  bomtp,  r  ^  lihT 
l0lCVm*Mit,  iiii.t.h>  driLiil. '  f^lJtils 
11  IVmtmT,  I'l.rTland  .,,  ABIjla 

J'J   nirn'MM-rTi' L.T. 

\\\  \"h\.y  E.nxtn.-t,H.* 

J 4  L-ual,  iiiithrLu;ite.,».  ♦♦ 

10  CiaK  oannel  ....,-,.* 
17  ,C*i1iialt  oxtile.  ....»*.. 
IB  CoplJ*^t  atilphate.  /. . 
10  ConiDdum...  .....p. 

SO  Einery .,,... 

arKf^ld^ifMLr- *..»*....,.. 

ay.FluorMjiar 

m  FuUertt  earth.,. ...... 

MG«n»«... 

ftGllMDlto 

86'araphlt<*,  crjrBtflllitu* 
3T  fimphite,  aoiorphoiis 
3H  (f J  jpniim.....H. ...... 


Lepidotite  ........ 

ItfAgneAite.  c. ....  - 

MflDit&neiii?  oro.  i. 
Mica^  Bcrnp. ....,, 

MIcA,  Hhwt. 

M(ilybd*num  ore. 

MooiuJte 

Satumlfpid 

OehiT  p 

l^lroleum.  cnide, 
rhostsphiite  rock.. 
Precious  fitno(». . . 

Prrtten 

Salt,  q 


*4iSiik:a.ljrtclr........ 

45     nifttciia.  eikrUi... 

4fi     QuarUB. 

47     ^d,  etc.. 

4«     PuniiCT........... 

4fl     <lTltid«lone« 

BO     Whf^tflWuee...... 

M      Trijkf>y „.. 

ea  Slflte>  roofld^ 

5^     ManufAcrurea. . . . 
!W     PCjruient. ......... 

55'Stm|iHlont:^.. , 

l^iSoil&,  naturiLL.  r. . .  s 
&7{sioiie,  for  biiaaiiif; 
5B  ]atoiJft.Iimttsttpnei  fl  ux\ 
flj  aujne.  UOiouitiphic 
wBulpbur.............. 

fil  SulphtirleaiTjd./.l,..; 
Wi^Tnlc.  cnnimtHi.. . . . .  ► . 

ft'JTuTr,  flbrouA......,,, 

fr*  Tu  n|E*t<"n  ore .... 

ftJ>  Uriuiium  ott*. .  ►....., 

0^  ZiiiL-  »ii]phiil«<. ... 

87  Zinc  (ife,  exported. . . 

t^  Zinc  while.  J. ..., 

9flZfnci™d....... 

TO  Emt  prod.uDipecLaeNl 

I    TotaU ' 


8h,T. 
9h.T. 
Sh.T 
Lb... 

Lb.  . 

eh.T 

6h.T. 

L.T. 

Bb.T. 

Sh.T. 

Sh.T. 

8h.T. 

Lb... 

Hh  T. 
L  T. 

Sh.T. 
Sh.T, 
L.T,. 
Sb-T 
Lb.., 
;8b,  T. 
Lb. 


8b.  T. 
uBblB 


UT.. 
BblA. 

Sh.T. 
Sh.T, 
L.T.. 
Sh.T 
8h.T 


Hh.T. 


8h.T. 
8b.  T. 
Sh.T. 


L.T 

Sli-T, 

iL.T., 

Sb,T. 

Sh.T 

Bb,T. 

L.T.. 

Bh.T 

Sh.T. 

Sh.T 

Sh.T. 

Sh.  T. 


im. 


Quantity. 


747 
£0,4t& 
6,ft70 

49,070 

1H,9Q& 

3tfi 

12,71  i,£25 
4^ 


Metrtr! 

TOEU. 


Hl.OTB 

44,5^ 

19,214 

280 

81,075 

«ea,9ei 

g,80e,7M 

6oe 


«7,G»8«6ae 

SS&,7S9,9eO' 
T8,0O4,3&7 

4,aoe 

RL019 
19,1" 
14.112 
4,444 
1,500! 
B,W7,fll3 

059,060 

»7,SW.47U 

0  110 

13,173 

838,71M 

t,\t3S 

360.060 

Ifi 

74a,7a« 


ei,270,56S 

fio4,soejio 


4:3,085 

og,s89,m 

1,4SS,T^ 


so,6nft,a6i 

5fi.000 

dd4,oao 

H,0fiO 
e  900,0(10 

hb  16,807 


ite,oea 

3S4^ 

a,9(» 

SLfilT 
17,778 

4,flS3 

i,e&a 
jfci,eoojer 

7S4 

598,603 

S8,93S.0T9 

100 

lt,949 

049,016 

1,964 

Jt  103,322 

IB 

MO 


89,042 
8,839,263 
l,S07,4ffii 


£38,661 
£.613,299 


Value  at  PIbct 
of  ProduetLoD.a 


Totals. 


iPerM. 

Ton. 


CuBtotnary 
Meaeure«. 


13,498 
337,360 
aiJ75 

isawBoi 

157,944 

79,914 

£&,4B8 

]49,04A 

1, 012,  lie 

8,060,278:, 

R532,aQ0 

7,740 

112,704,066' 
S80,aO5,314« 


% 

39-91 

lfl'2l 
6'S8 
4U 
S-54 
4  16 

8819 
696  la 

48'Q« 

s-i; 

618 
16  23 


re4 

115 


3.647 

12JT6 

9H,400 


24,04^1 
m  3,674,600 

140,040 

220,423 
ltS,BOa 

lBfl,lB)' 

46,000| 

136,914 

SLfliW 

1,«77,49S 

47,406.7141 

4,070, 

43,057 

LM4,117| 

19,7^9 

750; 

27,0ft7,aoo; 

n  616.308, 

aft,417,S3&' 

&,316i,4ns 

289,060 

1,024,449 

6.017,449 

1,018.060 

Ba,«50 

41.R0O 

<  1,3*^,912 


1$Xt2. 


Quandty. 


Metric 
Ton*. 


1.010 

29,003 

1,8W 

57JJH7 

6Hw]49 

27,322 

37 

613,913 

1T,21S 

1»,0^.769 

36,636,000 

S16 


90-38 
»7-4a 

640 
7-57 
391*) 

feOlie 
4392 

l'07t 
40  66< 
360 
2  53 
10^ 

614 
174"S0 


41,4A1,M7 
Sfi8,371.Q»7 

48,703.ei38 


14,100 
8,722 
4,0S3 
4,170,924 
4,739 


910 

27,12fi 

1,686 

62,4l!fi 

fl2,7K 

27,7S9 

84 

2S3 

16.006 

1.236,1)0 

3.000,0^ 

320 


S7. 604.843 
234,a93,EU39 


Vatue  At  V\m^ 
of  Productioa.  a 


Totals. 


12,400 

7,7^ 
157,093 
186.718 
121,466 

2,660 

128,4™.  LUJ      ON 

2,4M,1»94>1A6I)I3 
4,08^,692!  S  31 
16.037,600 

4.725 

doojooo,ooo 

^002,229 
285,574,389 


Pr.M. 
Ton. 


$ 

13S4 
14  S6 

Am 

2  99 

a  M 

4'SS 
8706 
561  S9 


554 
14-77 


2-20 

in 


22,119 


2,028.563,  91  71 


96,135 


27,501 
12,791 
8.376 
B,676i 
LB» 
4,299 


L^.3T9 


16,24- 


4,865] 
15,000 


I. 


3HC^ 


8,644tJ08 

Nil. 
6.976 
9ft.<W 

^^,e43 

0^.200 

HXt 

375 

T.SOO 

44.156 

46,600 

2,500 


4,413 


13,608 


8,679,656 


7,(188 
88.905 
25,9H4 
62.77y 
162 
IMO 

0,804 
40,058 
42,18B 

2,268 


580,708 
158,3U0 


4,114.410 
6^,3.116 
41,«U 


197,000 
55,615,906 
4,659,896 


223.**) 

12,298,200 

4S4,8ia 

483,600 

sr^.7ar.> 

10S..500 
322,425 

1,167,^ 

3,720,000 
150.1100 

5,000.000 


1348 
751 
3 '53 


31,630,121 
3,400 

^^*     15 


56,320 

84,2fi0.788 

t,4«4,M8 


4^ 
258 


14-52 
3-96 
148 


i3'16 


931 
"  14  44 


0-54 


aafl,i9e 

23,849.221 

e  60.000 

4,855 

13,901 

e  1,000,000 

100 


3rfi2 

25  75 

103S 

7'6»| 

17111 

30147' 

47  39: 

29' 15 

f«l8 


66  14, 


ism) 

10,000 

9,490,000 

7,443 

21,640 
71,100 

mi 

810 

54.613 
52,730 
4,000 


.751.288,333.,. .../...>.... 1768,592,272 


148.«20  5- 12 
109.W4O'  8'56 
8e,2r0|  26' 15 
61,182  I6d4 
16.1.147    80  SO 

55,964  12  ra 


35,190.299    04.709,540'    1  84 


8,144; 


21,302     5  79 


15 


760 


614 


50,186 
12,174.961 
1,48B,10» 


^1.1^9: 
3.0e9,<^- 


4,401  • 

12,614 

1,010,000 

91 


e  30,000,000 

705,026 

70,tteS,lOO 

4.030,516 

318,300 

971,790; 

5.668,636; 

e  1,200,0(JO 

49,974 

117,423 

e  1,600,000 

500 

656,833 

219472 


1405 
6-80 
3' 12 


14,516 


208,000   H-38 


4  19 
1  67 

9' 13 
1-48 
54» 


9,044,231       5.504,352,    0  59 

J- 


7,562;        ;^,560   2903 


19,08S 

04.601 

224 

735 


413,497 
515.360 
88,600 


21  06 

9  64 

172  34 


49.583  1,449.101   29  23 

40,9291  4,023,299,  ®-73 

3,029  225,000  mm 

68,915,0001 


INTRODUCTION, 


PRODUCTION  OF  KETALS  IN  THE  UNITED   STATES. 


Ftoducti. 


Atumlniiai  .......* 

Antitiiony...,,,.,. 
Copper......  **..* 

FerrfUimugADe^^u 
Ferro  n  i  ol  yMeo  *m 

Gold.... ..., 

Iroo.  ptf. * . 

Irldliim.. . 

Lead  

Molybdenum 

NicHei....- , 

PllatiDuiD 

QuickaUifer(T).... 

eilTOT 

86  TunicsteQ .,,,,.... 
Zloc . 


Totals  , 


Cus- 
tom- 
ary 
Mens 
uree. 


Lb„. 
Lb... 
Lb... 
L.  T. 
Lb... 
Lb.. 
Ozftfi) 
L.  T 

Sh.T 
Lb.... 
Lb.... 

Qt.{w) 
FL'ftks 

Lb.,,. 
Sh-T 


1001. 


Quantity. 


Custom  Vy 
Meosurefl. 


7,150,000 

5,398,000 

507,448,312 

391.461 

16,000 

13,001) 

8.§05,500 

15,5.86,893 

25a 

379,9-J£ 

35,000 

6.T0O 

L40e 

39,75J7 

65,eiL000 

75,000 

140,1 


Metric 

TOQfl. 


ta,S43.319 

2,401 

370,99^ 

293,124 


k  USJ 

15,8ae,2N3 

79 

2S3,M4 

16 

3,040 

^44 

1.031 

k  1,717,884 

S4 

137,788 


Value  at  Place 
of  PtXKiuctlon, 


Totala. 


% 

2.:^,OO0 

542,030 

/  86,639,1366 

l6,Kttl.g60 

19.600 

T8,6C6,rOO 

232,^00,386 

5.060 

24,341,345 

62,125 

3.55] 

37.526 

t,382,:W)5 

33,45H,6r>3 

45,7t.0 

11.365,760 


PerM. 
Ton, 


Custom  > 
Measures. 


S 

to  69 

225-4 

319  67 

6631 

2,80000 

6t28'Si 

A:  064  60 

1470 

kfmtS, 

95-46 

a.SK*^l 

k  ]'17 

62559 

1,340  74 

k  IB  95 

l,ai5'69 

flSlfi 


1901. 


Quantity, 


7.300,000 

7,13S,00tt 

fil0,ttl5.384 

212,e«l 

16,000 

14.000 

3,87t».000 

17,608,326 

30 

2B0,5S4 

36,000 

Nil 

34 .451 

55,Si>0,0lXl 

82.000 

158,237 


1486,961,019, ..,, 510,553,421 


Metric 
Tona. 


3,312.258 

3,330 

277,064 

ffie,^ 

7 

6 

ibl20,369 

17,890,059 

'  264',489 
15 


Value  at  Place 
of  Production. 


Total*. 


2,2^,590 

634,5(H} 

f7l,072,5W 

13,853,109 

19,600 

4.060 

79,992,800 

2S9,8tV*,796 

400 

22,829.01.'^ 

02,125 


1.195 

Jtl, 738,229 

37 

148,&5'J 


F^rM. 
Toa. 


t 

039 

190  44 

356-55 

64  01 

2.eO[)00 

670  66 

M64  60 

1619 

iteJ3-63 

89  70 

3,68381 


1,814  JtaaQ-17 

1,600.142  1,255  35 

2S,M8,800  A 16-77 

e0,(JtJ0  1,351  R9 

15,317,342  36-60 


8BCONDART  MINERAL  AND  CHEMICAL  PRODUCTS  OF  THE  UNITED  STATES. 


PAMlnotB. 

Cua- 
toro- 
aiy 

1001. 

1003, 

1 

Quaudty. 

Value  at  Place 
of  Production,  a 

Qtiautity. 

Value  at  Place 
of  Production,  a 

35  1 

urea. 

Customary 
Measures. 

Metric 
Tons, 

Totals, 

Per  M. 

TOQ. 

Custom  Vy 
Measures. 

Metric 
Tons, 

TotaU. 

S 

25M.500 

1.938,671 

4,304.650 

374,150 

465,099 

5l.664,57S 

1 18,474 

51.450 

110,700 

ll,978.m 

1,362,712 

138,{H9 

1,299,443 

105,814 

10,290.230 

196,906 

PerM. 
Too. 

m 

Alum 

gb.T. 

Sh.T. 

Sh.T. 
Lb.., 

Sh.T. 
9h.T. 
Sh.T. 

U>... 
5h.T. 
Sh.T. 
Sh.T. 
gh,T, 
Sh.X 
H.T,. 
Sh.T. 

7,7M 

74,721 

66,138 

3,838,175 

2^,689 

21,796,863 

33,580 

346 

2,500,000 

100,7S7 

13,103 

urn 

9,460 

6,372 

460,000 

9,^1 

7,080 
67,786 
60,000 
1.741 
49,490 
19,773,096 

nm 

313 

it1,1&4,30] 

01,433 

11,887 
986 
8.5«2 
5.690 
480,000 
a,347 

008,846 
1,a55,?30 
3,606,400 

345,435 

196,151 
44,445,933 

113,366 

jrr,960 
iia,ooo 

11,^52,05^ 
1,448,550 

£4i,tter 

68.993 

8,318,400 

153,467 

20-66 
3000 
6109 
19841 
4-00 

535 

isiias 

k  O'VJ 
I38'U7 
121  i>5 

11414 

1215 
17-33 
IB  39 

8,539 

S7,0r5 

71,ftl9 

3,741,500 

547,175 

33,090,343 

19,784 

368 

2,356,828 

114,658 

ii.era 

867 

12,756 

10,843 

5fi2,000 

11,758 

7.747 

78,994 

66.000 

1,697 

09.37^ 

20.947.421 

17,948 

333 

1,060,99({ 

104,011 

10,580 

787 

11.571 

9,837 

563,000 

10,667 

4.« 

24-59 

66-61 

25W-48 

4fiS 

3-4S 

6-60 

154-50 

0-10 

115-16 

119-38 

175  79 

113'30 

m 

90 
91 
QQ 
93 
94 
35 
06 
07 

on 

Aluminum  sulphAte. 
Aeiimonmm  £iilphate 

Carbornodum 

Cenieotr  fitag.. 

Coko..... 

Copperaa ...» 

Gmslied  Hteel 

Graphite,  artiflctal.. 
Lead,  white.......... 

Lead,  red 

09 

ton 

Lead,  orange  mJnerl 
LJtharpe, 

101 
103 
lOR 

Mineral  wool 

Koda,  manufacturod, 
Veoetiaii  red . . .  ^ 

11^-75 
18-31 
18-46 

T0tAll...„. 

172,085,106 

*&4,aa8,884 

METALS  PRODUCED  FROM  FOREIGN  ORES 

AND  BULLION,    (aa) 

Customary 
Measures. 

1001. 

!002. 

MflUta. 

Quantities. 

Values. 

Quantities. 

Customaiy 
Measures. 

Kg. 

Customary 
Measures. 

Kg. 

Values. 

SSEr.::::: 

Pounds..... 
TJroyos.... 
Short  tons. 

Pounds 

Troy  OS.... 

108,646,068 

88,860 
8,664,614 
46,410,065 

46,580,800 
68,885 

80,104,878 
8,080,106 
1,418,404 

16,586J966 

86,776,704 

1,087,716 

4,087,710 

27,850,005 

85,000,000 

1,680,001 

84.028 

10,301,478 

46,067,244 

88,666,747 
52,664 

81,681,061 
4,713,544 
1,405,666 

0,801,450 
84,082,211 
2,841,062 
4,520,203 
25,062,306 

liMMl 

NiekeL 

aUnsr 

Total  taIimJ 

$66,188,400 

781,088,888 
466,061,610 
72,085,106 

$77,868,212 

Total  ores  and  miuirala 

756.5Q2,2?2 

Total  metals. 
Total  sbooimUl 

510,558,421 
84,686,664 

Gnndtotal,^ 

rahMS 

$1,867,068,5481 

$1,481,072,780 

1b  Qging  the  statistics  in  the  f oresolng  tobies  reference  should  also  be  made  to  the  detafled  tables  under  the 
raspeetl^ca|>tions  further  on  in  this  volume,  where  many  explanatory  notes  as  to  the  statistics  will  be 
round.  Hie  foUowIng  notes  refer  to  the  four  preceding  tables:  (a)  Except  where  otherwise  specified.  (5) 
Hotemnnerated.  (<^  Crude  mineral.  In  1001  includes  5,344  short  tons  of^reflned  borax,  valued  at  $097,807. 
W  FOnly  ftlmated.    (e)  Brtlmated.    (/)  Includes  copper  sulphate  made  from  metallic  copper,  {g)  Barrels 


THB  MINERAL  INDU8TBT. 


of  800  lb.  (M  Barrals  of  400  lb.  (»)  Inoludes  manganiferous  Iron  ore;  this  is  not  dupUcated  in  the  report 
of  iron  ore.  {J )  Value  per  square,  <.e.,  100  sq.  ft.,  lapped  and  laid;  tlie  weiffhts  are  oalculated  ou  the  basis 
8  8quare8=:8,000  lb.,  but  these  figures  are  only  approziniately  correct  (M)  Kflogranis  orper  kilogram.  (/)  Re- 
duced to  a  basis  of  60"  B.  (m)  A.Terage  market  price  at  New  York,  (n)  Nominal,  (o)  Value  before  srinding. 
(p)  Includes  ocher,  umber,  sienna,  and  axlde  of  iron.  (9)  Includes  salt  used  for  the  manufacture  of  alkali ;  the 
barrel  of  salt  weighs  980  lb.  (r)  Reduced  to  a  basis  of  6t^  ash.  (<)  Includes  a  small  amount  made  from  spelter, 
(f)  Average  value  of  Lake  copper  at  New  York,  less  O-sSc.  per  lb.  i«)  Includes  spiege»eisen,  tiiough  the  total 
value  is  reckoned  as  if  the  whole  product  were  ferromanganese.  iv)  Average  market  price  at  Pittsburg, 
(to)  Troy  oz.  (x)  Flasks  of  78'5  ib.  (y)  Barrels  of  48  gal.  U)  Includes  a  comparatively  small  amount  made 
dbectly  from  ores,  (aa)  Not  included  in  the  preceding  tables.  (66)  Does  not  include  40,980  pieces  of  unspeci- 
tted  weight;  the  value,  however,  is  iacludedf  in  the  total  (cc)  Included  with  common  talc,  (dd)  Includes 
tripoli.  Tee)  Included  with  diatomaoeous  earth.  (//)  Included  with  bituminous.  (99)  dtatlstics  not  collected. 
Abbreviations:  8h.  T.,  short  tons  (8,000  lb.);  L.  T.,  long  tons  (8,940Jb.);  M.  T.,  metric  tons  (8,804  lb.). 


Metals  and  Alloys. 

Aluminum. — The  production  of  aluminum  ui  the  United  States  in  1902  was 
7,300,000  lb.  ($2,284,590),  as  compared  with  7,150,000  lb.  ($2,238,000)  in  1901. 

Antimony, — The  production  of  antimony  in  the  United  States  in  1902  was 
7,122,000  lb.  ($634,506)  as  compared  with  5,298,000  lb.  ($542,020)  in  1901. 

Copper.— HYie  productioii  increased  from  697,443,212  lb.  ($86,629,266)  to 
610,815,384  lb.  ($71,072,586)  in  1902.  The  main  increases  were  in  Montana, 
Michigan,  Utah  and  the  Southern  States.  California  and  Arizonia  reported  de- 
creases. In  addition  to  the  domestic  copper  produced  in  1902,  there  were 
85,000,000  lb.  derived  from  foreign  sources. 

Ferromanganese. — The  production  of  ferromanganese,  including  spiegeleisen, 
was  212,981  long  tons  ($13,852,199),  as  compared  with  291,461  long  tons 
($16,589,960)    in   1901. 

Ferromolyhdenum. — The  production  in  1902  is  estimated  at  16,000  lb. 
($19,600),  as  compared  with  the  same  totals  in  1901. 

Oold  and  Silver. — The  domestic  production  of  gold  in  1902  was  3,870,000 
troy  oz.  ($79,992,800),  as  compared  with  3,805,500  troy  oz.  ($78,666,700)  in 
1901.  The  production  of  silver  was  55,500,000  troy  oz.  ($28,948,800),  as  com- 
pared with  55,214,000  troy  oz.  ($32,458,653).  There  was  a  slight  increase  in 
the  production  of  gold  in  Colorado;  and  Alaska,  Arizona  and  South  Dakota 
also  contributed  to  the  enlarged  production.  Besides  the  production  reported, 
1,689,991  oz.  of  gold  and  48,087,244  oz.  of  silver  were  smelted  in  the  UniteH 
States  from  imported  ores.  The  average  value  of  silver  in  the  United  States  ii* 
1902  was  5216c.  per  oz.,  against  58-95c.  per  oz.  in  1901. 

Iron. — The  production  of  pig  iron  in  1902,  exclusive  of  ferromanganese  and 
spiegeleisen,  was  17,608,326  long  tons  ($289,304,796),  as  compared  with 
15,586,893  long  tons  ($232,800,328)  in  1901.  Of  the  production  in  1902 
10,393,168  long  tons  were  Bessemer  pig  iron  against  9,546,793  long  tons  in  1901. 
The  production  of  basic  pig  was  2,438,590  long  tons,  against  1,448,850  long  tons. 
The  remainder  of  the  output  is  classed  as  foundry  and  forge  iron. 
.  Lead.— The  domestic  production  in  1902  was  280,524  short  tons  ($22,829,043), 
against  279,922  short  tons  ($24,241,245)  in  1901.  There  was  a  large  increase 
in  the  output  of  the  Idaho  mines.  The  average  price  of  lead  at  New  York  in 
1902  was  4069c.,  against  4-33c.  per  lb.  in  1901.  Besides  the  above,  the  Amer- 
ican smelters  in  1902  recovered  34,922  tons  of  lead  from  foreign  ore  and  base 
bullion,  against  22,260  in  1901. 

Molybdenum.— Some  '35,000  lb.  of  molybdenum  ($62,125)  were  produced  in 


INTRODUCTION.  5 

1902,  as  compared  with  an  equal  output  in  1901.  A  considerable  portion  of  the 
ore  came  from  Arizona. 

Nickel. — There  was  no  domestic  production  of  nickel  in  1902,  as  compared 
with  an  output  of  6,700  lb.  ($3,651)  in  1901. 

Platinum. — There  was  a  production  of  94  troy  oz.  ($1,814)  of  platinum  from 
domestic  ores  in  1902,  as  compared  with  1,408  oz.  ($27,526)  in  1901.  The  value 
of  bar  platinimi  at  New  York  in  1902  averaged  $20- 15  per  oz. 

Quicksilver. — The  production  of  quicksilver  increased  from  29,727  flasks 
($1,382,305)  to  34,451  flasks  ($1,500,142)  in  1902.  Texas  contributed  6,252 
flasks  to  the  total,  but  there  was  no  production  in  Oregon. 

Tttn^«/en.— The  production  was  82,0001b.  ($50,020)  in  1902,  against  76,000  lb. 
($45,750)  in  1901.  The  production  of  ferrotungsten  in  1902  was  14,000  lb. 
($4,060). 

Zinc.— The  production  in  1902  was  168,237  short  tons  ($16,317,342),  as  com- 
pared with  140,822  short  tons  ($11,265,760)  in  1901.  There  was  a  large  increase 
in  Kansas.  The  average  price  of  spelter  in  New  York  in  1902  was  4'84c.  per  lb., 
against  4'07c.  per  lb.  in  1901. 

Obes,  Minerals  and  Chemical  Products. 

Alum  and  Aluminum  Sulphate. — The  production  of  crystallized  alum  in  the 
United  States  in  1902  was  8,539  short  tons  ($229,500),  as  compared  with  7,755 
short  tons  ($208,846)  in  1901.  The  production  of  aluminum  sulphate  in  1902 
was  87,075  short  tons  ($1,938,671),  as  compared  with  74,721  short  tons 
($1,355,720)  in  1901. 

Ammonium  Sulphate. — The  amount  of  ammonium  sulphate  recovered  in  the 
United  States  in  1902  was  65,000  metric  tons  ($4,264,650),  as  compared  with 
60,000  metric  tons  ($3,665,400)  in  1901.  The  value  of  sulphate,  basis  25'^,  was 
$65-61  per  metric  ton  at  New  York  in  1902,  against  $6109  in  1901. 

Asbestos. — ^The  domestic  production  was  1,010  short  tons  ($12,400)  in  1902, 
as  compared  with  747  short  tons  ($13,498)  in  1901.  In  each  year  the  produc- 
tion was  made  almost  entirely  by  one  mine  in  Georgia. 

Asphaltum  and  Asphaltum  Products. — The  production  of  asphaltum,  liquid 
and  solid,  in  1902  was  29,903  short  tons  ($389,602),  as  compared  with  20,416 
short  tons  ($337,359)  in  1901,  the  output  coming  from  California  and  Indian 
Territory.  California,  Indian  Territory  and  Kentucky  produced  57,837  tons 
($157,093)  of  bituminous  rock  in  1902,  as  compared  with  34,248  tons  ($138,601) 
in  1901.  Arkansas  and  Indian  Territory  produced  1,859  short  tons  ($7,782)  of 
asphaltic  limestone,  as  compared  with  6,970  tons  ($33,375)  in  1901.  There  was 
no  output  in  Utah,  and  Indian  Territory  showed  a  large  decrease.  The  produc- 
tion of  grahamite  or  gilsonite  in  1902  was  4,052  tons,  as  compared  with  1,500 
tons  in  1901. 

Barytes. — ^The  production  in  1902  was  58,149  short  tons  ($186,713),  as  com- 
pared with  49,070  short  tons  ($157,844)  in  1901.  Of  the  production  in  1902, 
Virginia  furnished  the  larger  part  of  the  output,  the  remainder  being  obtained 
in  North  Carolina,  Tennessee  and  Missouri. 


6  THE  MINERAL  INDU8TRT. 

Bauxite.— "The  production  in  1902  was  27,322  long  tons  ($121,465),  as  com- 
pared with  18,906  long  tons  ($79,914)  in  1901. 

Bromtne.— The  production  in  1902  was  513,913  lb.  ($128,472),  against 
552,023  lb.  ($149,045)  in  1901.  These  figures  include  the  bromine  equivalent  of 
potassium  bromide,  which  is  produced  in  Michigan. 

Calcium  Borate.— The  production  in  1902  was  17,202  short  tons,  as  compared 
with  23,231  short  tons  in  1900.  Most  of  the  product  is  obtained  from  colemanite, 
which  is  mined  in  California.  The  value  of  the  production  in  1902  was 
$2,434,994,  against  $1,012,118  in  1901. 

Carhorundum.—T!hQ  production  reported  by  the  sole  producer  was  3,741,500  lb. 
($374,150)  in  1902,  as  compared  with  3,838,175  lb.  ($345,435)  in  1901. 

Cemenf.— The  total  production  of  Portland  cement  in  1902  was  16,535,000  bbl. 
of  400  lb.,  valued  at  $16,637,500,  as  compared  with  12,711,225  bbl.  ($12,532,360) 
in  1901.  The  Lehigh  district  of  Pennsylvania  and  New  Jersey  has  maintained 
its  supremacy  as  a  center  of  production,  and  Michigan  and  other  States  also 
showed  important  gains.  Aside  from  the  remarkable  increase  in  production,  the 
year  1902  was  notable  for  the  very  low  prices  commanded  by  cement  in  the 
Eastern  markets.  The  production  of  natural  rock  cement  in  1902  was  9,083,759 
bbl.  of  300  lb.,  valued  at  $4,087,692,  as  compared  with  7,084,823  bbl.  ($3,056,278) 
in  1901.  As  in  previous  years,  the  Kentucky-Indiana  district  and  Ulster  County, 
N.  Y.,  were  the  largest  producers.  The  production  of  slag  cement  in  1902  was 
547,175  bbl.  of  400  lb.,  valued  at  $465,099,  against  272,689  bbl.  ($198,151) 
in  1901. 

Chrome  Ore, — ^The  production  in  1902  was  315  long  tons  ($4,725),  against 
498  long  tons  ($7,740)  in  1901.  The  entire  production  in  1901  and  1902  was 
mined  in  California. 

Clay, — The  value  of  brick  and  other  clay  products  made  in  the  United  States 
in  1901  was  $110,211,587,  as  compared  with  $78,704,678  in  the  previous  year. 

Coal  and  Coke. — The  total  production  of  coal  in  the  United  States  in  1902 
was  299,823,254  short  tons  ($368,576,568),  as  compared  with  293,298,516  short 
tons  ($349,009,269)  in  1901.  The  production  of  anthracite,  all  of  it  from 
Pennsylvania,  with  the  exception  of  small  amounts  from  Colorado  and  New 
Mexico,  was  41,451,267  short  tons  ($83,002,229)  in  1902,  as  compared  with 
67,538,536  short  tons  ($112,704,055)  in  1901.  Kentucky's  production  of  cannel 
coal  is  included  under  the  production  of  bituminous.  The  output  of  bituminous 
coal,  of  which  Pennsylvania  and  the  Central  States  are  the  largest  producers,  was 
258,371,987  short  tons  ($285,574,339)  in  1902,  as  compared  with  225,759,980 
($236,305,214)  in  1901.  There  was  an  increase  in  the  output  of  most  of  the 
important  coal  producing  States  in  1902.  The  total  production  of  coke  in  1902 
was  23,090,342  short  tons  ($51,864,575),  as  compared  with  21,795,883  short 
tons  ($44,445,923)  in  1901.  Pennsylvania  furnished  about  two-thirds  of  the 
output  each  year. 

Cohait  Oxide. — ^There  was  no  production  of  cobalt  oxide  in  1902,  against 
13,360  lb.  ($24,048)  in  1901. 

Copperas. — ^The  production  in  1902  was  19,784  short  tons  ($118,474),  as  com- 
pared with  23,586  short  tons  ($112,366)  in  1901.    The  chief  producer  in  this 


INTRODUCTION.  7 

country  is  the  United  States  Steel  Corporation,  which  controls  all  the  wire  and 
rod  works  recovering  copperas  as  a  by-product.  The  above  statistics  do  not  in- 
clude copperas  converted  into  Venetian  and  Indian  reds  at  the  works  of  original 
production. 

Copper  Sulphate. — ^The  production  in  1902  was  48,763,538  lb.,  as  compared 
with  78,004,257  lb.  in  1901.  Of  this  the  amount  recovered  as  a  by-product 
chiefly  by  gold  and  silver  refiners,  was  35,879,212  lb.  in  1902,  and  51,000,000  lb. 
in  1901.  The  remainder  of  the  output  each  year  was  made  from  metallic  copper 
and  from  ore,  the  former  being  included  in  the  production  of  copper.  The 
average  value  of  copper  sulphate  at  New  York  per  100  lb.  was  $4*16  in  1902, 
as  compared  with  $4*10  in  1901. 

Corundum  and  Emery. — The  production  of  corundum  and  emery  in  1902 
was  valued  at  $95,135,  as  compared  with  4,305  short  tons  ($146,040)  in  1901. 
The  production  of  steel  emery  or  crushed  steel  in  1902  was  735,000  lb.  ($51,450), 
against  690,000  lb.  ($37,950)  in  1901,  the  entire  product  each  year  being  sup- 
plied by  a  single  concern — ^the  Pittsburg  Crushed  Steel  Co. 

Feldspar. — The  production  in  1901  was  31,019  long  tons,  valued  at  $220,422. 
The  statistics  for  1902  are  not  yet  available.  Pennsylvania,  Massachusetts  and 
New  York  are  the  principal  producers  of  feldspar. 

Fluorspar. — The  production  in  1902  was  27,127  short  tons  ($143,520),  as 
compared  with  19,586  short  tons  ($113,803)  in  1901,  Illinois,  Kentucky  and 
Tennessee  furnishing  the  entire  output 

Fullers  Earth. — The  output  in  1902  was  14,100  short  tgns  ($109,980),  as 
compared  with  14,112  short  tons  ($96,835)  in  1901. 

Oamet. — The  production  in  1902  was  3,722  short  tons  ($88,270),  as  compared 
with  4,444  short  tons  ($158,100)  in  1901,  the  output  each  year  being  furnished 
by  New  York,  Pennsylvania  and  Connecticut.  The  domestic  resources  of  this 
mineral  are  large,  but  the  demand  for  it  is  limited. 

Qraphite. — The  production  of  crystalline  graphite  in  1902  was  4,176,824  lb. 
($153,147),  as  compared  with  3,967,612  lb.  ($135,914)  in  1901.  The  produc- 
tion of  amorphous  graphite  in  1902  was  4,739  short  tons  ($55,964),  as  com- 
pared with  809  short  tons  ($31,800)  in  1901.  As  in  previous  years,  the  larger 
part  of  the  crystalline  product  in  1902  was  obtained  from  Ticonderoga,  N.  Y., 
although  a  considerable  quantity  was  mined  in  Pennsylvania  and  in  Clay  County, 
Alabama.  The  single  producer  of  artificial  graphite  reported  an  output  of 
2,358,828  lb.  ($110,700),  as  compared  with  2,500,000  lb.  ($119,000)  in  1901. 

Oypsum. — ^The  production  of  gypsum  in  1901  was  669,  659  short  tons,  valued 
ftt  $1,677,498.  These  figures  represent  the  amount  of  crude  rock  quarried. 
The  larger  part  of  the  production  is  marketed  in  the  form  of  stucco,  or  plaster 
of  Paris. 

Iron  Ore. — ^The  production  in  1902  was  34,636,121  long  tons,  as  compared 
with  27,887,479  long  tons  in  1901,  these  figures  being  exclusive  of  the  production 
of  manganiferous  iron  ore  reported  separately  under  manganese.  The  increase 
in  the  production  was  due  chiefiy  to  the  Lake  Superior  ranges,  which  furnished 
by  far  the  greater  part  of  the  output. 

Lead  White,  Red  Lead  and  Litharge. — The  production  of  white  lead  in  1902 


8  THE  MINERAL  INDU8TRT. 

was  114,658  short  tons  ($11,978,172),  as  compared  with  100,787  short  tons 
($11,252,653)  in  1901;  of  red  lead,  11,669  ($1,262,712),  as  compared  with 
13,103  ($1,448,550)  ;  of  litharge,  12,765  ($1,299,443),  as  compared  with  9,460 
($979,586);  of  orange  mineral,  867  ($138,349),  as  compared  with  1,087 
($224,667)  in  1901.  The  larger  part  of  these  products  is  obtained  by  the  cor- 
rosion of  pig  lead,  but  a  small  part  of  the  white  lead  product  is  made  directly 
from  the  ores. 

lAmestotie  for  Iron  Flux. — Iron  smelters  consumed  9,490,090  long  tons  of 
limestone  in  1902,  as  compared  with  8,540,168  long  tons  in  1901,  the  increase 
being  caused  by  the  greater  production  of  pig  iron. 

Magnesite. — ^The  production  in  1902  was  3,466  short  tons  ($21,362),  as  com- 
pared with  13,172  short  tons  ($i3,057)  in  1901.  The  entire  output  in  both 
years  was  mined  in  California  and  represented  but  a  small  portion  of  the  mag- 
nesite  consumed  in  this  country.  Large  quantities  of  this  mineral  are  imported 
from  Austria  and  Greece. 

Manganese  Ore. — ^The  production  of  manganese  ore,  including  manganiferous 
iron  ore  in  1901  was  638,795  long  tons. 

Mica. — The  production  of  sheet  mica  in  1901  was  360,060  lb.  ($98,859)  of 
scrap  mica,  2,165  short  tons  ($19,719).  Mica  is  mined  in  South  Dakota,  New 
Hampshire,  North  Carolina  and  Nevada.  The  imports  of  mica  into  the  United 
States  in  1902  were  2,251,856  lb.,  valued  at  $466,332,  of  which  102,299  lb. 
($46,970)  was  cut  or  trimmed  mica. 

Mineral  Wool. — The  production  in  1902  was  10,843  short  tons  ($105,814),  as 
compared  with  6,272  short  tons  ($68,992)  in  1901.  A  part  of  this  product  was 
made  from  slag  and  a  part  by  the  fusion  of  natural  rock,  the  latter  being  the 
more  valuable. 

Molybdenum  Ore. — The  production  in  1902  is  estimated  at  15  short  tons, 
valued  at  $750,  as  compared  with  a  like  output  in  1901.  The  value  of  molyb- 
denum ore  varies  within  wide  limits,  and  a  nominal  value  of  $50  per  ton  is 
placed  upon  the  output. 

Monazite.— The  output  in  1901  was  748,736  lb.  ($59,262),  and  came  from 
North  Carolina  and  South  Carolina. 

Natural  Oas. — ^The  production  of  natural  gas  in  1902  is  estimated  at 
$30,000,000,  as  compared  with  a  value  of  $27,067,500  in  1901. 

Ocher  and  Oxide  of  Iron  Pigments. — ^The  production  of  ocher,  umber,  sienna 
and  natural  oxide  of  iron  ground  pigment,  the  last  being  known  commonly  as 
metallic  paint,  was  55,320  short  tons  ($705,026)  in  1902,  as  compared  with 
43,036  short  tons  ($516,308)  in  1901.  The  separation  of  these  products  is  at- 
tended with  considerable  difficulty,  as  they  merge  into  one  another.  Pennsyl- 
vania is  the  largest  producer  of  these  pigments. 

Petroleum,— The  total  output  in  1902  was  84,250,738  bbl.  ($70,628,100),  as 
compared  with  69,389,194  bbl.  ($66,417,335)  in  1901.  The  large  increase  was 
due  to  the  enormous  developments  in  Texas  and  California,  the  Appalachian  field 
showing  a  decided  falling  off.  The  averjige  value  was  considerably  lower  in  1902 
tl^in  in  1901,  as  the  Western  oil  is  valued  upon  a  fuel  basis. 

Phosphate  RocJc.— The  production  in  1902  was  1,464,668  long  tons  ($4,636,- 


INTRODUCTION,  9 

516),  as  compared  with  1,483,723  long  tons  ($5,316,403)  in  1901.    Florida  was 
the  only  important  State  to  report  an  increase. 

iSaZ^.— The  domestic  output  of  salt*  increased  from  20,566,661  bbl.  in  1901  to 
23,849,221  bbl.  in  1902. 

Silica, — ^The  production  of  vein  and  dike  quartz  in  1902  was  13,904  short  tons 
($117,423),  as  compared  with  14,050  short  tons  ($41,500)  in  1901.  The  uses 
of  quartz  are  chiefly  in  pottery,  for  packing  acid  towers  and  for  grinding  pur- 
poses. The  production  of  grindstones,  which  are  made  out  of  quartzite,  or  a 
very  hard  sandstone,  in  1902,  was  valued  at  $656,832,  as  compared  with  16,807 
short  tons,  and  a  value  of  $580,703  in  1901.  The  weight  of  the  production  in 
1901  does  not  include  40,980  pieces  of  which  the  weight  is  not  specified,  but 
which  are  reckoned  in  the  value.  The  production  of  oilstones,  scythestones  and 
whetstones  in  1902  was  valued  at  $219,172,  as  compared  with  $158,300  in  1901. 
The  production  of  pumice  in  1902  was  100  short  tons,  against  no  output  in  1901. 
The  production  of  diatomaceous  earth  and  tripoli  in  1902  was  4,855  short  tons 
($49,974),  as  compared  with  4,020  short  tons  ($52,950)  in  1901. 

Slate. — The  production  of  roofing  slate  in  1901  was  1,304,379  squares 
($4,114,410)  and  the  value  of  the  production  of  slate  manufactures,  chiefly 
blackboard  and  structural  material,  was.  $673,115.  The  output  of  slate  pigment, 
including  Baraga  graphite  and  various  kinds  of  mineral  black,  in  1901  was  4,865 
short  tons,  valued  at  $41,211.  Pennsylvania  and  Vermont  lead  in  the  production 
of  slate. 

Soda, — ^The  production  of  soda  and  soda  products  from  salt,  reduced  to  a  com- 
mon basis  of  58%  soda  ash,  was  562,000  metric  tons  in  1902,  as  compaY^d  with 
480,000  metric  tons  in  1901.  The  value  of  the  product  in  the  respective  years 
was  $10,290,220  and  $8,318,400,  the  average  value  of  58%  ash  at  the  works 
being  $18-31  and  $17*33  per  metric  ton,  respectively.  There  was  an  output  of 
25,000  short  tons  of  natural  sodium  carbonate,  equivalent  to  16,000  short  tons 
of  58%  soda  ash,  as  compared  with  the  equivalent  of  15,000  short  tons  of  58% 
ash  in  1901.  The  production  of  natural  soda  in  both  years  was  made  in  Cali- 
fornia and  Nevada. 

Sulphur  and  Pyrites.  — ^Louisiana,  Nevada  and  Utah  produced  7,443  long  tons 
of  sulphur  in  1902,  against  6,976  long  tons  in  1901.  The  average  price  of 
Sicilian  seconds  at  New  York  in  1902  was  $22-72  per  ton,  compared  with  $23-71 
in  the  previous  year.  The  domestic  production  of  pyrites  in  1902  was  228,198 
long  tons  ($971,796),  as  compared  with  234,825  long  tons  ($1,024,449)  in  1901. 
Of  the  total  output  in  1902,  Virginia  contributed  more  than  one-half,  followed 
by  (Jeorgia,  North  Carolina,  Colorado,  Massachusetts,  California,  Indiana,  Ohio, 
Missouri  and  New  York.  The  production  from  Indiana  and  Ohio  was  obtained 
as  a  by-product  in  coal  mining.  The  average  prices  of  concentrated  sulphuric 
acid  of  66°B.  were  $22-40  per  2,000  lb.  at  New  York  in  1902,  as  compared 
with  $23-50  in  1901. 

Talc  and  Soapstone, — The  production  during  1902  of  soapstone  for  slabs  and 
other  manufactured  articles  and  common  talc  mostly  ground  to  powder,  was 
21,640  short  tons  ($413,497),  as  compared  with  28,643  short  tons  ($424,888) 
in  1901.     These  materials  were  obtained  in  North  Carolina,  Virginia,  New 


10  THE  MINERAL  INDUSTRY. 

Jersey,  Pennsylvania  and  Maryland.  The  production  of  fibrous  talc,  all  of  it 
from  St.  Lawrence  County,  N.  Y.,  was  71,100  short  tons  ($615,360)  in  1902, 
as  compared  with  69,200  short  tons  ($483,600)  in  1901. 

Tungsten  Ore. — ^There  was  a  production  in  1902  of  250  short  tons  of  tungsten 
ore,  as  compared  with  179  short  tons  in  1901.  The  outputs  in  each  year  were 
nominally  valued  at  $38,600  and  $27,720,  respectively.  Most  of  the  material 
produced  in  1902  came  from  Colorado. 

Uranium  Ore. — In  1901,  Colorado  produced  375  short  tons  of  uranium  ore, 
as  compared  with  810  tons  in  1902. 

Venetian  and  Indian  Reds. — The  production  of  these  colors  in  1902  was 
11,758  short  tons  ($196,905),  as  compared  with  9,201  short  tons  ($153,467) 
in  1901.  These  figures  include  only  the  output  at  works  where  the  original 
copperas  was  made,  and  do  not  take  into  account  any  material  that  may  have  been 
made  by  second  handlers. 

Zinc  Ore. — ^The  quantity  of  zinc  ore  of  domestic  origin  exported  from  the 
United  States  in  1902  was  54,613  short  tons  ($1,449,109),  as  compared  with 
44,156  short  tons  ($1,167,684)  in  }901.  Most  of  the  ore  exported  was  mined 
in  New  Jersey. 

Zinc  Sulphate. — There  was  a  production  of  7,500  short  tons  of  zinc  sulphate 
in  1901. 

Zinc  White. — ^The  production  in  1902  was  52,730  short  tons,  as  compared  with 
46,500  short  tons  in  1901.  The  total  value  was  $4,023,299,  as  compared  with 
$3,720,000  in  1901.  A  large  part  of  the  production  of  zinc  white  in  the  United 
States  is  made  by  the  New  Jersey  Zinc  Co. 


•'\ 


ALUMINUM  AND  ALUM, 

Bt  Joseph  Stbuthebs. 

Undeb  this  general  caption  are  grouped  aluminum,  alum,  bauxite^  cryolite, 
corundum  and  emery,  substances  which,  previous  to  Volume  VII.,  appeared 
under  individual  captions.  The  present  arrangement  is  a  logical  one,  since  both 
bauxite  and  cryolite  are  used  as  raw  material  in  the  manufacture  of  aluminum 
and  alum,  two  industries  so  interwoven  that  a  logical  separation  is  impossible, 
and,  since  corundum,  though  employed  mainly  as  an  abrasive,  is  now  used  in 
part  as  a  source  of  aluminum.  In  this  view  aluminum,  alum  and  the  aluminum 
minerals — bauxite  and  cryolite,  corundum  and  emery — ^bear  the  same  relation 
to  one  another  as  do  copper,  copper  sulphate  or  bluestone  and  copper  ores. 

I,  Bauxite. 

The  production  of  bauxite  in  1902  was  27,322  long  tons,  valued  at  $120,366, 
as  compared  with  18,905  long  tons,  valued  at  $79,914  in  1901,  being  a  large 
increase  over  the  output  of  the  preceding  year.  Of  the  production  in  1902 
Georgia  contributed  nearly  70%  of  the  total  output,  the  balance  being  contributed 
by  Arkansas  and  Alabama  in  the  order  named.  The  following  companies  were 
in  operation  during  the  year:  Republic  Mining  &  Manufacturing  Co.,  in  Ala- 
bama and  Georgia ;  General  Bauxite  Co.,  Harrison  Bros.,  J.  H.  Hawkins,  Inter- 
national Aluminum  Mining  Co.,  in  Georgia ;  and  General  Bauxite  Co.,  Pittsburg 
Reduction  Co.,  and  one  minor  producer  in  Arkansas.  The  mines  of  the  Arkansas 
Bauxite  Co.,  in  Arkansas,  and  those  of  the  Dixie  Bauxite  Co.,  in  Alabama,  were 
inoperative  during  the  year. 

Bauxite  is  consumed  chiefly  for  the  manufacture  of  aluminum,  although  a 
large  quantity  is  used  in  the  manufacture  of  aluminum  sulphate  and  crystallized 
alum.  The  subjoined  table  of  the  production,  imports,  exports,  with  values  of 
each,  has  been  prepared  to  illustrate  the  annual  consumption  of  bauxite  in  the 
United  States  during  the  past  five  yeare. 

PRODUCTION,    IMPORTS,    EXPORTS,    AND    CONSUMPTION    OP    BAUXITE    IN    THE 

UNITED   STATES. 


Production. 

rimt 

rear. 

Alabama. 

Georgia. 

^rkansaa. 

Total 

Imports. 

tlon. 

1808  . 

Lf.Tons. 
18,848 
14,144 
060 

Ur.  Tons. 
1S.MS 
19,619 

677 

Long 
Tons. 

Long 
Tons. 
86,791 
86,818 
88,445 
18,905 
87,828 

Value. 

$66,978 

101,285 
85,988 
79.914 

121,465 

Per 
Ton. 
82-60 
2-75 
8*66 
4-28 
4*45 

Tons. 
1,201 
6,660 
8,666 
18,818 
16,790 

Ililll 

Long 

i,0o6 

8,080 
1,000 
1,000 

Value. 

•2,000 
4,667 
8,000 
8,000 

Long 
Tons. 
26,998 
41,449 
81.101 
86,218 
48,112 

Value. 
809,816 
120,486 
115,889 
144,081 
175,875 

1899.. 
1900.. 
lOOha 
190eB.a 

8,068 

2,080 

887 

4,645 

(a)  Through  the  courtesj  of  the  United  States  Geological  Surv^j. 

Imports  and  Exports. — The  unusually  large  increase  in  the  imports  of  French 
bauxite  during  1901  and  1902,  as  contrasted  with  previous  years,  resulted  mainly 
from  the  low  ocean  freight  rates  to  New  York,  Philadelphia  and  Baltimore^ 


la  TffE  iitNERAL  HiDUSmY, 

which  averaged  $2*25  per  ton;  adding  to  this  amount  the  duty  of  $1  per  long 
ton,  allowed  the  delivery  at  a  cost  exmine  of  $3*30  per  ton.  Contrasting  this 
cost  with  the  freight  rates  from  Georgia  and  Alabama  of  $3*85  per  ton  to  Phila- 
delphia, and  $5  or  more  to  Boston,  shows  that  the  French  ore  can  1x3  delivered 
to  the  seaport  cities  above  named  more  cheaply  than  the  domestic  ore.  On  ac- 
count of  the  high  iron  content  of  the  French  bauxite,  its  use  is  limited  mainly 
for  making  aluminum  hydrate,  which  is  the  raw  material  utilized  for  the  manu- 
facture of  aluminum.  There  was  no  export  of  bauxite  from  the  United  States 
during  1902,  as  compared  with  1,000  long  tons  in  1901. 

Alabama  and  Georgia, — (By  Thomas  L.  Watson.) — ^The  mining  of  bauxite  in 
the  Southern  Appalachian  field  during  1902  was  confined  principally  to  Georgia, 
a  small  quantity  only  being  mined  in  Alabama.  The  principal  producers  of 
bauxite  were  the  Republic  Mining  &  Manufacturing  Co.,  of  Hermitage,  Floyd 
County;  the  Southern  Bauxite  Mining  &  Manufacturing  Co.,  of  Cave  Spring, 
Floyd  County,  and  John  H.  Hawkins,  of  Rome.  Several  years  ago  the  Dixie 
Bauxite  Co.  secured  control  of  the  principal  properties,  and  it  is  claimed  that  it 
has  2,500,000  tons  of  high-grade  ore  blocked  out.  This  company  is  awaiting  the 
exhaustion  of  the  other  bauxite  mines  before  contributing  to  the  output  in  order 
to  obtain  a  higher  price  for  the  product.  The  Republic  Mining  &  Mianufacturing 
Co.  confined  its  operations  principally  to  several  land  lots  in  the  vicinity  of 
Hermitage  which  were  early  exhausted,  and  to  the  Fat  John  bank  in  the  Bobo 
district,  nine  miles  west  of  Rome,  which  yielded  a  large  quantity  of  ore.  The 
company  also  mined  on  the  Watters  property,  five  miles  north  of  Rome,  where 
the  ore  deposit  is  one  of  the  largest,  if  not  the  largest  in  the  State ;  the  product 
from  this  mine  has  been  uniformly  of  high  grade.  The  John  H.  Hawkfns  plant 
is  located  near  McConnel's  Stiation  in  Walker  County,  near  the  county  line  at 
the  Armington  bank.  The  deposit  covers  an  area  of  150X50  ft.,  and  is  stated  to 
have  an  average  depth  of  3*6  ft.,  which  is  equivalent  to  a  volume  of  540,000  cu.  ft. ; 
assuming  a  specific  gravity  of  2*5  for  the  ore  and  allowing  25%  loss  in  prepara- 
tion, the  deposit  will  yield  31,590  tons  of  commercial  product.  The  mineral  is 
mined  by  the  open-cut  method,  and  is  carried  in  a  sido-dump  car  to  a  sub- 
merged, double  log-washer,  consisting  of  two  12-in.  square  logs,  each  carrying 
chilled  cast  iron  lugs  placed  spirally  upon  them.  They  revolve  in  opposite  direc- 
tions 10  r.  p.  m.  The  upper  end  is  27  in.  high,  and  water  is  here  fed  in  by  a 
2*5-in.  nozzle.  After  washing,  the  mineral  is  placed  in  a  rotary  dryer,  36  in. 
diameter  by  36  ft.  long,  mounted  on  cast  rollers  16  in.  diameter,  and  re- 
volved by  an  encircling  sprocket  chain.  The  flue  end  is  6  in.  higher  than  the 
grate  end,  and  wood  is  used  for  fuel.  The  composition  of  the  crude  bauxite 
averages  Al^Og  62%,  Fe^Oa  15%,  SiO.  2%,  and  TiOj  2%,  The  water  is  driven 
oflf  by  heating  to  redness. 

On  account  of  its  freedom  from  iron  oxide,  the  greater  part  of  the  bauxite  pro- 
duced in  Alabama  and  Georgia  is  used  in  the  manufacture  of  alum  and  aluminum 
sulphate,  a  small  proportion  only  being  utilized  in  the  manufacture  of  aluminum. 
The  first  grade  product  is  valued  (f.  o.  b.)  at  $550,  and  the  second  grade  at 
$4*50  per  long  ton. 

S^'Htematic  prospecting  for  deposits  of  first  grade  ore  was  continued  over  the 


ALUMINUM  AND  ALUM,  18 

Georgia  area  during  1902,  and  a  number  of  deposits  not  sufficiently  exploited 
in  the  past  were  favorably  reported.  The  outlook,  however,  for  much  first 
grade  ore  in  the  Southern  Appalachian  field,  which  in  the  past  has  been  the 
principal  producer  on  the  continent,  is  by  no  means  encouraging,  and  much 
attention  is  at  present  being  directed  to  the  deposits  of  the  Arkansas  area.  The 
Appalachian  field  is  by  no  means  exhausted  of  bauxite  ores,  as  large  quantities 
of  low-grade  ore  are  abundant,  for  which  there  has  not  been  a  market  in  the  past, 
but  from  necessity  will  demand  serious  attention  in  the  near  future.  The  early 
exhaustion  of  the  first  grade  ore  in  the  Southern  Appalachian  field  was  predicted 
several  years  ago,  and  the  shortage  in  the  first  grade  ore  has  been  felt  to  some 
degree  during  the  year  1902  by  the  uniformly  higher  prices  over  those  of  the 
previous  year.  The  United  States  Government  ha«  made  appropriations  to 
dredge  the  Coosa  River  and  make  it  navigable  as  far  as  Rome,  eight  miles  from 
the  bauxite  deposits,  a  work  which  will  require  at  least  two  years  to  complete. 
Water. power  in  the  vicinity  of  Rome  to  the  extent  of  16,000  H.P.  is  available, 
throughout  the  entire  year,  and  it  is  within  the  range  of  possibility  that,  with 
+he  expiration  of  the  aluminum  patents  in  the  United  States  in  from  two  to  three 
years  (by  which  time  water  transportation  will  be  available),  establishments  for 
the  manufacture  of  aluminum  salts  and  even  the  metal  itself  will  be  erected  at 
or  near  Rome. 

New  deposits  of  bauxite  are  not  to  be  expected  beyond  the  limits  of  the  area 
already  defined.  A  brief  description  of  the  limits,  general  geology  and  mode  of 
occurrence  of  the  bauxite  deposits  of  the  Southern  Appalachian  region  is  given 
in  The  Mineral  Industry,  Vol.  X. 

Arhanms. — The  bauxite  industry  in  Arkansas  is  still  in  an  undeveloped  state, 
and  the  exploration  work  that  has  been  done  at  the  mines  at  Bauxite  is  not  suffi-- 
cient  to  determine  accurately  the  depth  or  quantity  of  ore  in  that  region  nor 
the  character  of  the  underlying  stratum.  The  deposit  differs  from  those  in 
Georgia  and  Alabama  in  that  the  material  occurs  in  narrow  veins,  thus  in- 
creasing the  cost  of  mining.  On  account  of  the  presence  of  iron  oxide,  which 
precludes  the  use  of  bauxite  for  the  manufacture  of  alum  and  aluminum  sul- 
phate, the  greater  part,  if  not  all  of  the  Arkansas  product  is  used  in  the  manu- 
facture of  aluminum  hydrate,  from  which  the  metal  aluminum-  is  made.  An 
analysis  of  the  commercial  product  is  reported  as  AI2O3  63%,  SiOg  2*25%, 
FegOg  1'95%,  H2O  31*5  to  32*75%.  This  composition  conforms  more  closelj- 
to  the  mineral  Gibbsite  (AI2O3.3H2O)  than  to  bauxite  (AI2O3.2H2O).  It  is 
estimated  that  the  extensive  deposits  contain  many  millions  of  tons  of  bauxite. 

The  new  plant  of  the  Pittsburg  Reduction  Co.,  at  Bauxite,  Saline  County,  is 
expected  to  be  completed  in  1903.  The  plant  is  designed  on  thoroughly  modem 
principles,  with  special  reference  to  the  mechanical  handling  of  the  material?, 
and  elevators,  conveyors  and  cars  replace  hand  labor  to  a  great  extent.  The 
furnace  equipment  consists  of  a  wood-fired  cylindrical  dryer  and  two  60-ft. 
rotary  calciners  fired  by  producer  gas  made  in  a  10X12-ft.  Duffs  water-sealed 
gas-producer.  The  plant  includes  a  machine  shop  for  building  tram  cars,  etc. ; 
a  sawmill  and  planing  mill  to  furnish  the  lumber  for  buildings,  more  than  30 
houses  for  the  workmen,  an  electric  light  plant  and  an  ice  plant  with  an  at- 


14 


THE  MINERAL  INDUSTRY, 


tached  cold  storage  room.  The  buildings  are  protected  with  standard  fire  plugs 
and  hose  well  situated. 

The  ore  is  ground  by  a  series  of  coarse  and  fine  crushers  and  handled  by 
elevators  and  conveyors  from  the  tram  cars,  which  bring  the  crude  ore  into  the 
works,  to  the  bins  where  it  is  stored  ready  for  shipment.  A  large  proportion 
of  the  ground  ore  is  calcined  direct,  the  smaller  quantity  being  washed  to  remove 
the  siliceous  gangue  and  subsequently  dried  before  calcination. 

The  new  refining  plant  of  the  Pittsburg  Reduction  Co.,  three  miles  from  East 
St.  Louis,  will  occupy  six  acres  of  ground  and  will  be  similar  to  the  works 
at  New  Kensington,  Pa.  It  is  stated  that  the  calcining  furnaces  at  the  latter 
plant  (eight  in  number)  will  be  removed  to  the  new  works  as  soon  as  the 
construction  is  completed,  probably  early  in  1903.  During  the  last  few  years 
crude  or  calcined  bauxite  ore  has  been  shipped  from  the  mines  to  the  New 
Kensington  plant  for  the  extraction  of  pure  aluminum  oxide,  which  was  sent 
to  Niagara  Falls  to  be  reduced  to  aluminum.  The  metal  was  then  sent  to  New 
Kensington  and  rolled  into  sheets  or  drawn  into  wire. 

The  Bayer  process  for  the  purification  of  bauxite  has  been  improved  in  various 
details,  and  now  yields  a  better  quality  of  aluminum  oxide  at  a  lesser  cost.  At 
the  new  East  St.  Louis  refining  plant  the  lime  process,  patented  by  Mr.  Hall, 
will  be  used,  and  at  the  Niagara  Falls  plant  an  electric  furnace  method  of 
purifying  bauxite  is  in  contemplation  which  may  still  further  reduce  the  cost 
of  manufacture  of  pure  aluminum  metal.  Additional  details  of  the  processes 
of  purification  of  bauxite  will  be  found  under  the  caption  "Aluminum,*'  given 
later  in  this  section;  also  in  previous  volumes  of  The  Mineral  Industry. 

The  World's  Production  of  Bauxite. 
The  world's  supply  of  bauxite  is  derived  chiefly  from  France,  Ireland  and  the 
United  States,  and  the  annual  production  from  1895  to  1901,  inclusive,  is  de- 
tailed in  the  subjoined  table: — 

production  of  bauxite  in  the  principal  countries  of  the  world. 

(in  metric  tons.) 


Country. 

1895. 

1806. 

1897. 

1808. 

1899 

1900. 

1901. 

France. 

17.058 
10.574 
19,101 

38,880 
7,866 
17.370 

41,740 
18,449 
20,919 

86.723 
12.fi00 
27,a» 

48.215 
S.l.W 
87,402 

68,580 

6,878 

88,566 

78,620 

United  Kinf^lom 

10,857 

United  States 

19,807 

Total 

47,638 

68,566 

76,108 

76,548 

98,754 

g7,«i9 

106,184 

France. — The  principal  bauxite  mines  are  in  the  south  of  France,  between  the 
town  of  Brignoles  (Var)  and  the  Department  of  the  Herault.  Formerly  the 
center  of  the  industry  was  at  the  town  of  Baux,  from  which  the  name  of  bauxite 
was  derived.  In  the  Department  of  the  Var  there  are  31  mines,  the  most  impor- 
tant being  at  Ampus,  Barjols,  Cabasse,  Carces,  Le  Cannet  du  Luc,  Le  Muy,  Tje 
Thorenet,  Tx)rgues,  Mazaugues,  Meounes,  Puget  sur  Argens,  Rougiers,  Tourves 
and  Vins. 

Three  varieties  of  bauxite  are  produced — ferruginous,  aluminous  and  spotted. 
There  is  but  little  demand  for  ferruginous  bauxite  on  account  of  the  high  con- 


ALUMINUM  AND  ALUM. 


16 


tent  of  iron  oxide,  which  in  some  cases  amounts  to  60%.  The  so-called  "alum- 
inous" variety  constitutes  the  highest  or  first  grade  product,  and  contains  more 
than  60%  AljOs  and  less  than  3%  SiO,.  It  is  delivered  at  Parabon  les  Baux 
station  at  a  price  of  15  fr.  per  metric  ton.  Spotted  bauxite  is  pink  or  violet  in 
color  and  occurs  at  Le  Val,  Le  Vins,  La  Brasque  and  St.  Christophe  in  the 
vicinity  of  Brignoles.  An  analysis  of  this  variety  yielded  AI2O3  63' 16%, 
FegO,  21'99%,  SiO^  0*26%,  TiO^  026%  and  H^O  12%.  With  silica  less  than 
3%  and  AljOj  greater  than  60%,  the  price  of  spotted  bauxite  delivered  at  Brig- 
noles  station  is  12  fr.  per  metric  ton;  freight  from  Brignoles  to  Marseilles  is 
4'2  fr.  per  ton,  loading  on  steamer,  1'35  fr.,  making  a  total  of  17*65  fr.  per  ton 
f.  0.  b.  Marseilles.     The  price  f.  o.  b.  St.  Raphael  is  17'1  fr.  per  ton. 

The  bauxite  deposits  of  Var  occur  in  two  synclinal  basins  extending  in  di- 
verging direction  westward  from  Cannet  du  Luc.  This  region  was  once  occu- 
pied by  lakes  in  which,  possibly  with  the  aid  of  hot  springs  and  geysers,  the 
bauxite  was  deposited.  The  completion  of  the  railroad  to  Bastide  de  Sevon, 
where  the  bauxite  mines  of  the  Compagnie  des  Phosphates  et  Bauxite  de  TAriege 
are  situated,  will  permit  the  increased  shipment  from  this  district.  Both  white 
and  red  varieties  are  mined,  of  an  average  content  of  65%  AI2O3,  the  silica  and 
iron  oxide  being  present  in  small  quantities  only.  During  1901,  the  exports  of 
bauxite  from  Var  through  St.  Raphael  amounted  to  43,700  metric  tons,  as  com- 
pared with  24,656  metric  tons  in  1900.  The  first  shipments  of  bauxite  from. 
Toulon  amounted  to  several  hundred  tons  in  1901,  and  the  exports  of  bauxite 
from  Cette  were  1,675  tons,  as  compared  with  353  tons  in  1900. 

Germany  has  hitherio  been  the  chief  purchaser  of  red  and  white  bauxite,  the 
former  containing  a  smaller  proportion  of  alumina,  but  the  trial  shipments  of 
1,700  tons  of  the  spotted  variety  to  Boston,  Mass.,  in  December,  1901,  is  expected 
to  develop  a  market  in  the  United  States,  especially  for  consumption  in  the 
Eastern  States,  where,  by  reason  of  the  high  railroad  freight  rates  from  Georgia 
and  Alabama,  the  French  bauxite  can  be  delivered  at  seaboard  cities  (including 
the  duty  of  $1  per  shori;  ton)  at  a  lesser  cost  than  for  the  domestic  ore. 

Italy. — (By  Giovanni  Aichino.) — The  deposits  of  bauxite  recently  discovered 
in  the  central  Apennine  district  were  not  mined  during  1902,  although  a  small 
amount  of  exploratory  work  was  made  at  Pescolido,  near  Sora,  on  the  left  side 
of  the  Lori  Valley  at  a  short  distance  from  the  Rociasecca-Avezzano  branch  of  the 
Roma-Napoli  and  Roma-Sulmona  railways.  The  latter  deposit  is  similar  to  that 
of  Leccene  'Marsi.^ 

The  following  analyses  have  been  reported  by  E.  Mattirolo,  of  the  Chemical 
Laboratory  of  the  Royal  Board  of  Mines  Geological  Survey : — 


Components. 


H,0 

H^  (combined).. 

Tio!.*.'.'.V.V.V.V.V. 

^-:::::::- 

AlaC 


Total. 


No.  1. 

No.  2. 

Xo.  8. 

% 

% 

% 

105 

0-86 

\'9\ 

11-48 

12-25 

11-72 

5-7C     i 

2  62     1 
1-27     f 

4-68 

26-60     I 

94-12     t 
0-71     1 

24-68 

55-89 

58-40 

57-83 

00-82 

100-13 

00-62 

»  Tn::  Mikbral  IWDUSTnY,  Vol.  X.,  p.  14. 


16 


THE  MINERAL  INDUSTRY, 


As  far  as  known  the  published  analyses  of  the  Italian  bauxites  have  an  alumina 
content  varying  from  47*4  to  58-9%.  The  large  quantity  of  iron  oxide  present, 
which  has  not  been  found  less  than  18%  FcjOj,  is  a  serious  drawback  to  the 
commercial  development  of  the  mines.  It  must  be  noted,  however,  that  a  careful 
study  of  the  deposits  has  not  yet  been  made.  The  occurrence  of  bauxite  contain- 
ing from  51*13  to  57*62%  AI2O3  is  reported  in  the  Province  of  Apullia  in 
Southern  Italy. 

II.   Corundum  and  Emsby. 

The  production  of  corundum  and  emery  and  the  imports  of  emiEfry  in  the 
United  States  during  the  past  four  years  are  given  in  the  subjoined  tables : — 

PRODUCTION    OF   CORUNDUM    AND   EMERY   IN   THE    UNITED   STATES. 


SalMtMIM. 

1898. 

1900. 

1901. 

1908. 

T6118. 
(6) 

Value, 
(a) 

Per 
Tan. 

Tons, 
(ft) 

Value, 
(a) 

Per 
Ton. 

T6n8. 
(6) 

Value. 
(a> 

Per 
Ton. 

Tons. 
(6) 

Valna. 
(a) 

Per 

Too. 

ConiDdum 

Emorr 

970 
887 

$78,670 
160,000 
47,850 

$81  00 
6000 
140-81 

880 

4,800 

846 

$68,100 
188,000 
48,800 

$7000 
45-00 
14000 

4.806 
886 

$148,040 
49,700 

$87-40 
14000 

(0 
888 

•96,186 
61,460 

Steel  emeiy. 

$140«00 

Total 

4,887 

$875,880 

6,875 

$896,400 

4,680 

$196,740 

1148,686 

(a)  The  yalues  are  baaed  on  the  prices  at  the  mines,  but  except  in  the  case  of  steel  emery  are  of  slight  8lg« 
niflcanoe  owing  to  the  great  range  between  the  different  grades  of  the  minerals.  The  chuiges  in  the  annual 
averages  do  not  indicate  fluctuations  in  market  quotations  so  much  as  changes  in  the  proportion  of  different 
grades  of  mineral  in  the  total.    (6)  8,000  lb.    (c)  The  quantity  of  emery  produced  was  8,497  short  toi 

IMPORTS    OF    EMERY    INTO    THE    UNITED   STATES. 


Year. 

Gntfais. 

Ore  or  Rock. 

Other 
MTm. 

Total 

Year. 

Grains. 

Ore  or  Bock. 

Other 
MTrs. 

Total 

Pounds 

Value. 

Tons. 

Value. 

Value. 

Pounds. 

Value 

Long 
Tons. 

Value. 

Value. 

Value. 

1896.. 
1898.. 
1807.. 
1898.. 

878,781 
761,484 
680,096 
677,866 

$86,068 

^'532 
80.raB 
88,880 

8,808 
0.889 
6,809 
6,647 

880,886 
119.687 
107,649 
108,889 

27,686 
1.971 
8,811 
8,810 

$188,088 
148,168 
189,888 
188,899 

1899. 
1900. 
1901. 
1902. 

788,899 

661.488 

1,118,789 

1,866,787 

189,184 
88,680 
48,807 
60,079 

7,486 
11,888 
18,441 

7^186 

Wl 

$11,614 
10.006 
10,987 
18,778 

$167,181 
889,608 
894,990 
886,814 

Progress  op  the  Corundum  and  Emery  Industry  during  1902. 
By  Joseph  Hyde  Pratt. 

There  are  few  changes  to  be  noted  in  the  corundum  and  emery  industry  dur- 
ing 1902,  and  none  of  these  is  of  special  importance.  The  principal  change  is, 
perhaps,  the  incorporation  of  the  Blue  Corundum  Mining  Co.,  which  now  owns 
mines  at  Chester,  Mass.,  and  at  Peekskill,  N.  Y.,  and  at  the  present  time  controls 
the  larger  proportion  of  the  emery  produced  in  this  country.  The  company, 
however,  is  doing  but  little  with  the  development  of  the  corundum  deposits  in 
the  United  States,  although  it  has  done  extensive  work  on  the  deposits  of  this 
mineral  near  Conhemere,  Ontario,  Canada. 

The  Montana  Corundum  Co.  continued  development  work  on  its  deposits  near 
Saleville,  Mont.,  and  the  Bozeman  Corundum  Co.  was  engaged  in  exploring  the 
Blankenship  property  near  Bozeman.  A  detailed  account  of  the  year's  progress 
in  Montana  will  be  found  later  in  this  section. 

Tn  North  Carolina,  the  North  Carolina  Comndnm  Co.  has  continued  operations 


ALVMINUM  AND  ALUM.  17 

(luring  1902  with  the  result  that  it  has  fblt  warranted  in  installing  a  complete 
mill  for  treating  the  ore  and  preparing  the  product  for  the  market.  Its  property 
adjoins  the  noted  Buck  Creek  mine,  formerly  owned  by  the  International  Emery 
&  Corundum  Co. ;  .the  corundum  occurring  in  the  same  general  formation  as 
that  in  the  Buck  Creek  mine.  Formerly  corundum  from  this  locality  had  to  bo 
hauled  a  distance  of  from  35  to  40  miles  to  the  railroad,  but  it  can  now  be  landed 
at  the  railroad,  a  distance  of  18  miles  over  a  new  road  that  has  been  built 
from  the  mine.  This  company  reports  that  it  will  begin  shipping  corundum  early 
in  1903.  While  prospecting  was  being  carried  on  in  this  vicinity  a  mass  of  solid 
yellow  corundum  was  found  weighing  125  lb.,  which  was  taken  to  Pittsburg, 
Pa.,  by  Mr.  Hugh  Ferguson.  The  other  localities  in  the  southern  field  where 
any  considerable  work  has  been  done  are  the  Corundum  Hill  mine  at  Cullasaja, 
Macon  County,  N.  C,  and  the  deposits  near  Tate,  Towns  County,  Qa.  The 
work  done  at  both  places  was  less,  than  that  of  the  year  before,  and  has  lately  been 
entirely  abandoned.    "^ 

The  Canadian  corundum  deposits  have  produced  the  largest  quantity  of  co- 
rundum during  1902,  and  the  results  obtained  by  the  Canada  Corundum  Co.  at 
the  Craig  mine,  Raglan  Township,  Ont.,  have  been  most  encouraging.  Its 
successful  work  has  stimulated  considerable  prospecting  for  this  mineral  through- 
out the  Province,  and  there  are  now  a  number  of  companies  that  have  been 
formed  to  develop  corundum  mines.  The  Canada  Corundum  Co.  has  made 
a  decided  increase  in  production  over  that  in  1901.  The  capacity  of  the  mill 
has  been  enlarged,  and  the  company  is  now  the  largest  producer  of  corundum 
(exclusive  of  emerv)  in  the  world.  The  experimental  work  in  cleaning  the 
corundum  has  resulted  very  favorably,  so  that  now  the  product  marketed  is  of 
high  grade  and  is  giving  good  satisfaction.  Further  details  of  the  corundum 
deposits  in  Canada  are  given  later  in  this  section. 

There  has  been  an  increased  production  of  emery  from  the  Peekskill,  N.  Y., 
mines,  while  the  Chester,  Mass.,  deposits  have  not  been  operated  as  extensively 
as  in  former  years.  Thus,  although  there  has  been  an  increasing  demand  for 
emery  and  corundum,  there  has  been  quite  h  decrease  in  the  production  in  the 
United  States,  with  a  corresponding  increase  in  the  importation  of  emery  and  co- 
rundum, the  former  being  obtained  from  Naxos,  in  the  Grecian  Archipelago,  and 
from  Turkey;  and  the  latter  principally  from  Canada  with  a  much  smaller 
quantity  from  India. 

The  foreign  emery  is  imported  in  the  crude  state,  and  can  be  landed  on  the 
docks  in  New  York  or  Boston  as  cheap,  if  not  cheaper,  than  the  American 
emery.  There  have  been  several  new  companies  organized  who  are  importing 
emery  and  preparing  it  for  market.  The  Canadian  corundum  is  imported  as 
the  commercial  product  ready  for  manufacture  into  wheels.  The  manufacture 
of  artificial  corundum  and  carborundum  affects  the  production  of  corundum  and 
omer>'  to  some  extent,  but  not  equal  to  the  total  quantity  of  these  artificial 
abrasives  that  are  manufactured.  These  artificial  abrasives  enter  more  into 
competition  with  the  corundum  than  with  the  emery.  With  the  price  of  co- 
rundum from  8  to  10c.  per  lb.,  there  will  be  but  little  tendency  for  it  to  cut  into 
the  emery  market,  but  if  the  price  ia  lowered  to  5c.,  it  will  replace  a  large  amount 


18  THB  MINERAL  INDU8TRT, 

of  emery.    A  decrease  in  price  to  6c.  per  lb.,  would  prevent  the  operation  of 
some  of  the  mines  that  are  now  being  developed. 

The  production  of  corundum  and  emery  in  the  United  States  in  1902  was  less 
than  that  in  1901,  which  is  not  due  to  a  lessened  demand  for  these  minerals,  but 
to  the  close  competition  with  foreign  emery,  and  to  an  uncertainty  regarding  the 
price  and  market  for  corundum.  There  is  still  too  mjuch  tendency  on  the  part 
of  the  producer  to  believe  that  the  market  for  corundum  and  emery  is  practically 
unlimited,  for  when  it  is  considered  that  the  total  amount  of  tGese  abrasives  used 
in  the  United  States  in  1901  was  only  about  16,000  tons,  it  can  readily  be  under- 
stood how  easily  the  market  can  be  flooded.  This  would  mean  a  drop  in  prices, 
which  would  be  disastrous  to  many  companies. 

Montana, — (By  Leverett  S.  Ropes.) — ^The  discovery  of  corundum  in  Mon- 
tana reported  in  Thb  Mineral  Industby,  Vol.  X.,  was  followed  by  encouraging 
developments  during  1902,  which  promise  a  permanent  supply  of  high-grade 
product  from  this  source.  The  mine  of  the  Montana  Corundum  Co.  has  been 
placed  on  a  producing  basis,  and  the  [Blankenship  and  Anceny  properties  have 
been  prospected  with  favorable  results.  The  mines  and  prospects  are  situated 
in  the  central  belt  of  gneiss  shown  on  the  Three  Forks  Folio  of  the  U.  S.  Geologi- 
cal Survey,  one  property  lying  to  the  east  and  the  others  to  the  west  of  the  Ells 
Creek  fault.  The  geological  formation  is  syenite  overlain  by  beds  of  homblendic 
rock  and  heavy  quartz  reefs  which  may  represent  metamorphosed  sediments  of 
Pre-Cambrian  age.  Near  the  boundary  of  the  syenite,  the  corundum  is  found  in 
what  appear  to  be  veins,  although  they  may  represent  thin  intrusions,  as  the 
walls  show  the  effects  of  great  heat.  The  walls  are  usually  well  defined  and 
bear  evidence  of  having  been  subj&jted  to  considerable  movement.  On  the 
property  of  the  Montana  Co.  the  vein  strikes  S.  39®  W.  with  a  dip  of  from 
42®  to  50®  N.,  while  at  the  Anceny  prospect  the  strike  is  a  little  south  of  east 
and  the  dip  45®  south.  The  hanging  wall  is  the  same  for  both  veins,  thus  indi- 
cating that  they  occur  in  the  wings  of  a  sjmclinal  fold.  The  Montana  Corundum 
Co.  began  developing  its  property  in  the  early  part  of  1901,  and  by  the  close  of 
the  following  year  had  opened  up  a  large  supply  of  ore.  A  mill  was  erected 
during  1902,  but  the  work  was  so  delayed  that  active  operations  were  not  at- 
tempted until  the  beginning  of  1903,  when  the  plant  was  started  on  a  run  of 
eight  hours  per  day,  giving  an  output  of  20  tons  of  graded  concentrates.  The 
mill  equipment  consists  of  a  10X16-in.  Blake  crusher  delivering  to  a  belt  con- 
veyor that  carries  the  crushed  product  to  a  100-ton  storage  bin  in  the  main  mill. 
From  here  the  ore  passes  through  a  set  of  27X14.in.  New  Standard  rolls,  and  is 
then  passed  over  three  vibratory  screens  of  8-,  6-,  and  3-nun.  mesh,  the  over- 
sizes  returning  to  the  rolls.  The  undersizes  are  treated  in  3  two-compartment 
jigs  from  which  the  product  is  elevated  to  a  storage  bin  over  a  second  set  of 
rolls,  after  passing  which  it  goes  to  a  Pratt-Wethey  separator  with  2'5-mm. 
screens.  The  oversize  is  returned  to  the  rolls,  while  the  undersize  passes  directly 
to  a  muller,  which  is  continuous  in  its  action.  From  the  muUer  both  overflow 
and  spigot  products  are  sent  to  a  hydraulic  classifier  making  three  products,  two 
of  which  pass  to  rubber-top  Bartlett  tables,  and  the  third  to  the  tailings  pond. 
The  tables  bring  the  concentrates  to  the  required  degree  of  purity,  and  the 


AL  UMIN  UM  AND  AL  UM,  19 

latter  are  then  fed  to  a  revolving  dryer.  From  this  storage  bin  the  concentrates 
are  fed  to  the  "splitter,"  a  form  of  reciprocating  screen  having  four  60X30-in. 
wire  or  silk  coverings,  which  make  five  sizes.  The  four  coarser  sizes  pass  to 
similar  machines  (graders)  while  the  fines  are  run  through  180-mesh  silk. 
The  graders  have  a  48X40-in.  covering,  and  make  four  sizes  each  or  16  in  all, 
which  are  weighed  into  100  lb.  canvas  bags  ready  for  the  market.  The  results 
of  practical  tests  of  Montana  corundum  have  been  favorable,  and  there  is  little 
doubt  but  that  it  will  find  a  good  demand  in  the  Eastern  markets. 

Canada, — (Through  the  courtesy  of  B.  A.  C.  Craig.) — During  1902  the  Canada 
Corundum  Co.  produced  796  tons  of  grain  corundum,  and  the  Ontario  Corundum 
Co.,  a  branch  of  the  Levant  Emery  Co.,  for  a  short  period  shipped  a  daily  aver- 
age of  two  tons  of  ore  to  its  works  at  Chester,  Mass.  The  demand  for  the  Cana- 
dian product  has  proved  very  satisfactory,  and  the  industry  is  now  firmly  estab- 
lished upon  a  commercial  basis.  A  considerable  increase  in  the  output  is  ex- 
pected in  1903,  as  the  Canada  Corundum  Co.  has  a  new  mill  under  construction 
which,  when  completed  in  September,  1903,  will  handle  from  200  to  300  tons 
of  ore  per  day. 

There  are  three  distinct  corundum-bearing  areas  in  Ontario.  Of  these  the 
most  northerly  extends  for  a  distance  of  about  70  miles  from  Haliburton  County 
eastward  along  the  boundary  between  Hastings  and  Renfrew  counties,  and  has 
an  average  width  of  two  miles.  It  contains  a  number  of  very  large  deposits. 
South  of  this  area,  in  Frontenac  and  Lanark  counties,  there  is  a  second  belt 
about  15  miles  long  by  one-fourth  mile  in  width,  which  includes  two  deposits 
of  some  size.  The  third  area,  known  as  the  Burleigh-Methuen  belt,  lies  south- 
west of  the  first  in  Peterboro  County.  It  contains  no  deposits  of  economic 
importance.  The  corundum  is  associated  with  syenite  dikes,  whose  relations  to 
the  surrounding  rock  have  not  been  definitely  determined.  The  dikes  occasion- 
ally rise  into  hills  of  considerable  size,  and  it  is  in  these  localities  that  the  richer 
deposits  are  found.  Craig  Mine  Mountain,  which  is  the  property  of  the  Canada 
Corundum  Co.,  is  a  hill  about  540  ft.  high  and  a  mile  in  length.  The  whole 
hill  consists  of  eruptive  rock,  more  or  less  laminated  with  the  planes  of  schistosity 
dipping  30**  southward.  The  open-cut  workings  have  exposed  the  corundum- 
bearing  dike  for  a  distance  of  from  40  to  72  ft.  across  the  strike,  but  without 
reaching  its  limits. 

In  the  new  mill  of  the  Canada  Corundum  Co.  the  ore  will  be  conveyed  by  tram- 
way to  a  450-ton  ore  bin.  After  passing  through  a  15X24-in.  Blake  crusher,  it 
will  go  to  a  series  of  three  crushers — ^two  6X20-in.  Blake  crushers  and  one 
6X21-in.  Gates  crusher.  From  the  second  bin  the  ore  will  pass  through  two 
trommels,  and  will  then  be  fed  to  four  sets  of  14X4p-in.  rolls  of  extra  heavy  con- 
struction, after  which  it  will  be  elevated  and  passed  through  10  trommels  for 
sizing.  The  different  sizes  will  be  fed  to  separate  Overstrom  and  Wilfley  tables, 
numbering  20  in  all.  The  middlings  are  to  be  treated  on  six  additional  tables, 
while  the  concentrates  will  be  carried  to  bins  for  draining  and  then  passed  through 
cylindrical  dryers.  The  concentrates  after  drying  will  be  conveyed  to  the  grader 
room  and  passed  through  magnetic  separators,  splitters  and  graders.  Three  ad- 
ditional concentrating  tables  and  two  Hooper  pneumatic  jigs  will  be  placed  in 


20  THE  MINERAL  INDUSTBT, 

the  grader  room  for  reconcentrating  any  size  that  may  be  found  impure.  Power 
will  be  furnished  by  three  150-H.P.  boilers  and  two  engines  aggregating  625  H.P. 

Emebt. — Greece, — The  emery  deposits  on  the  Island  of  Naxos  are  mined 
by  the  natives  under  the  control  of  the  Grecian  Government,  which  purchases 
the  crude  product  at  2'5  fr.  ($0*48)  per  long  cwt.  (112  lb.).  The  ore  is  shipped 
to  the  adjacent  island  of  Syra  at  the  expense  of  the  Government,  and  is  there 
sold  at  106*5  fr.  ($20*55)  per  metric  ton.  The  alumina  content  of  the  Naxos 
emery  is  sometimes  as  high  as  60%.  The  exports  of  Naxos  emery  during  1901 
were  5,691  metric  tons,  valued  at  $121,215,  as  compared  with  6,328  metric  tons, 
valued  at  $134,160  in  1900.  Of  the  annual  output  of  Naxos  emery,  the 
United  States  consumes  about  25%,  the  balance  being  shipped  to  Europe.  The 
Naxos  emery  mines  have  never  been  leased.  Two  years  ago  an  American  com- 
.pany  endeavored  to  secure  a  monopoly  of  the  industry  by  offering  the  Grecian 
Government  an  agreement  to  purchase  7,000  tons  of  emery  per  year  for  10  years 
at  106*5  fr.  ($20*55)  per  ton.     The  negotiations,  however,  failed. 

Turkey. — The  deposits  of  emery  in  Turkey  are  scattered  along  the  coast  of 
the  Mediterranean  and  adjacent  islands.  The  principal  mines  are  at  Baltizik, 
Azizieh,  Cosbounar,  and  Kuluk,  near  Smyrna.  The  Turkish  Government  owns  a 
few  of  the  mines,  but  many  are  owned  and  operated -by  local  companies  and 
individuals.  The  mined  ore  is  hand-picked  before  shipment,  and  is  never 
crushed  or  washed.  The  corundum  found  in  the  Turkish  emery  varies  from 
40  to  57%  AlyOg,  with  the  exception  of  Kuluk  ore,  which  is  said  to  contain 
37%  AI2O3.  The  Kuluk  emery  is  brought  down  from  the  neighboring  mountains 
by  camels  and  is  shipped  at  a  price  f.  0.  b.  Kiihik  of  $10Ca$12  per  ton.  The 
total  annual  exports  of  Smyrna  emery  range  from  1 7,000  to  20,000  tons,  of  which 
about  10,000  tons  are  shipped  to  America,  the  balance  going  to  Europe.  During 
1901  the  value  of  the  quantity  of  emery  exported  amounted  to  $205,140.  The 
price  of  Smyrna  emery  varies  with  the  quality  from  $14(irr$20  per  ton  f.  0.  b. 
Smyrna.  It  is  reported  that  emery  cannot  be  produced  f.  0.  b.  Smyrna  for  less 
than  $12*50  per  ton. 

Emery  Wheel  Manufacture. — The  Norton  Emery  Wheel  Co.,  of  Worcester, 
Mass.  (the  largest  abrasive  wheel  concern  in  the  world)  has  erected  an  extensive 
plant  at  Niagara  Falls,  N.  Y.,  and  since  the  latter  part  of  1902  this  company 
has  been  manufacturing  artificial  corundum  from  bauxite,  which  is  claimed  to 
possess  superior  abrasive  qualities,  exceeding  carborundum  both  in  toughness  and 
cutting  efficiency.  The  new  abrasive  is  known  as  "alurundum,"  and  is  made  in  a 
manner  similar  to  the  process  used  for  the  manufacture  of  carborundum,  the  im- 
purities being  reduced  and  volatilized  by  the  heat  of  the  electric  furnace.  The  re- 
sultant alumina  is  obtained  in  a  molten  condition  and  assays  985%  AI2O3.  It  is 
reported  that  this  abrasive  can  be  produced  at  a  cost  less  than  that  of  either  na- 
tural corundum  or  carborundum.  The  method  of  treatment  is  as  follows:  The 
bauxite  is  charged  into  the  upper  end  of  a  coal-fired  calcining  furnace,  and  the 
calcined  product  when  cool  is  charged  into  electric  furnaces  using  500  H.P.  When 
the  material  becomes  molten  two  carbon  electrodes  are  dipped  into  the  bath  and 
fresh  supplies  of  bauxite  are  add(»d  from  time  to  time  as  the  contents  become 
melted.    When  the  operation  is  completed  the  electrodes  are  removed  and  the 


ALUMINUM  AND  ALUM. 


21 


molten  material  allowed  to  cool  in  the  furnaces  for  from  three  to  four  hours, 
after  which  the  solidified  mass  is  removed  and  placed  on  the  floor  for  further 
cooling.  The  mass  is  then  coarsely  broken  and  shipped  to  the  main  works  at 
Worcester.  The  product  is  flinty  in  appearance  and  contains  at  times  beautiful 
small  crystals  of  pure  alumina  resembling  sapphire  and  ruby.  In  fact  these  are 
artificial  gems  but  are  too  small  in  size  to  possess  any  economic  value. 

The  plant  of  the  Hampden  Corundum  Wheel  Co.  at  Springfield,  Mass.,  which 
was  destroyed  by  fire  in  1901,  has  been  thoroughly  rebuilt  with  special  reference 
to  the  replacement  of  hand  labor  by  mechanical  devices  to  transport  the  material 
in  the  works  during  treatment.  Down-draft  kilns  are  used  liaving  the  top  in  the 
form  of  a  flattened  dome  which  is  utilized  as  a  drying  floor  during  the  firing. 
The  wheels  to  be  burned  are  packed  in  fire  brick  boxes  and  are  surrounded  with 
coarse  emery  or  corundum  in  place  of  quartz  formerly  used  for  this  purpose; 
this  method  not  only  saves  the  expense  of  the  quartz  supply,  but,  in  addition, 
the  heat  otherwise  lost  is  utilized  to  burn  the  crude  material.  The  general  ar- 
rangement of  the  new  plant  is  as  follows:  The  crude  ore  is  crushed  in  the 
crusher  room  and  distributed  to  the  grading  room,  where  it  is  washed,  dried  and 
elevated  to  the  molding  room,  where  the  wheels  are  fashioned  by  hand  or  hy- 
draulic press.  The  molding  room  is  directly  below  the  grading  room,  and  the 
wheels  when  molded  are  conveyed  to  the  drying  room  directly  above  the  kilns 
and  dried.  They  are  then  placed  in  the  kilns  and  burned.  The  fired  wheels 
are  dressed  and  hubbed  in  the  turning  room;  and  when  finished  are  carried  to 
the  stock  room  and  stored  ready  for  shipment. 


III.    Cryolite. 

The  imports  of  cryolite  into  the  United  States  continue  to  be  derived  from 
the  mines  in  Greenland,  and  the  statistics  of  quantity  and  value  since  1891  are 
given  in  the  subjoined  table.  These  shipments  were  made  by  the  Pennsylvania 
Salt  Manufacturing  Co.,  of  Natrona,  Pa.,  which  possesses  the  exclusive  privilege 
to  import  this  mineral  into  North  and  South  America.  The  remainder  of  the 
output  of  the  Ivigtut  mines  is  shipped  to  Copenhagen. 

IMPORTS  OF  CRYOLITE   INTO  THE   UNITED   STATES   FROM    1891    TO    1902, 

INCLUSIVE.       (fl) 


Year. 

Long  Tons. 

Value. 

Year. 

Long  Tbns. 

Value. 

Year. 

1897.. 
1808.. 
1809.. 

Long  Tons. 

Value. 

$186,114 
88.501 
78,878 

Year. 

Long  Tons. 

Value. 

1801.. 
1808.. 
1808.. 

8,808 
9^4 

$70,860 
08,088 
188,888 

1804.. 
1005.. 
1808.. 

10,684 
0.486 
8,000 

$148,404 
40,066 

10,115 
6,201 
5,870 

1000.. 
1001.. 
1008.. 

5,187 
5,383 
6,188 

$78,768 

70,886 
86.640 

(a)  The  Talues  are  those  reported  by  the  Custom  Houae  and  represent  the  estimated  cost  at  the  mines. 
There  being  no  United  States  Consul  at  shipping  point  in  Greenland,  a  pro  forma  Invoice  is  prep'annl  for 
Custom  Houae  purposes,  wherein  the  value  represents  only  a  small  part  of  the  actual  cost  at  buyers*  factory. 


The  value  of  cryolite  in  the  United  States  is  stated  to  be  $80  per  ton  of 
2,240  lb.,  and  results  from  the  following  items:  Cost  at  the  mine  in  Greenland, 
royalty  to  Danish  Government,  ocean  freight,  inland  or  domestic  freight,  cost 
of  separating  the  pure  cryolite,  grinding  and  packing  in  barrels,  and  other  minor 
expenses. 

According  to  a  report  furnished  by  the  Danish  Government  the  total  output 


22 


THE  MINERAL  MDUSTBT. 


of  cryolite  from  the  mines  at  Ivigtut,  Greenland,  was  8,960  metric  tons  in  1900, 
and  7,997  metric  tons  in  1901.  An  article  on  sodium  fluoride  will  be  found  in 
the  section  on  "Fluorspar,*'  later  in  this  volume. 

IV.    Aluminum. 

The  production  of  aluminum  in  the  United  States  continues  to  be  supplied 
by  the  sole  producer,  the  Pittsburg  Reduction  Co.,  of  Niagara  Falls,  N.  Y.,  and 
during  1902  the  quantity  produced  was  7,300,000  lb.  as  compared  with  7,150,000 
lb.  in  1901.  The  demand  for  the  light  metal  in  the  electrical  trade,  particularly 
for  purposes  of  electric  current  conduction,  and  in  the  metal  trade  as  a  substitute 
for  zinc  and  brass,  continues  to  be  large.  The  details  of  the  production  and 
prices  of  aluminum  together  with  its  utilization,  properties^  etc.,  will  be  found 
in  the  special  review  of  progress  in  the  aluminum  industry  during  1902  which  is 
given  later  in  this  section. 

The  subjoined  tables  give  the  production,  imports  and  exports  of  aluminum 
in  the  United  States  and  other  of  the  principal  countries  in  the  world  from 
1898  to  1902  inclusive. 

PRODUCTION,  IMPORTS,  AND  CONSUMPTION  OF  ALUMINUM  IN  THE  UNITED  STATES. 


YeftT 


1896. 
1899. 
1900. 
1901., 
1902., 


Production. 

Imports.  (6) 

Pounds. 

Value, 

Per  Lb. 

Value. 

5,200,000 
6,500,000 
7,150,000 
7,160.000 
7,800,000 

$1,690,000 
8,118,600 
3,288,000 
2,238.000 
2,284,690 

$0-88S 
0-825 
082 
0-81 
0-318 

14,879 

14,840 

47,688 

104.168 

215,082 

Exports. 


Value. 


$238,997 
291,515 
281,821 
183,579 
116,068 


Consump- 
tion, (a) 


Value. 


$1,454,882 
1,886,825 
2,063,847 
8,168,589 
8,888,570 


(a)  The  consumption  each  year  includes  a  certain  amount  of  manufactures  Imported;  whfle  the  production 
represents  the  crude  aluminum  only.    (6)  The  bullc  of  the  imports  is  iu  crude  oonoition. 

The  statistics  of  aluminum  production  in  Europe  are  not  authoritative,  several 
of  the  important  companies  being  unwilling  to  make  their  figures  public.  The 
Metallgesellschaft,  of  Frankfort-on-Main,  gives  the  following  statistics  for 
Europe  in  its  last  annual  report,  to  which  we  have  added  our  own  figures  for  the 
United  States,  the  official  figures  for  France,  and  those  of  C.  Le  Neve  Foster  for 
England  previous  to  1900. 

ALUMINUM:  world's  PRODUCTION  AND  COMMERCE.       (iN  KILOGRAMS.; 


Germany. 

Svritzerland. 

England. 

France. 

United  States,  (a) 

Total 

Year. 

Imports. 

Profluc 
lion. 

Exports. 

Produc- 
tion. 

Prrxhic- 
t.on. 

Imports. 

Exports. 

Produc- 
tion. 

Imports. 

Produc- 
tion. 

1897.. 
1808.. 
1899.. 
1900.. 
1901.. 

942,400 

1,104,000 

922,000 

948,400 

1,089,000 

800,000 

800,000 

1,800.000 

2,600,000 

2,600,000 

706,000 
677.800 
604.200 
671,200 
604,100 

Il.il.i 

470,000 

565.000 

763,000 

1,026,000 

1,200,000 

6.860 
5,972 
8,468 
8,800 
11,400 

224,000 
187,956 
256,242 
828,700 
806,600 

llii 

854 

27 

84,828 

116,858 

866,096 

8,894,448 

4,083.706 
6.570,889 
7,888,178 

7,sn,2ii 

(a)  The  United  States  has  been  an  exporter  of  aluminum  for  several  years,  but  these  exportations  were  not 
enumerated  by  the  Bureau  of  Statistics  of  the  Treasury  Department  until  1896,  In  which  year  they  amounted 
to  $299,997.    (6)  C.  Le  Neve  Foster,  BriUsh  Mineral  Statistics  for  1897. 

United  States  Duty. — The  duty  on  aluminum  imported  into  the  United  States 
is  8c.  per  lb.  on  ingot  metal  and  13c.  per  lb.  on  sheet  and  manufactured  metal. 


ALUMINUM  AND  ALUM, 


Progress  in  the  Aluminum  Industry  in  1902. 
By  John  B.  C.  Kershaw. 
Production. 

The  number  of  works  actually  producing  aluminum  has  not  beem  increased 
during  1902  and  the  following  table  from  The  Mineral  Industry,  Vol.  X.,  p. 
21,  still  represents  the  production  side  of  the  industry: — 

TABLE  I. — details   OF  ALUMINUM   WORKS   IN   EUROPE   AND  AMERICA. 


Name  of  Company. 

Locality  of  Works. 

Horse  Power. 

Process. 

Capital. 

i 

Available 

InUae.(a) 

\ 

The  Plttsburir  Reduction  Co 

Niagara  Falls 

}  10,000  { 

6,000 
6,000 
6,000 
2,000 

4,000 

6,000 

(?) 

HaU \ 

HaU f 

Hall .  

2 

The  Pittsbunr  Reduction  Co          

Nlaeara  Fulls 

31«000,000 

8 

The  Pittsbunr  Reduction  Co.  (6> 

Shawinigan  Falls.. 
Foyers 

6,000 
14,000 
12,600 

6,000 

4,000 
5,000 
5,000 

4 

Tlie  Britiiih  ^uminium  Co 

Heroult. 

Heroult..  ... 
HaU&Minet. 

Heroult....' 
Heroult... 
Heroult..... 

$3.r60,001 

5 

Soci6t6  Electro-MetallurKlQue  Franoaise... 

Oompafcnto  des  Produits  Chimiques  d* Alais. 

Society  Anonyme  pour  rlndustrie  de 

rAlnnifnium. .,-..»..»».»-...-  .T , t-- 

LePraz 

2,680,000 

6 

7 

St  Michel 

i  Neuhausen 

[Rhelnfelden 

[Lend  Qastein.... 

8 

Soci6t6  Anonyme  pour  Plndustrie  de 
r  Aluminium ................  r  ^  -  - 1-- 1 .....  - 

|8,0r7,000 

9 

Soci6t6  Anonyme  pour  rlndustrie  de 

Y  fi\\\m\TA\\Tn 

(a)  With  tbo  exception  of  the  American  and  Canadian  worlcs,  all  these  works  manufacture  other  products 
In  addition  to  aluminunL   (6)  The  Royal  Aluminum  Co. 

The  power  available  for  the  reduction  of  aluminum  in  these  nine  factories, 
lies  between  36,000  and  40,000  H.P.,  but  other  products  are  made  in  several 
of  the  European  factories,  and  the  total  power  available  is  no  criterion  of  that 
actually  in  use  for  aluminum  production.  The  maximum  output  of  the  metal 
possible  with  the  present  installations  of  plant,  would  be  about  11,500  tons, 
per  annum,  but  it  will  be  some  years  before  this  total  is  attained.  Official  fig- 
ures for  the  aluminum  production  in  Europe,  in  the  years  1901  and  1902  are 
again  withheld,  but  there  have  been  indications  that  during  1902,  the  leading 
European  companies  have  curtailed  production,  in  order  to  work  oflF  the  accu- 
mulation of  stocks,  resulting  from  over-production  in  previous  years. 

The  Neuhausen  company  has  declined  to  provide  any  figures  for  publication, 
and  one  can  only  base  an  estimate  on  the  last  pub.ished  return — ^namely  2,500 
tons  for  the  year  1900.  Probably  this  total  is  greater  than  the  output  of  the 
three  works  of  this  company  situated  at  Neuhausen,  Rheinfelden  and  Lend 
Gastien  during  the  years  1901  and  1902. 

With  regard  to  the  output  in  France,  M.  Heroult  has  informed  me  that  the 
production  of  1902  has  not  differed  materially  from  that  of  the  previous  year. 
As  stocks  are  stated  to  be  large,  it  is  probable  that  if  there  has  been  any  change 
it  has  been  in  the  downward  direction.  In  1900,  France  produced  between 
1,000  and  1,500  tons  of  the  metal,  and  no  advance  upon  the  latter  total  is  likely 
io  have  occurred  in  1901  or  1902. 

In  the  United  Kingdom,  the  position  has  been  complicated  by  the  financial 
difficulties  of  the  only  producing  company,  the  British  Aluminium  Co.,  with 
works  at  Foyers,  and  no  reliable  estimate  of  the  output  at  this  works  can  there- 
fore be  made. 

As  regards  the  production  in  America,  the  output  of  the  Pittsburg  Eeduction 
Company  for  1901  has  been  given  as  3,240  metric  tons;  while  according  to 


24  THE  MINERAL  INDUSTRY. 

Prof.  Richards  the  1902  production  in  the  three  works  situated  at  Niagara  Falls, 
N.  Y.,  and  Shawinigan  Falls,  Canada,  will  reach  4,500  tons.* 

Using  these  figures  as  basis  for  calculation,  I  estimate  that  the  total  world's 
production  of  aluminum  in  the  nine  factories  manufacturing  the  metal  in  1901 
and  1902,  has  been  as  follows : — 


1901. 

1908. 

lRi]]Y>nM|in  wnrim  tKi ■... 

4,000  metric  tona. 
8,S40  metric  tonn. 

8,800  metric  tons. 

Am^ncAD  worlcR  {?f\ .■,,,......,,,,,,., 

4,300  metrifi  tons. 

Total 

7,840  metric  tons. 

6,000  metric  tons. 

In  spite  of  the  fact  that  the  production  of  aluminum  in  recent  years  has  been 
rather  in  excess  of  the  demand,  two  new  works  are  being  planned,  and  one 
01  these  is  in  course  of  erection. 

At  Massena,  X.  Y.,  the  Pittsburg  Reduction  Co.  has  bought  land,  and  has 
commenced  to  erect  a  works  for  the  utilization  of  the  water  power  already 
developed  at  this  spot,  by  the  St.  Lawrence  Power  Co.  This  company  in  the  years 
1898-1901  has  erected  large  hydraulic  engineering  works  between  the  Grass 
River  and  the  St.  Lawrence  River,  developing  50,000  H.P.  at  Massena,  at  a 
capital  expenditure  of  $10,500,000.  Unfortunately  the  St.  Lawrence  Power 
Co.  has  become  involved  in  financial  troubles,  and  the  plant  and  works  have  now 
passed  into  the  possession  of  a  syndicate  representing  some  of  the  original 
bondholders.  The  reorganization  of  the  affairs  of  the  company,  which  is  now 
proceeding,  may  possibly  retard  the  manufacturing  operations  of  the  Pittsburg 
Reduction  Co.,  but  it  is  stated  that  the  new  factory  will  be  in  operation  by  April, 
1903.  The  plant  now  being  installed  is  of  1,200-H.P.  capacity,  and  consists  of 
four  300-H.P.  sets,  generating  current  at  500  volts.  It  is  intended  gradually  to 
increase  the  plant  as  the  demand  for  aluminum  grows,  and  an  ultimate  utiliza- 
tion of  12,000  H.P.  is  in  prospect.^ 

The  second  new  aluminum  works  is  being  promoted  by  a  Franco-Spanish 
s}'aidicate,  and  it  is  intended  to  erect  a  works  at  Zudavic  in  Spain.  Water  power 
is  to  be  used,  but  no  other  details  of  the  new  venture  have  yet  been  published.  In 
view  of  the  present  unsatisfactory  state  of  the  industry  in  Europe,  it  is  prob- 
able that  the  development  of  this  new  center  for  production  of  aluminum  will 
be  long  delayed. 

As  regards  prices  in  1902  there  is  little  variation  to  report,  as  compared  with 
1901.  The  November,  1902,  prices  for  the  products  of  the  Pittsburg  Reduction 
Co.,  wore  as  follows:  Xo.  1,  metal,  guaranteed  over  99%  Al,  33@37c.  per  pound; 
Xo.  2,  meial^  guaranteed  over  90%  Al,  31'?7)34c.  per  pound;  nickel-aluminum 
alloy  (less  than  10%  Ni),  33@39c.  per  pound;  powdered  aluminum,  90c.@$l 
per  pound ;  aluminum  castings,  45c.  per  pound. 

All  the  above  prices  were  subject  to  discounts  ranging  between  10%  and 
15%. 

Rod  and  wire  varied  in  price  between  38  and  52c.  per  lb.,  according  to 
the   gauge,  and  a  rebate  of  from    3    to    4c.  per  lb.  was    allowed    off   the   list 

*  The  production  of  aluminum  by  the  Pittsburg  Reduction  Co.  at  Niagara  Falls  daring  1008  amounted 
to  approximately  8,800  metric  tons.— [EorroR.] 

>  The  KUctrical  Review,  New  York,  Sept.  20, 1902. 


AL  UMINUM  AND  AL  UM.  26 

prices,  according  to  the  total  value  of  the  order.  Excepting  in  the  case  ot  the 
rod  and  wire,  these  prices  do  not  differ  materially  from  those  of  November, 
1901. 

The  prices  of  some  of  the  manufactured  articles  of  aluminum  have  in  recent 
years  fallen  considerably  in  America,  and  in  the  aluminum  comb  industry  there 
has  been  much  competition  and  cutting  of  prices.  The  American  Aluminum 
Association  has  therefore  been  formed  by  manufacturers  to  regulate  prices  and 
the  first  convention  was  held  at  Pittsburg,  on  Sept.  19  and  20,  1902.  It 
is  expected  that  as  a  result  of  this  meeting,  some  arrangement  will  be  made 
which  will  put  an  end  to  the  over-competition  and  consequent  unsatisfactory 
financial  position  existing  in  the  aluminum  comb  industry. 

With  regard  to  the  position  in  Europe,  the  first  meeting  between  the  various 
producers,  for  the  purpose  of  regulating  the  output  and  price  of  the  metal, 
was  referred  to  in  The  Mineral  Industry,  Vol.  X.  One  or  two  later  meet- 
ings are  reported  to  have  occurred  during  1902.  No  official  account  of  the 
proceedings  has  been  published,  but  the  new  Chairman  of  the  British  Aluminium 
Company  has  stated  publicly  that  he  is  dissatisfied  with  the  present  position,* 
and  that  an  attempt  is  to  be  made,  to  obtain  a  larger  share  of  the  European 
business  for  the  British  company.  Early  in  the  year,  this  company  raised  its 
price  for  No.  6  alloy  from  27  to  27'5c.  per  pound,  and  its  latest  price  list 
contains  the  following  values:  Ingot  metal,  guaranteed  over  99%  Al,  33c.  per 
pound,  less  7*5%  discount;  ingot  metal  (98  to  99%  Al),  30c.  per  pound,  less 
7*5%  discount;  ingot  metal  (No.  4  alloy),  30c.  per  pound,  less  2'5%  discoiint; 
ingot  metal  (No.  6  alloy),  27*5c.  per  pound,  less  2*5%  discount;  wolframinium 
alloy,  35c.  per  pound,  less  25%  discount;  aluminum  wire  Nos.  1-14  I.  S.  W.  G., 
46'5c.  per  pound,  less  2-5%  discount. 

In  this  connection  it  is  interesting  to  note  that  at  the  annual  meeting  of  the 
shareholders  of  this  company,  in  November,  1902,  Mr.  Wallace,  K.C.,  the  former 
chairman,  expressed  the  opinion  that  the  financial  difficulties  of  the  company 
were  partly  due  to  the  maintenance  of  too  high  a  price  for  their  products,  a  policy 
which  had  caused  an  invasion  of  the  British  market  by  foreign  producers,  who  had 
no  hostile  tariff  to  face. 

Turning  to  a  consideration  of  the  financial  position,  the  following  are  the 
latest  figures  for  the  capitalization  and  dividends  of  the  various  producing  com- 
panies : — 

The  Pittsburg  Reduction  Co,,  with  two  works  at  Niagara  Falls,  N.  Y.,  and  one 
at  Shawinigan  Falls,  Canada.  Capital,  $1,600,000  ($1,000,000  in  ordi- 
nary stock  paying  10%,  and  $600,000  in  preferred  stock  paying  6%). 
The  surplus  profits  of  this  company  are  reported  to  have  been  invested  in 
new  construction  work,  but  no  official  balance  sheets  are  available  and  it  is  im- 
possible to  state  the  total  sum  that  has  been  expended  in  this  way.  The  low 
capitalization,  as  compared  with  the  European  companies,  is  partly  due  to  the 
fact  that  the  water  power  at  Niagara  Falls  and  at  Shawinigan  Falls,  has  been 
developed  by  independent  companies. 

The  Aluminium   Industrie  ATctien   OeseUsclmft,  with   works   at   Ncruhausen, 

«  Electrical  Revieir,  London,  Nov.  28, 1002 


26  THB  MINERAL  INDU8TBT. 

Rhednfelden  and  Lend  Gastein.  Capital,  $3,077,000.  Gross  profits  for  1901, 
$391,027.     Dividend  for  1901,  13%,  an  advance  of  0*5%  upon  that  paid  in 

1900,  It  is  interesting  to  note  that  this  company  is  carrying  out  extended  trials 
with  Heroult's  process  for  the  electrical  reduction  of  iron  ores,  and  that  it  also 
utilizes  some  portion  of  its  available  power  for  calcium  carbide  production. 

The  Societi  Electro-Metallurgique  Franqaise,  with  works  at  Froges  and 
Le  Praz.  Capital,  $2,880,000.  No  details  are  available  relative  to  profits  or 
dividends.  This  company  produces  ferrochromium  and  ferrosilicon  in  addi- 
tion to  aluminum, — and  it  is  also  experimenting  at  Le  Praz  with  the  Heroult 
process  for  the  direct  production  of  iron  and  steel  in  the  electric  furnace. 

The  British  Aluminium  Co,,  with  works  at  Foyers,  Scotland.  Capital 
liability,  $3,079,000  (authorized  capital,  $3,360,000).  This  company  has  never 
been  able  to  pay  a  dividend  on  its  ordinary  share  capital,  but  for  some  years  it 
has  kept  up  pa}inents  on  the  debentures  and  preferred  shares.     In  the  year 

1901,  the  profits  did  not  admit  of  payment  of  the  preferred  interest,  and  in 

1902,  the  profits  were  insufficient  to  meet  the  interest  payments  due  on  the  deben- 
tures. Payment  falling  due  on  Nov.  1,  1902,  was  defaulted,  and  the  control  of 
the  company  is  now  practically  in  the  hands  of  the  bondholders — ^representing 
$1,440,000. 

The  managing  director  of  the  company,  Mr.  Ristori,  resigned  in  May,  1902, 
and  the  chairman,  Mr.  Roger  Wallace,  K.C.,  has  also  resigned,  but  retains  his 
seat  on  the  Board.  A  loan  of  $48,000  has  been  raised  to  provide  the  neces- 
sary working  capital,  and  it  is  hoped  that  the  changes  made  in  the  businesi-  and 
technical  management  of  the  company  under  the  new  chairman,  Mr.  J.  D. 
Bonner,  will  lead  in  time  to  a  more  favorable  financial  result.  The  sales  of 
aluminum  by  the  British  Aluminium  Co.  in  1902,  are  reported  to  have 
increased  40%,  as  one  result  of  the  improvements  effected  by  the  new 
management.  In  my  opinion,  over-capitalization  and  bad  management  on  the 
technical  side  of  the  business,  have  contributed  largely  to  this  company^s  diffi- 
culties ;  and  time  and  patience  will  be  required,  before  it  finds  itself  free  from  the 
more  permanent  effects  of  these  embarrassments.  In  the  directors'  statement  to 
the  shareholders,  the  following  contributary  causes  are  also  mentioned:  Over- 
valuation of  stocks;  lock-up  of  capital  in  large  Scotch  water-power  schemes; 
legal  expenses  in  attempting  to  prolong  life  of  patents;  and  bad  speculative 
investments  in  bauxite  properties  in  Ireland. 

The  Compagriie  des  Produits  Chimiques  d'Alais,  with  works  at  St.  Michel,  in 
France.  No  details  relative  to  capitalization  and  profits,  are  available  for  publi- 
cation. 

The  position  as  regards  patents  has  not  undergone  alteration  in  1902.  The 
Heroult  Patents  for  the  United  Kingdom,  have  now  expired,  but  under  the 
conditions  obtaining  at  present  in  the  industry,  it  is  unlikely  that  any  attempt 
will  be  made  by  British  manufacturers  to  enter  into  competition  with  the  Foy- 
ers Works. 

With  regard  to  details  of  the  reduction  process  as  actually  carried  out  in  the 
works,  Haber  and  Geipcrt  have  published  details  of  laboratory  investigations 


ALUMINtJM  AND  ALTJM.  27 

which  throw  some  light  upon  this  subject.'  They  state  that  aluminum  of  high 
purity  was  easily  produced  in  their  experiments  with  currents  of  2,^00  amperes 
per  sq.  ft.  at  an  E.M.F.  of  from  7  to  10  volts.  The  baths  contained  a  fused 
mixture  of  aluminum  fluoride,  sodium  fluoride,  and  alumina  in  equal  propor- 
tions, as  electrolyte.  It  was  found  that  these  raw  materials  must  be  free  from 
impurities,  and  the  carbons  used  as  anodes  free  from  ash,  if  pure  aluminum 
was  to  be  obtained.  The  metal  obtained  by  the  authors  in  their  experiments 
contained  from  0*034  to  0*30%  Si,  and  only  0-05%  C.  The  tensile  strength 
averaged  21,000  lb.  per  sq.  in.  In  their  opinion  the  recent  improvements  in  the 
reduction  process  are  the  result,  not  of  secret  modifications  in  the  process,  but 
of  greater  care  in  the  selection  of  the  raw  materials  and  of  the  carbons  used 
in  the  reduction  baths. 

Utilization. 

Electrical  Conductors. — The  use  of  aluminum  as  a  substitute  for  copper  for 
bare  overhead  transmission  lines,  is  still  expanding  in  America,  and  this  use 
continues  to  be  one  of  the  most  important  outlets  for  the  metal  produced  at 
Niagara.  Falls  and  Shawinigan  Falls.  In  Europe  there  is  less  readiness  to  try 
the  new  metal  for  overhead  work,  and  the  number  of  instances  in  which  aluminum 
has  been  used  in  place  of  copper,  are  comparatively  few  and  unimportant.  This 
attitude  is  partly  due  to  the  unsatisfactory  results  obtained  in  some  of  the 
«arly  trials  of  aluminum  for  such  work,  and  partly  due  to  the  greater  stability 
of  European  installations,  and  the  consequent  demand  for  the  most  durable 
metals  and  construction,  in  all  overhead  transmission  work.  The  American  sys- 
tem of  scrapping  machinery  and  plant  every  few  years  has  not  yet  become  pop- 
ular in  Europe. 

The  following  are  the  more  important  facts  relative  to  the  use  of  aluminum 
for  electrical  purposes,  which  have  come  under  my  notice  during 
1902:  In  the  United  States,  The  Lewiston  &  Auburn  Electric  Co.  has  pur- 
chased 21  miles  of  wire  for  transmission  purposes;  the  Boston  &  Maine  Rail- 
road, 20  miles  for  use  at  Concord,  N.  H.;  and  the  Boston  Electric  Light  Co. 
100,000  lb.  A  transmission  line  84  miles  in  length  is  being  erected  between 
the  power  station  at  Shawinigan  Falls  and  Montreal.  Seven  strands  of  No. 
6  wire  are  to  be  employed,  and  according  to  one  ^count  1,000,000  lb.  of  alu- 
minum will  be  required  for  this  line.  The  transmission  is  to  be  at  50,000  volts. 
The  Massachusetts  Electric  Co.  has  recently  purchased  500,000  lb.  of  aluminum 
for  overhead  transmission  work,  and  another  Boston  firm  is  reported  to  have 
made  a  still  larger  purchase  of  the  new  metal.  The  Old  Colony  Street  Railway 
Co.,  of  Massachusetts,  has  experimented  with  10  miles  of  aluminum  wire  for 
feed  lines,  and  is  reported  to  be  quite  satisfied  with  the  results.  With  regard  to 
the  condition  of  the  existing  aluminum  lines  in  America,  the  following  abstracts 
of  reports  which  have  appeared*  will  be  read  with  interest: — 

1.  Snoqualmie  Falls, — 76  miles  of  cable, — erected  two  years.     Satisfactory. 

2.  Bay  Counties  Power  Co.,  San  Frand?co,  Cal. — 90  miles  of  wire,  equal  in 

«  ZeiUehrift  ftter  Kletctrochemie,  Jon.  2  ond  9, 1C02.  «  Aluminum  World,  May,  1902. 


28  THB  MINERAL  TNDVSTRT. 

earryin^  capacity  to  No.  6  copper, — erected  one  year, — ^no  trouble  experienced, 
but  gauge  too  small. 

3.  Standard  Electric  Co.,  San  Francisco,  Cal. — 200  miles  of  cable, — ^time  not 
mentioned.     Satisfactory. 

4.  City  of  Healdsburg,  Cal. — 8*75  miles  No.  4  wire,  and  the  same  length  of 
No.  10  wire, — erected  3  years.     No  trouble  experienced. 

5.  Kansas  City  and  Lcavensworth  Railway,  Wolcott,  Kan. — feed  wires  in  use 

2  years.     Satisfactory. 

6.  Hartford  Electric  Light  Co.,  Hartford,  Conn. — 11  miles  of  cable, — erected 

3  years.     Entirely  satisfactory.* 

These  reports  speak  well  for  aluminum,  but  there  is  a  note  at  the  end  of 
the  article  referred  to,  which  seems  to  indicate  that  the  new  metal  in  its  normal 
state,  is  not  quite  so  resistant  to  weather  influences  as  the  reports  would  lead  one 
to  believe.  This  note  is  to  the  effect  that:  "Weatherproof  aluminum  wire 
is  being  largely  introduced  in  the  distributing  systems  of  many  of  the  cities  in 
California  and  Washington."  "Weatherproof  wire,"  can  only  mean  wire  coated 
with  some  protective  composition.  If  bare  aluminum  is  so  entirely  satisfactory 
when  used  for  overhead  transmission  lines,  why  is  weatherproof  wire  now  be- 
ing introduced  ? 

As  regards  the  use  of  aluminum  for  conducting  purposes  in  Europe,  there  is 
little  progress  to  report.  Mr.  J.  Gavey,  the  English  Post  Office  Electrician,  has 
informed  me  that  no  further  trials  have  been  made  with  aluminum  wire  for 
telegraphic  or  telephonic  purposes,  and  that  at  present  there  is  no  intention 
to  institute  fresh  experiments.  No  reports  have  yet  appeared  relating  to  the 
condition  of  the  three  Italian  transmission  lines  constructed  of  aluminum,  and 
there  is  a  similar  lack  of  information  respecting  the  lighting  installation  at 
Northallerton  in  England. 

Mr.  F.  C.  Perkins,  an  American  writer,  in  an  article  which  appeared  in  trans- 
lated form,**  gave  a  resume  of  the  position,  as  regards  the  use  of  aluminum  and 
copper,  for  electrical  purposes.  This  article  contained  little  that  has  not  been 
published  in  previous  volumes  of  The  Mineral  Industry.  No  reference  was 
made  to  the  experiments  upon  durability  carried  out  by  Gavey  and  others,  and 
Mr.  Perkins  cannot  be  considered  to  have  given  a  fair  and  impartial  decision 
upon  the  relative  merits  of  the  two  metals,  when  used  for  overhead  work. 

My  own  series  of  exposure  tests,  with  aluminum  and  other  wires  at  Waterloo, 
England,  commenced  in  1899,  have  been  continued  during  1902,  and  some  de- 
tails of  the  latest  results  obtained,  will  be  found  under  the  sub-heading  "Prop- 
erties/' 

Alloys. — Guillet,  during  1902,  has  read  a  paper  before  the  French  Academie 
des  Sciences,  giving  an  account  of  the  properties  of  alloys  of  aluminum  and 
tungsten  obtained  by  the  Goldschmidt  process.  Three  alloys  were  obtained — rep- 
resented by  the  formulae:     AIW2,  A1.,W,  and  Al^W.     The  last  named  alloy  had 

•  In  addition  to  the  above-  mentioned  equipments  21  miles  of  aluminum  wire  were  purchased  by  the 
Lewiston  ft  Auburn  Electric  Co.,  for  the  transmission  of  electric  power;  SO  miles  of  aluminum  wire  by  the 
Boston  &  Maine  Railroad  for  use  at  Concord,  N.  H.,  and  100,000  lb.  of  aluminum  wire  by  the  Boston  Electric 
Ught  Co. 

•  Zeitmshrift  fuer  Klektroehemie,  Au?.  14, 1908. 


ALUMINUM  AND  ALUM  29 

a  sp.  gr.  of  5'58.*  Boudonard  has  been  examining  the  alloys  of  aluminum  and 
magnesium,  of  which  "Magnalium"  is  the  best  known  representative.  Two  well 
defined  alloys  were  found  to  exist,  reproocnted  by  the  formula*  AlMgo  and  AlMg. 
Kaempfer  has  stated  that  magnalium  turns  weil  and  can  be  drilled  and  milled 
easily.  Its  tensile  strength  is  from  13  to  15  tons  per  sq.  in.,  and  its  sp.  gr.  is 
about  2-52.  Its  fracture  has  a  fine  grain,  like  that  of  steel.  Siemens  &  Halske,  of 
Berlin,  is  reported  to  be  using  it  in  the  manufacture  of  armatures,  and  for 
motor  car  construction,  while  opticians  are  using  it  in  preference  to  pure  alu- 
minum because  it  is  harder,  and  the  threads  of  screws  last  longer,  when  turned 
in  this  alloy.  The  chief  drawback  to  the  use  of  magnalium  is  the  difficulty  of 
making  a  durable  joint  with  solder.*^ 

"McAdamite"  is  another  patented  alloy  of  aluminum  for  which  considerable 
sale  is  expected  by  its  inventor  and  those  at  present  interested  in  its  manufac- 
ture. This  alloy  is  composed  of  72%  Al,  24%  Zn,  and  4%  Cu.  It  is  silvery 
white  in  color  and  takes  a  high  polish.  Its  tensile  strength  is  reported  to  be 
44,250  lb.  per  sq.  in.  It  is  intended  to  be  used  as  a  substitute  for  brass  for  all 
purposes.  Two  companies  have  been  formed  in  America  for  the  manufacture 
of  this  alloy,  but  according  to  the  latest  information  in  my  hands,  negotiations 
for  amalgamation  are  now  taking  place.  The*  McAdamite  Metal  Co.,  of 
Canada,  has  a  nominal  capital  of  f$800,000  and  owns  a  small  plant  at  St.  John. 

Prof.  Wilson,  of  King's  College,  London,  has  been  carrying  on  exposure  tests 
with  samples  of  various  alloys'  of  aluminum,  and  in  a  paper  read  before  the 
British  Association  at  Belfast,  in  September,  1902,  he  described  the  results  ob- 
tained in  his  experiments.  The  specimens  exposed  were  in  the  form  of  wire  0-126 
in.  in  diameter,  and  the  exposure  lasted  13  months.  Corrosion  was  found  to  in- 
crease with  the  percentage  of  copper.  Xickel  or  iron  alloyed  with  the  copper,  had 
the  effect  of  slightly  increasing  the  conductivity  of  the  alloy  after  exposure. 
The  conclusions  based  by  Prof.  Wilson  upon  these  trials  were:  That  it  was  a 
mistake  to  use  copper  alone,  in  light  aluminum  alloys,  if  these  were  to  be  sub- 
mitted to  exposure  to  atmospheric  influences;  and  that  the  presence  of  equal 
amounts  of  nickel  and  copper  certainly  reduced  conductivity,  but  this  loss  was 
compensated  by  the  gain  in  mechanical  and  non-corrosive  properties.* 

E.  S.  Sperry*  has  described  an  alloy  of  aluminum,  called  "aluminum-silver," 
which  contains  57%  Cu,  20%  Xi,  20%  Zn,  and  3%  Al.  It  takes  a  high  polish, 
and  resembles  silver  in  color  and  luster.  It  is  said  to  be  used  in  typewriter  con- 
struction. 

The  American  Gramophone  Co.  is  reported  to  be  using  one  of  the  zinc- 
aluminum  alloys,  containing  95%  Zn  and  5%  Al,  for  the  metallic  portions  of 
their  machines. 

The  use  of  "Partinum"  for  motor  car  construction  by  Paris  builders,  is  re- 
ferred to  later  on  under  the  section  "Balloons  and  Motor  Cars."  In  this  con- 
nection it  is  interesting  to  note  that  M.  Heroult  reports  the  increased  demand 
for  aluminum  in  France  during  1902,  to  be  partly  due  to  this  use  of  the  metal. 

Balloons,  Cycles  and  Motor  Cars. — The  year  1902  has  been  rather  disastrous 

•  Comptes  rendwk,  1902.  ■  Electrician,  8ppt.  19, 1902. 

V  Electrical  Review^  London,  May  %),  1903.  *  Aluminum  Worlds  Februaiy,  1902. 


30  THE  MINERAL  INDU8TRT. 

for  those  aeronauts  who  have  been  experimenting  with  flying  machines,  and 
there  is  little  to  record  beyond  a  series  of  accidents,  not,  it  may  be  remarked,  in 
any  way  due  to  the  aluminum  used  in  the  construction  of  these  navigable  balloons. 

The  Zeppelin  airship,  which  two  years  ago  was  attracting  much  attention, 
has  been  broken  up,  owing  to  the  financial  troubles  of  its  designer,  and  the 
aluminum  rod  and  wire  used  in  its  construction  (reported  to  amount  to  5  tons 
in  weight)  have  been  sold.  The  Severo  airship,  in  which  aluminum  was  used 
for  strengthening  the  bamboo  at  many  points  in  the  structure,  also  came  to 
grief  eariy  in  1902,  and  the  inventor  and  his  assistant  lost  their  lives  at  Paris,- 
in  the  explosion  which  brought  about  the  collapse  of  the  balloon  in  mid-air. 
M.  Santos-Dumont,  hitheri:o  the  most  lucky  and  successful  of  the  aeronauts 
who  have  experimented  with  navigable  balloons,  has  also  made  little  advance 
during  1902.  His  latest  airship  is  constructed  of  cypress  and  bamboo  rods, 
strengthened  by  aluminum  thimbles  at  the  splices;  but  nothing  noteworthy  has 
been  done  with  it  during  the  past  year. 

It  will  be  noticed  from  the  above  that  the  tendency  in  airship  construction 
is  to  use  bamboo  and  similar  light  woods  for  the  frames  in  place  of  the  metal 
aluminum,  and  to  employ  the  latter  metal  only  for  strengthening  the  frame  at 
the  joints. 

As  regards  the  use  of  aluminum  for  cycle  construction,  there  is  also  little 
progress  to  repori;  during  1902,  but  in  motor  car  work  the  new  metal  and  its 
alloys  are  growing  in^  favor  and  usefulness.  The  Winton  Co.,  of  Cleveland, 
Ohio,  is  using  aluminum,  and  J.  M.  Quinby  &  Co.,  of  Newark,  N.  J.,  is  re- 
ported to  have  constructed  a  16-H.P.  automobile  of  the  Panhard  type,  with  the 
body-  of  the  vehicle  constructed  entirely  of  the  light  metal.*®  At  the  Paris 
(1902)  show  of  cycles  and  automobiles,  Charpentier  &  Co.,  of  Valdois,  had 
an  exhibit  of  aluminum  which  attracted  considerable  attention.  Sheets-  and 
ornamental  panels  of  strengthened  aluminum  (renforcee)  were  the  chief  novel- 
ties of  this  exhibit.  The  use  of  aluminum  for  wheels  of  automobiles  has  also 
been  tried  by  one  French  builder,  while  the  automobile  firm,  Charron,  Girardot 
&  Voigt,  is  using  aluminum  and  the  alloy,  partinimi,  to  a  large  extent  in  con- 
struction work. 

Printing, — The  use  of  aluminum  as  a  substitute  for  stone  and  zinc  in  litho- 
graphic work  is  rapidly  extending,  and  both  in  London  and  New  York  com- 
panies have  been  formed  to  manufacture  the  special  rotary  printing  presses, 
designed  for  this  new  departure  in  lithography.  The  Aluminum  Press  Co. 
is  the  name  of  the  American  company,  and  the  Aluminium  Rotary  Press,  Limited, 
is  the  title  of  the  English  company,  which  has  been  floated  with  a  r;:pital  of 
$960,000  to  purchase  the  English  patents  and  to  equip  a  factory  for  the  manu- 
facture of  the  presses  at  Otley,  in  Yorkshire.  Thirty  of  the  new  rotary  aluminum 
presses  are  stated  to  have  been  sold  in  Enrope,  and  the  list  of  well-known  litho- 
graphic printers  who  have  one  or  more  of  the  new  presses  in  use,  or  who  have 
ordered  one,  is  growing  in  number  every  day.  W.  H.  Smith  &  Co.,  of  Tjondon ; 
De  la  Kue  &  Sons,  of  Bolton,  and  E.  S.  &  A.  Robinson,  of  Bristol,  are  a  few 
of  the  English  firms  who  have  started  during  1902  to  use  the  new  metal  for 

10  Electricity,  New  York,  July  80, 1908. 


ALUMINUM  AND  ALUM,  31 

lithographic  work.  The  first  named  firm  has  informed  me,  that  it  finds  the 
new  metal  an  excellent  substitute  for  stone  in  lithographic  work.  The  manipu- 
lation required  is  so  different  from  that  required  when  stone  is  used,  that  con- 
siderable experience  in  the  handling  of  the  new  material  is  necessary  in  order 
to  obtain  the  best  results.  The  best  practical  information  relating  to  this  new 
application  of  aluminum  is  to  be  found  in  a  series  of  articles  published  in  the 
journal  named  below."  A  further  development  in  this  use  of  aluminum  has 
been  patented  by  Hoz,  who  has  devised  a  method  of  printing  on  textile  goods 
with  aluminum  rolls.** 

Foundry  and  Metallurgical  Use. — Although  this  remains  one  of  the  most 
important  outlets  for  the  aluminum  produced  in  Europe  and  America,  little  new 
information  relating  to  it  has  been  published  during  1902.  In  France  the  sales 
of  aluminum  for  foundry  work  are  reported  to  reach  400  tons  per  annum,  and 
according  to  the  chairman  of  the  British  Aluminium  Co.,  when  the  metal 
has  once  been  used  for  this  purpose  it  is  rarely  given  up.  In  the  United  King- 
dom the  sales  of  the  metal  to  the  steel  works  have  been  small  and  disappointing ; 
but  in  the  United  States  this  use  is  believed  to  absorb  a  considerable  portion 
of  the  output  of  the  Pittsburg  Reduction  Co. 

The  industries  depending  upon  the  Goldschmidt  process  for  the  production 
of  intense  heat  by  means  of  powdered  aluminum,  have  made  progress  during 
1902.  At  Essen,  the  Chemische-thermo  Industrie  continues  to  manufacture 
"thermite"  and  alloys  of  iron  and  the  rare  metals.  In  a  recent  independent 
engineer's  report  on  tramway  construction,  welded  rails  were  specially  men- 
tioned as  superior  to  all  forms  of  bonded  joints,  and  the  Goldschmidt  method 
of  welding  with  thermite  was  put  forward  as  the  most  convenient  and  useful 
method  of  obtaining  such  welded  joints  in  practice.  It  is  possible,  therefore, 
that  this  use  of  aluminum  may  grow  relatively  large  and  important,  during  the 
construction  of  the  tracks  for  the  numerous  tramway  and  light  railway  schemes 
now  in  course  of  development  in  America  and  in  Europe. 

Miscellaneous  Uses, — ^Bobbins. — ^English  Patent  No.  12,193,  of  1901,  describes 
the  manufacture  of  aluminum  bobbins.  Machinery  is  used  to  fashion  flat  discs 
of  the  metal  into  the  ordinary  bobbin  with  a  central  tube  and  two  flanges. 

Art  Work. — The  Indian  Aluminium  Co.,  which  has  grown  out  of  Mr. 
Alfred  Chatterton's  efforts  to  introduce  aluminum  to  Indian  art-workers  at  the 
Madras  School  of  Art,  is  increasing  its  capital  and  plant  in  order  to  cope  with 
its  extending  business.  This  company  paid  a  dividend  of  7%  for  the  first  half 
of  1902,  and  its  manufactures  embrace  both  useful  and  ornamental  articles  in 
the  new  metal. 

Combs. — The  m'anufacture  of  aluminum  hair  combs  has  grown  into  a  large 
industry  in  the  United  States,  and  according  to  one  authority  the  daily  output 
of  all  the  factories  is  25,000."  The  competition  has,  accordingly,  become  severe, 
and  the  Aluminum  Manufacturers^  Association,  the  meeting  of  which  at  Pitts- 
burg in  September,  has  already  been  referred  to,  ^haS  appointed  a  sub-committee 
to  regulate  output  and  prices. 

»  Aluminum  World,  October  and  December,  1901;  January  and  Febniarj,  1908. 
»  Zeitschrifi  futr  AnQeroandte  Chemie,  Dec.  18, 1908. 
»  Aluminum  World,  February,  1908. 


82  THE  MINERAL  INDUSTRY. 

Chemical  Apparatus. — According  to  0.  Guttman,  aluminum  is  proving  of 
value  in  the  manufacture  of  explosives.  In  the  preparation  of  nitro-cellulose  it 
is  requisite  to  use  vessels  which  are  unattacked  by  a  mixture  of  sulphuric  and 
nitric  acids.  An  aluminum  vessel  has  successfully  resisted  the  action  of  these 
acids  for  some  months^  although  either  acid  alone  was  found  to  have  action 
upon  it.** 

Explosives. — ^^^Ammonal/'  a  new  explosive  patented  by  Fuhrer,  of  Vienna, 
contains  25%  Al  in  the  state  of  powder,  and  ammonium  nitrate.  The  Electro- 
smelting  (Zinnoxyd)  Co.  of  London,  which  would  appear  to  be  a  sub- 
sidiary of  the  company  operating  at  Essen,  also  manufactures  an  explosive  of 
which  powdered  aluminum  is  an  ingredient,  but  I  am  unable  to  say  whether 
this  compound  is  similar  in  all  other  respects  to  ammonal.  This  company  re- 
ported a  dividend  of  12%  in  1902. 

Fuse  Wires. — A  novel  use  of  aluminum  is  found  on  the  Niagara-Buffalo  trans- 
mission line,  where  the  new  metal  is  used  not  only  for  the  main  conductors  but 
also  for  the  fuse  wires.    This  transmission  is  at  11,000  volts. 

Gramophones. — The  American  Gramophone  Co.  is  trying  an  alloy  composed 
of  95%  Zn  and  5%  Al  for  the  metallic  portions  of  its  machines.  A  some- 
what similar  use  is  that  of  aluminum  for  the  diaphragms  of  telephones. 

Golf  Clubs. — W.  Mills,  of  Sunderland,  England,  who  makes  a  special  feature 
of  aluminum  castings  and  has  attained  much  success  in  this  direction,,  has  cast 
a  set  of  golf-clubs  heads  in  the  light  metal.  H.  H.  Hilton,  the  noted  golf  player, 
has  seen  these  novel  clubs  and  is  reported  to  have  recommended  them. 

Lamps. — According  to  a  writer  in  the  paper  named  below,*"  aluminum  is 
used  by  several  makers  of  miners'  lamps  in  Germany.  The  new  metal  is  also 
reported  to  be  in  use  for  making  the  reflectors  of  acetylefne  lamps,  but  as  there 
is  not  a  great  sale  for  these,  the  consumption  of  aluminum  for  this  purpose  cannot 
be  large. 

Machinery  and  Other  Castings. — At  the  foundry  of  W.  Mills,  Sunderland, 
England,  75  men  are  reported  to  be  constantly  at  work  on  aluminum  castings. 

Whetstones  and  Sharpening  Wheels. — According  to  A.  Bernard,  of  Hamburg, 
Germany,  a  valuable  property  of  aluminum  has  been  discovered  in  its  ability 
to  sharpen  cutlery.  Aluminum  has  a  fine-grained  structure  and  develops  during 
the  whetting  process  an  exceed  in. '^^ly  fine  metal-setting  substance  which  is  greasy 
to  the  touch  and  adheres  strongly  to  steel.  An  examination  of  a  knife  blade 
whetted  on  aluminum  under  the  microscope  at  1,000  diameters  magnification, 
shows  the  edge  of  the  steel  to  be  perfectly  uniform  and  unbroken,  which  is  not 
the  case  when  steel  is  sharpened  on  stone. 

Properties  op  Aluminum. 

Eeference  has  already  been  made  to  the  laboratory  experiments  of  Haber  and 
Geipert  upon  the  electrolytic  separation  of  aluminum  in  baths  of  fused  cryolite. 
These  investi.c:ator8  examined  the  chemical  and  mechanical  properties  of  the 

><  Alnminnm  Worlds  Julj,  lOOS.    From  Journal  of  tht  Society  of  ChenUetU  /ndiMffSf. 
>*  Engineering^  London,  Aug.  22, 1002. 


ALUMINUM  AND  ALUM.  33 

metal  obtained  in  their  experiments,  and  they  found  that  the  tensile  strength 
averaged  21,000  ib.  per  sq.  in.  The  first  series  of  chemical  tests  gave  0-034%  Si 
and  0*05%  C,  but  in  a  second  series  of  tests  made  by  a  more  reliable  method,  the 
percentages  of  Si  rose  to  0-25  and  0*3%.  These  specimens  of  aluminum  would, 
however,  appear  to  have  been  more  pure  than  the  "pure"  aluminum  of  com- 
merce, which  is  rarely  guaranteed  over  99*5%  purity. 

With  reference  to  the  influence  of  impurities  upon  the  resistance  offered  by 
aluminum  to  exposure,  Mx.  Alfred  Chatterton,  of  the  Madras  School  of  Art, 
has  stated  that  anything  above  0*1%  Fe  is  exceedingly  deleterious,  even  when 
the  metal  is  merely  intended  for  domestic  use.^*  There  is  no  doubt  that  this 
fact  has  not  been  'sufficiently  recognized  in  the  past,  and  many  of  the  cases  in 
which  the  new  metal  has  given  unsatisfactory  results,  may  be  attributed  to 
the  presence  of  excessive  amounts  of  impurity.  Messrs.  Haber  and  Geipert 
have  shown  that  remarkably  pure  metal  can  be  obtained  by  the  electrolytic 
process,*^  when  sufficient  care  is  given  to  the  preparation  of  the  raw  materials 
used  in  the  reduction,  and  there  is  every  reason  to  believe  that  the  producers  of 
aluminum  in  the  various  countries  are  now  fully  alive  to  the  importance  of 
carefully  testing  and  controlling  this  side  of  the  manufacture.  The  exposure 
tests  with  aluminum  and  other  wires,  commenced  by  me  in  1899,  have  been 
continued  during  1902  at  Waterioo.  No  sample  of  aluminum  wire  has  yet  been 
obtained,  which  can  stand  twelve  months'  exposure  in  the  comparatively  good 
atmosphere  of  Waterloo,  without  extensive  and  deep  corrosion.  The  rods  of 
aluminum  have  undergone  three  i^ears'  exposure  at  Waterloo  with  much 
less  corrosion  than  the  wires.  This  fact  would  seem  to  indicate  that  the  me- 
chanical properties  of  aluminum  undergo  considerable  change  during  the 
drawing  operations  which  are  necessary  to  produce  wire,  and  that  this  change 
renders  the  metal  more  liable  to  corrosion  by  atmospheric  influences.  Full  de- 
tails of  these  exposure  tests  will  be  published  in  London  during  1903. 

As  regards  plating  and  soldering  aluminum,  nothing  worthy  of  special  note  has 
been  published  during  1902. 

Raw  Materials  of  the  Manufacttthe. 

There  has  been  considerable  increase  in  the  consumption  of  bauxite  by  alu- 
minum producers  in  recent  j'ears,  and  Liehau  has  suggested  that  this  increase 
indicates  that  a  direct  method  of  electrical  reduction  has  been  discovered." 
There  is  no  confirmation  of  this  suggestion,  however,  and  it  is  unlikely  that 
such  an  advance  in  the  cheapened  production  of  aluminum  could  have  occurred 
without  the  publication  of  the  patents  or  of  the  process  in  the  technical  jour- 
nals of  London  or  New  York.  The  Pittsburg  Reduction  Co.  is  reported  by 
Prof.  Richards  to  be  using  an  improved  process  for  extracting  pure  alumina 
from  bauxite  at  the  new  plant  in  Arkansas.  This  process  is  known  as  the 
'*Lime^*  process,  and  is  patented  by  Hall.  It  is  reported  to  yield  a  product 
of  remarkable  purity.     According  to  the  same  authority,  the  electrical  method 

«•  EUcfrochemiMt  and  Electrometalluvffift  Maroh,  190B. 
>»  Zeii§chrift  fuer  Elektrochemie,  Jan.  2  and  9, 1902. 
>•  EUktrochemische  ZeitachH/t,  August,  1908. 


34 


THE  MINERAL  INDU8TR7. 


of  removing  the  impurities  from  bauxite,  described  in  The  Mineral  Industry, 
Vol,  X.,  and  based  upon  incipient  fusion  with  sufficient  carbon  to  reduce  the 
iron  and  silicon  present  as  oxides,  is  about  to  be  operated  at  Niagara  Falls.*' 
From  these  statements  it  is  evident  that  the  Pittsburg  company  is  alive  to  the 
impoirtance  of  reducing  the  cost  of  the  raw  materials  of  the  manufacture. 

Interesting  historical  notes  relating  to  the  development  of  the  aluminum 
industry  in  America  have  appeared  in  the  journals  named  below  during  the 
past  year.**    • 

V.    Alum  and  Aluminum  Sulphate. 

Alum,  Artificial. — The  reported  production  of  aluminum  sulphate  in  the 
United  States  during  1902  amounted  to  87,075  shoit  tons,  valued  at  $1,938,671, 
as  compared  with  74,721  shori;  tons,  valued  at  $1,793,304  in  1901,  while  the  pro- 
duction of  crystallized  alum  was  8,639  shori;  tons,  valued  at  $229,600,  as  com- 
pared with  7,756  shori:  tons,  valued  at  $233,250  in  1901.  The  apparent  large 
decrease  in  the  production  of  crystallized  alum  during  1901  and  1902,  as  com- 
pared  with  preceding  years,  has  resulted  from  the  method  of  calculation  necessary 
prior  to  1901,  the  year  in  which  statistics  of  production  were  first  collected 
directly  from  the  prdducers. 

The  statistics  of  the  production  of  alum  and  aluminum  sulphate  given  in  the 
following  table  previous  to  1901  are  computed  from  the  consumption  of  bauxite 
and  cryolite  in  the  United  States,  and  the  production  of  metallic  aluminum,  it  be- 
ing assumed  that  what  was  not  used  for  the  manufacture  of  aluminum,  was  used 
for  making  the  sulphates.  The  yield  of  American  bauxite,  and  the  quantity  im- 
ported are  well  known,  consequently  the  method  of  determining  the  production 
in  so  far  as  it  is  expressed  in  terms  of  crystallized  alum  is  fairly  accurate.  The 
division  into  crystallized  alum  and  aluminum  sulphate  is  estimated,  and  is 
therefore  approximate.  However,  since  it  is  apt  to  be  misleading  to  report  the 
entire  production  as  crystallized  alum,  of  which  really  only  a  comparatively  small 
quantity  is  made,  the  statistics  for  1898  to  1900  have  been  reported  in  the 
modified  form.  Any  apparent  discrepancy  is  thus  accounted  for.  The  statistics 
for  1901  and  1902  have  been  collected  directly  from  the  producers. 

UNITED  STATES  PRODUCTION  AND  IMPORTS  OP  ALUM  FROM  1898  TO  1902. 


ProductioD. 

Imports,  (a) 

Year. 

^liym. 

Aluminum  Sulphate. 

Total 
Reckoned 
as  Alum. 
Sh.  Tons. 

Total 
Value. 

Short 
Tons. 

Value. 

per 

Short 
Tons. 

Value. 

P.T 

Ton. 

Short 
Tons. 

Value. 

Per 

Ton. 

Ton. 

1898.. 
1899.. 
19iX).. 
1901  .c 
19Q9.e 

18,791 

27,976 

20,881 

7,776 

8.680 

1888,780 
846,660 
616,980 
888,880 
929,600 

ro-00 

81  00 
8000 
8000 
90-86 

66,688 

81,806 
61,678 
74,781 
87,075 

11,416,075 
2,106,479 
1,480,278 
1,798,804 
1,988,071 

I8500 
26-75 
84  HX) 
9400 
92-26 

97.809 

127,480 
105,748 

81.960,406 
2.962,086 
8,096,208 
2,028,664 
2,168,171 

(b)    888 
ib)    868 
(6)1,169 
(6)1,091 
ib)    909 

$16,187 
14.968 
22,288 
80.781 
16,806 

$16-18 
17-49 
lO-OT 
19*05 
18*09 

(a)  Includes  alumina,  alum,  alum  cake,  aluminum  sulphate,  aluminous  cake,  and  ahun  in  crrstals  or  frround. 
(ft)  There  was  also  imported  in  1896, 1.206  short  tons  ($76,884)  of  aluminum  hydrate,  or  refined  hauxite.  in  1899 
1,926  short  tons  ($119.»2).  in  1900,  2,207  short  tons  ($148,882),  in  1901, 1,986  short  tons  ($146,462),  and  In  1908, 88i 
short  tons  ($21,236).    (c)  Throui^h  the  courtesy  of  the  United  States  Oeologrlcal  Survey. 

*•  Aluminum  Worlds  (^tober,  1908. 

*«  SUctrockemiedl  InduMtry^  No.  1. 1908;  EUetrical  Review,  New  York,  Nor.  16, 19Q8L 


ALUMINUM  AND  ALUM.  35 

According  to  the  Twelfth  Census  report  of  the  United  States  there  were  13 
concerns  engaged  in  the  manufacture  of  alum  in  the  United  States  in  1900, 
whose  aggregate  production  was  as  follows:  3,290  tons  ($108,308)  of  ammonia 
alum;  7,100  tons  ($215,004)  of  potash  alum;  8,014  tons  ($403,100)  of  burnt 
alum;  51,508  tons  ($1,062,547)  of  concentrated  alum,  also  known  as  aluminum 
sulphate,  2,024  tons  ($34,047)  of  alum  cake;  and  17,796  tons  ($629,570)  of 
other  alums.  The  total  make  was  therefore  89,734  tons,  valued  at  $2,446,576. 
For  this  purpose  there  was  consumed  34,000  tons  ($230,000)  of  bauxite,  5,000 
tons  ($110,000)  of  cryolite,  2,000  tons  ($4,100)  of  salt  cake  and  niter  cake, 
360  tons  ($21,900)  of  ammonium  sulphate,  477  tons  ($19,600)  of  potassium 
sulphate,  and  61,424  tons  of  sulphuric  acid.  In  making  the  acid,  there  was  used 
3,323  tons  ($66,000)  of  brimstone,  49,081  tons  ($107,000)  of  pyrites,  and  513 
tons  ($18,000)  of  sodium  nitrate.  The  statistics  of  alum  production  are  re- 
ported in  tons  of  2,000  lb.,  and  the  values  are  for  the  product  at  the  works. 
Of  the  13  works  engaged  in  the  business,  six  are  in  Pennsylvania,  three  in 
Massachusetts  and  the  remaining  four  in  Illinois,  New  York  and  Michigan. 

The  following  named  com»panies  produced  either  alum  or  aluminum  sulphate, 
or  both  of  these  salts  during  1902:  General  Chemical  Co.,  Pennsylvania  Salt 
Manufacturing  Co.,  Harrison  Brothers,  Charles  Lennig  &  Co.,  Erie  Chemical  Co., 
Cochrane  Chemical  Co.,  Merrimac  Chemical  Co.,  and  Detroit  Chemical  Co. 

New  York  Market. — New  York  price  of  lump  alum  during  1902  was  $1*75  per 
100  lb.  For  ground  alum  the  price  during  the  first  three  weeks  of  January 
was  $1"80  per  100  lb.  for  the  balance  of  the  year  it  remained  steady  at  $1*85; 
powdered  alum  was  quoted  at  $3  per  100  lb.  during  the  entire  year.  Com- 
mercial aluminum  sulphate  was  quoted  at  $1*15@$1'25  per  100  lb.,  and  the 
purest  quality  at  $2. 

Natural  Alum. — The  productipn  of  alum  shale  in  the  United  Kingdom  in 
1901  was  4,019  long  tons,  valued  at  $2,470,  as  compared  with  1,329  long  tons, 
valued  at  $820  in  1900.  The  Australian  Alum  Co.,  at  BuUadelah,  New  South 
Wales,  during  1901  shipped  to  the  United  Alkali  Co.'s  works  at  Runcorn,  Eng- 
land, 3,146  long  tons  of  alunite,  valued  at  £9,438,  as  compared  with  1,915  tons, 
ralued  at  £5,745  in  1900. 

JtoZy.— (By  Giovanni  Aichino.) — The  deposit  of  alunite  at  Tolfa  near  Civi- 
tavecchia is  the  only  source  of  this  mineral  in  Italy,  and  the  production  of  alum 
salts  from  this  deposit  is  decreasing  on  account  of  the  general  condition  of  the 
market  and  of  the  increased  difficulties  in  mining.  During  1901  the  produc- 
tion of  alunite  amounted  to  6,200  metric  tons,  of  which  4,100  tons  were  ex- 
ported, the  remainder  being  manufactured  by  the  Compagnie  Generale  delFAl- 
lume  at  Civitavecchia  into  alum  595  metric  tons,  refined  alum  210  tons  and 
aluminum  sulphate  860  tons. 


AMMONIA  AND  AMMONIUM  SULPHATE. 

By  H£Nry  Fisher. 

The  production  of  ammonia  (reported  as  its  equivalent  sulphate  salt)  and 
ammonium  sulphate  by  by-product  coke  oven  plants  in  the  United  States  during 
1902  is  estimated  at  65,000  metric  tons,  and  for  1901  at  60,000  metric  tons, 
which  shows  the  active  development  of  this  industry  due  chiefly  to  the  increase 
in  the  number  of  by-product  coke  ovens  now  in  operation.  The  manufacture  of 
ammonia  and  ammonium  sulphate  in  the  United  States  and  in  Europe  during 
recent  years  is  discussed  in  complete  detail  in  the  paper  by  Dr.  P.  Schniewind, 
on  *The  Manufacture  of  Coke,  with  Especial  Reference  to  the  Markets  for  By- 
products," which  is  given  in  The  Mineral  Industry,  Vol.  X.,  pp.  135  to  166. 

The  imports  of  ammonium  sulphate  into  the  United  States,  from  1898  to 
1902,  were  as  follows : — 


Yew. 

Pounds. 

Metric  Tons. 

Value. 

Value  per 
Metric  Ton. 

Iggg 

11.067,708 
17,181,968 
84.084,188 
81,711,06S 
85,686,6fi8 

5,016 
7;786 
10,897 
14,884 
16,119 

406,6778 
601,987 
788,066 
868,036 

$41-88 
68'86 

18B9 

1900 

54*98 

1901 

BO'Vi 

1908 ; 

68'8S 

The  world's  production  of  ammonium  sulphate  during  1902  exceeded  548,500 
metric  tons,  as  compared  with  523,000  metric  tons  in  1901.  Of  this  quantity, 
Germany  contributed  135,000  tons  and  France  65,000  tons.  The  product  is  used 
mainly  in  the  manufacture  of  fertilizers. 

The  following  table  shows  the  world's  production  of  ammonium  sulphate  and 
exports  of  sodium  nitrate  from  Chile,  the  latter  being  practically  identical  with 

world's  production  of  ammonium  sulphate  and  sodium  nitrate,     (a) 

(in  metric  tons.) 


1896. 

1899. 

1900. 

1901. 

1908. 

.  Ammonium  sulphate: 

Oreat  Britain       7   

198,800 
100,000 
49,000 
85,000 
80,000 
80,000 

808,000 
110,000 
68.000 
86,000 
88,000 
80,000 

810,000 
180,000 
68,000 
87,000 
88,000 
86,000 

880,000 
180,000 
60.000 
88,000 
85,000 
40,000 

996,600 

186,000 

TTnltAd  HtatMi 

66,000 

frnuioe        

40,000 

88,000 

Austria,  Russia,  Spain,  and  other  European  countries 

46.000 

Total  production ,...,,..,,-.  t 

440,600 

1,806,000 
87,880 

197,970 

468,000 

1,870,000 
08.600 

814,400 

496,000 

1,480,000 
97,610 

888,800 

fill 

648,600 

Sodium  nitrate: 
Exports  from  Chile,  -t -r --t - 

1.886,000 

Nitrofren  equivalent  in  metric  tons  of  world's  sulphate ) 
ports f 

118,980 
806,980 

Total 

885.190 
80  W 

$808-80 
191  05 

807,080 
30V 

$848-80 
88810 

881,410 
80891 

$844-16 
886-60 

«:8 

881,980 

Peroentafre  of  sulfdiate 

a6-u 

Price  of  8.000  lb.  nitrogen  at  Liverpool,  in- 
Siilohate  (iOAOl  lb  1 

$800*00 

NItmte  fia.77fi  lb  1 

868-80 

(a)  teiUchritt  titer  angewandte  Chemie,  April  83, 1901:  VBngrai*^  Jan.  84, 1908  and  1908;  Annual  Report  of 
t)ke(Hnnan  Sulpnate  Syndicate  for  1901. 


AMMONIA  AND  AMMONIUM  SULPHATE. 


37 


the  world's  production.  This  table  shows  (1)  that  the  nitrogen  equivalent  of 
the  sulphate  production  is  only  about  one-half  that  of  sodium  nitrate.  (2)  That 
the  production  of  sulphate  has  been  constantly  increasing  even  during  the  period 
when  the  price  of  its  nitrogen  equivalent  was  higher  than  that  of  nitrate.  The 
progress  will  doubtless  be  continued. 

The  average  prices  per  100  lb.  of  gas  liquor  ammonium  sulphate,  basis  25%, 
in  New  York  in  1899,  1900,  1901  and  1902,  were  as  follows:— 


Year. 

Jan. 

Feb. 

Mar. 

April. 

May. 

$8  975 

8-781 
8085 

June. 

July. 

Aug. 

Sept 

Oct. 

Nov. 

Dee. 

ATerage. 

18B9 

$8-716 
81W 
8-788 
8-987 

$8*088 

^-986 

8-801 

8ira7 

$8-887 
8-061 
8-818 
8-881 

$8-810 
8-961 
8-700 
8-978 

$8-887 
8-840 
8-750 
8109 

$8190 
8-786 
8-781 
8-001 

S8-111 
8-885 
8-745 
8-968 

$8-066 
8-756 
8-709 

;i-oi9 

$8-976 
8-750 
8-819 
8-969 

$8-860 
8-776 
8-880 
8-966 

$8-995 
8-776 
8-794 
8-019 

$8-988 

1900 

8-888 

1901      

8*771 

1901 

8-978 

Oertnany, — The  report^  of  the  German  Ammonia  Syndicate  of  Bochum  for 
the  year  1902  states  that  the  year  has  been  signalized  by  favorable  conditions 
for  the  production  and  sale  of  ammonium  sulphate,  in  marked  contrast  to  the 
previous  year.  English  competition  was  not  as  active  as  in  1901,  and  the  aver- 
age price  obtained  for  the  ammonium  sulphate  was  considerably  above  that  of 
the  previous  year.  The  German  syndicate  prices  are  primarily  controlled  by 
the  position  of  the  nitrate  market,  and  in  1902  these  prices  were  influenced 
also  by  considerable  stocks  on  hand  at  the  beginning  of  the  year,  Which  had  to 
be  disposed  of  mostly  at  the  prices  ruling  in  1902.  The  average  price  for  1902, 
on  the  basis  of  percentage  of  nitrogen,  was  equal  to  that  obtained  for  nitrate, 
although  this  has  not  been  the  case  previous  to  this  year.  The  imports  of 
ammonium  sulphate  into  Germany  in  1902  were  44,260  tons,  as  compared  with 
44,400  in  1901,  32,000  tons  being  shipped  from  the  United  Kingdom.  The 
syndicate  not  only  marketed  its  output,  but  sold  in  addition  9,000  tons  of  old 
stock,  due  to  the  appreciation  of  the  value  of  ammonium  sulphate  for  agri- 
cultural purposes,  and  its  use  in  place  of  Chilean  nitrate.  The  replacement  was 
partly  caused  by  the  speculative  operations  of  a  Hamburg  importer,  who  at  the 
beginning  of  the  year  increased  the  price  of  nitrate,  so  that  the  farmers  were, 
forced  to  buy  ammonium  sulphate.  The  production  of  the  syndicate  -works 
in  1902  was  67,000  tons;  the  deliveries  were  62,465  tons,  as  compared  with 
48,957  tons  in  1901;  while  the  exports  showed  a  decrease,  being  only  3,500 
tons,  as  compared  with  9,275  tons  in  the  previous  year.  The  production  of 
strong  amrooniacal  solution  was  3,089  tons,  and  weak  solution  15,470  tons,  a 
total  of  18,559  tons,  as  compared  with  9,519  tons  in  1901.  The  syndicate?, 
which  added  three  companies  to  its  membership  during  1902,  also  sold  am- 
monium sulphate  for  a  number  of  gas  works  and  private  firms. 

United  Kingdom. — According  to  the  annual  report  of  the  Chief  Inspector  of 
Alkali  Works,  etc.,  for  the  United  Kingdom,  the  production  of  ammonium 
sulphate  during  1901  amounted  to  217,213  long  tons,  as  compared  with  213,726 
long  tons  in  1900.  The  expected  increase  in  the  output  of  ammonium  sulphate 
by  the  coke  ovens  has  not  taken  place,  due  to  the  depressed  condition  of  the  iron 
industry.  The  unofficial  figures  for  1902  state  that  the  production  amounted 
to  221,600  long  tons.     The  production  from  the  different  works  was  as  follows : — 

*  Iron  and  Coal  Trade9  Review,  LXVI.,  April  88, 1906^  107Q. 


38 


THE  MINERAL  INDUSTRY. 


STATISTICS   OF   AMMONIUM    SULPHATE    PRODUCTION    AND    CONSUMPTION   OP    THB 
UNITED  KINGDOM  FBOM  1896  TO  1902,  INCLUSIVE.       (a)    (LONG  TONS.) 


1806. 

1897. 

1898. 

1899. 

1900. 

1901. 

1908. 

197,000 
16,600 
88.000 
9.000 

158,000 
18,000 
87,000 
10,000 

180,000 
17,700 
87,800 
11,600 

188,788 
17,968 
88,780 
15,909 

149,419 
16,960 
87,987 
17,081 

ilil 

146,000 
17,000 
88,000 
90.600 

From  shftlff  works. ,  r ............. . 

Frt>m  ooke  OTens,  producers,  etc.. 

Totel  productioD 

190,600 
6^000 

498,000 
45,000 

198,600 
59,600 

906,790 
87,800 

918,796 
84,700 

(6)917,918 
89,800 

(c)  981,600 
68,748 

Consumption  of  United  Kin^om. 

cep( 


(a)  ZeitBcnrift  fuer  angttoanau  Ghemie^  April  88,  iwi.and  BraOtwry  &  Hirseh't  Review  for  1908,  ex- 
^>tixifr  for  1899, 1900  and  1001,  whfeh  are  from  the  AnntuU  Rtport  of  ths  Chief  humeetoro/AUeali  Worke,  etc. 
(h)  Of  this  amount,  Ensbrnd  furnished  189,716  tons;  Scotland,  76,068  tons;  and  Ireland.  9^  tons.    (c>Of  this 
amount,  it  is  estimatedf  that  England  oontributed  145,000  tons;  Scotland,  74,000  tons;  and  Ireland,  9,600  tons. 

In  the  removal  of  hydrogen  sulphide  from  the  gases  evolved  in  the  manu- 
facture of  ammonium  sulphate  by  the  Hemingway  iron  sulphite  process,  the 
following  reaction  takes  place: — 

PeS08+3HaS=FeS+3S+3H,0. 

The  exports  of  the  United  Kingdom  during  1902  were  162,764  long  tons, 
of  which  10,084  tons  were  shipped  to  the  United  States.  The  consumption  of 
the  United  Kingdom  in  1902  is  assumed  to  be  68,746  long  tons,  the  difference 
between  the  production  and  exports. 


ANTIMONY. 

Bt  Joseph  Stbuthbbs. 

The  process  of  smelting  antimony  ores  arid  refining  the  metallic  product  is 
one  of  extreme  difficulty,  and  very  few  metallurgists  know  the  complete  details 
of  modem  practice.  Successful  smelting,  therefore,  can  only  be  accomplished 
under  special  conditions.  This  fact,  together  with  large  production  of  the 
metal  in  foreign  countries,  the  recent  removal  of  the  import  duty  on  crude  anti- 
mony and  cheap  ocean  freight  rates  from  foreign  countries,  hinders,  if  not 
precludes,  the  profitable  production  of  antimony  metal  from  domestic  ores  in 
the  United  States. 

There  was  but  little,  if  any,  metallic  antimony  produced  from  domestic 
ores  in  the  United  States  during  1902,  due  to  the  tariflp  decision  rendered  April 
22,  1902,  before  the  United  States  General  Appraisers  at  New  York,  which  re- 
moved the  former  20%  ad  valorem  duty  on  crude  antimony  (the  partly  refined 
sulphide  ore),  thus  placing  it  on  the  free  list.  The  production  of  metallic  anti- 
mony from  domestic  ores  during  1901  amounted  to  but  50  tons,  an  extremely 
small  quantity  when  compared  with  the  total  annual  consumption  of  this  metal 
in  the  United  States. 

Practically  the  entire  control  of  the  production  and  trade  in  antimony  is  in 
the  hands  of  Mathison  &  Co.,  of  London,  which  operates  the  smelting  plant 
at  Chelsea,  Staten  Island,  N.  Y.,  and  the  works  of  the  affiliated  concern,  the 
Chapman  Smelting  Co.,  of  San  Francisco,  Cal.  Since  the  removal  of  the 
duty  on  crude  antimony  the  works  of  the  Chapman  Smelting  Co.,  which  formerly 
smelted  the  entire  domestic  output  of  antimony  ores  in  the  United  States,  has 
been  closed.  Under  existing  conditions  it  is  very  probable  that  from  time  to 
time  small  lots  of  domestic  antimony  ore  will  be  offered  for  treatment  in  the 
United  States,  but  it  is  doubtful  if  there  will  be  any  marked  progress  in  the 
production  of  metallic  antimony  from  domestic  ores  in  the  United  States  imless 
the  industry  is  aided  by  legislation. 

It  has  not  been  possible  to  ascertain  the  actual  quantity  of  metallic  anti- 
nv)ny  produced  in  the  United  States  from  imported  ores,  but  on  the  assumption 
of  an  average  extraction  of  42%  of  metal  from  the  net  quantity  of  antimony 
ore  imported  during  1902,  i.e.,  allowing  for  re-export,  the  production  from  this 
source  amjounted  to  716  short  tons,  as  compared  with  364  short  tons  in  1901. 

The  quantity  of  antimony  contained  in  the  net  imports  of  regains  or  metal 
during  1902  amounted  to  2,858  short  tons,  as  compared  with  1,837  short  tons 
in  1901. 

The  antimony  content  of  the  10,485  short  tons  of  hard  lead  produced  in  the 
United  States  during  1902  as  a  by-product  from  smelting  both  domestic  and, 
foreign  ores  amounted  to  2,904  short  toi^s. 


40 


THE  MINERAL  INDUSTRY. 


The  aggregate  quantity  of  antimony  metal,  or  its  equivalent  in  antimony  alloyg 
or  salts,  produced  from  the  above-mentioned  sources  in  the  United  States  during 
1902  amoimted  to  12,486,000  Ib.^  as  compared  with  8,971,884  lb.  in  1901. 

A  large  part  of  the  domestic  demand  for  antimony  metal,  particularly  for 
manufacture  into  anti-friction  and  similar  alloys,  is  supplied  in  the  form  of 
antimonial  or  hard  lead,  containing  generally  from  18  to  27%  Sb. 

The  statistics  of  imports,  production  and  consumption  of  antimony  in  the 
United  States,  from  1898  to  1902,  inclusive,  are  given  in  the  subjoined  table. 


IMPORTS,   EXPORTS,   PRODUCTION   AND   CONSUMPTION   OF   ANTIMONY   IN   THE 

UNITED   STATES. 


Imports. 

Tear. 

Metal  or  Regulus. 

Ore. 

Total 
Value. 

$194,166 
888,689 
864,880 
278,507 
877,876 

Metal  Of  Regulus. 

Ore. 

18B6 

Pounds. 
8.085,188 
8,160,697 
8,689,848 
8,674,988 
5,496,988 

Value. 
1148,909 
240,988 
285,749 
266,846 
886,811 

Pounds 

8,7^^2^2 

8,982,188 
6,0a5,784 
1.781,966 
8,887,600 

Value. 

150,266 
47,841 
78,581 
24,256 
67,670 

Pounds. 
86,276 
16,816 
88,680 

m. 

87,184 

Value. 

11,789 
1.276 
8,862 

Pounds. 

84,818 

NiL 

Nil. 

40,666 
806,681 

Value. 
1784 

1899 

1900 

1901 

4,608 

1908 

8,710 

Tear. 

Production. 

Con- 
sumption. 

In  Hard 
Lead,  (a) 

mesticOres 

From  Im- 
Dorted 
Ores.  (6) 

From  Im- 
ported Regu- 
lus or  MeUl. 

Total 
Supply. 

1896.... 

Short  Tons. 
2,118 
1,586 
2,476 
2.286 
2,904 

Short  Tons. 
260 
284 
161 
60 
Nil 

Short  Tons. 

870 
1,041 
1,609 

864 

086 

Short  Tons. 
1,062 
1,496 
1,887 
1,887 
8,718 

Short  Tons. 
4.290 
4,866 
6,068 
4,488 
6,248 

1899 

1900 

1901 

1908 

(a)  Estimated  at  269C  of  the  total  quantity  of  haid  lead  produced,  except  for  1908  which  was  estimated  at 
2n%,    (b)  Estimated  40%  extraction  from  net  import  of  ore. 

The  large  increase  in  the  quantity  of  antimony  ores  and  regulus  imported 
and  exported  during  1902  has  been  due  to  a  peculiar  condition  of  the  freight 
rates  from  China,  which  strangely  enough  were  about  10s.  per  ton  from  China 
to  New  York,  and  308.  from  China  to  England.  The  freight  rate  from  New 
York  to  England  being  about  10s.  per  ton,  shipments  were  made  first  to  New 
York,  where  the  metal  was  trans-shipped  to  England,  thus  saving  practically  one- 
third  of  the  cost  of  direct  transportation. 

The  supply  of  antimony  for  domestic  consumption  as  metal  or  as  lead  alloy 
is  derived  from  the  following  sources:  (1)  hard  lead  produced  as  a  by-product 
from  the  smelting  or  refining  of  lead  ores  and  bullion  of  both  domestic  and 
foreign  origin,  (2)  imported  ores  or  crude  antimony,  (3)  imported  metal  or 
regulus,  and  (4)  domestic  ores.  The  only  antimony  ore  of  com!mercial  impor- 
tance in  the  United  States  is  stibnite,  antimony  trisulphide  (SbaS^),  and  while 
many  deposits  of  this  mineral  occur  in  the  Western  States,  the  production  of 
metal  therefrom  has  never  reached  an  important  position,  the  largest  quantity 
produced  annually  being  but  295  short  tons  in  1895  in  an  estimated  total  produc- 
tion of  4,000  tons  of  metal  from  all  sources.  Since  1895  the  production  of  anti- 
mony from  domestic  ores  has  declined  until  there  was  none  so  produced  in  1902, 


ANTIMONY. 


41 


WObLD'S  PRODUCTION 

OF  ANTIMONY  ORB.      {o) 

(in  METRIC  TONS.) 

Tear. 

Austria. 

BoUvia. 

France  and 
Algeria. 

Hungary. 

Italy. 

Japan. 

Mexico.  (/) 

1897... 

Tom. 
864 
679 
410 
901 
196 

Value. 
$»,966 
99,867 
16,944 
7.066 
4,667 

ITODS. 

Value. 

Tons. 
6,466 
4,571 
7,589 
7,986 
9,867 

Value. 
$88;588 
69,409 
180,498 
116,978 
156,884 

Tons. 
1,800 
9,901 
1,965 
9,878 
1,691 

Value. 

$84,668 
90,919 
84,905 
87,790 
19,600 

Tons. 
9,150 
1,981 
8,791 
7,609 
8,818 

Value. 

$87,667 
48,829 
44,869 
79,468 
68,618 

T^ns. 

848 
1,006 

719 
81 

(e) 

T6n8. 
5,878 
6,989 
10,889 
9,818 
M08 

Value. 

$n,886 
96,816 

116.999 
98,819 
61,064 

1886... 
1899... 
1900... 
1901... 

601  $iei,796 
1,918  454,866 
1,174    440,775 

190     88,809 

Tear. 

New  South 
Wales,  ih) 

New  Zealand. 

Portugal. 

Spain. 

Turkey.  (6)  (cf) 

United  Stotes. 

1897.... 

1896.... 

1899.... 

1900 

1901.... 

Tbos. 
179 

84 
889 
968 

90 

Value. 
$18,060 

4,580 
18,470 
19,146 

5,916 

Tons. 

10 

NU. 

NU. 

5 

80 

Value. 
fW8 

■  ■"605 
680 

Tons. 
417 
245 
59 
88 
6126 

Value. 

6,786 

2,128 

654 

2.650 

Tons. 

^t 

41 

NU. 
Nil. 

Value. 

*$i;666* 

Tons. 
864 

180 
60 
80 
10 

Value. 

$6,488 

^149 

1,660 

900 

160 

TOJM. 

400 

^% 

2ffr 

(e) 

Tons. 
464 

800 
100 

Value. 
$16,000 

''90^666 
10,500 
8,500 

(a)  The  foreign  statistics  are  derived  from  the  official  reports  of  the  several  governments;  those  for  the 
United  States  were  collected  specially  for  Trs  Minbbal  Ikdustrt.  (b)  Ebciwrt  ilgures.  («)  Not  yet  reported. 
id)  Fiscal  vears.  The  Turkish  statistics  are  of  doubtful  accuracy,  (e)  Mostly  crude  antimony.  (/)  &xport 
figures,  values  in  Mexican  dollars,    (g)  Statistics  not  collected,   ih)  Metal  and  ore. 

world's  PRODUCTION  OF  ANTIMONY  METAL.      (a)       (iN  METRIC  TONS.) 


i 

Austria. 

France  and 
Algeria. 

Qermany. 

id) 

Hungary.  (6) 

Italy. 

Japan. 

Servia. 

United 
States.  (/) 

1897 

Tons. 
424 
848 

271 
158 
114 

Vahie 
$51,860 
49,286 
88,772 
14,844 
10,484 

Tons. 
1,068 
1.226 
1,499 
1578 
1,786 

Value. 

$141,857 
163,200 
243,840 
246.090 
840,000 

Tons. 
1,665 
2,711 
8,14« 
8.888 
2,526 

Value. 
$156,111 
210,744 
802.H92 
847,200 
268,250 

Tons 
698 
855 
940 
888 
705 

Value. 
$68,860 
109,681 
189.502 
122,400 
82,920 

Tons. 

404 

880 

581 

1,174 

1,721 

Value. 

$57,072 
62,660 
87,900 

164,860 

19^560 

Tons. 
824 
288 
229 
849 
(e) 

Tons. 

Value. 

Tons. 
9,777 
9,987 
9,596 
8,884 
9,406 

Value 
$409,846 

1806 
1899 
1900 
1901 

168 
180 
119 
948 

$98,789 
96,980 
89,868 
40,894 

519,188 
•526,087 
764,086 
425.024 

(a)  From  the  official  reports  of  the  respective  countries,  (b)  Crude  antimonv  and  regulus.  (cf)  Includes  man 
ganese.  (e)  Statistics  not  yet  available.  (/)  Includes  antimony  content  of  hard  lead  produced  during  the  year. 

Australia. — The  production  of  antimony  metal  in  New  South  Wales  during 
190?  amounted  in  value  to  £542. 

Borneo. — The  export  of  antimony  from  Borneo  during  1900  amounted  to  85 
tons. 

Canada. — The  Dominion  Antimony  Co.,  capitalized  at  $1,000,000,  was  or- 
ganized early  in  1903  to  exploit  the  gold-bearing  antimony  deposits  at  West 
Gore,  20  miles  from  Windsor,  Halifax  County,  Nova  Scotia.  The  property  is 
situated  two  miles  from  the  Midland  railroad. 

Chinaj — Antimony  sulphide  ore  is  mined  in  the  Hanchow  district,  1,000  miles 
west  of  Shanghai.  The  crude  ore  is  carried  by  boats  to  Hanchow  and  refined 
to  the  so-called  "Chinese-needle"  antimony  sulphide,  which  contains  Sb,  72*25% ; 
As,  1  to  1'5% ;  S,  26'25%,  and  a  trace  of  iron.  The  refined  product  is  shipped 
to  Shanghai  for  export  to  Hamburg,  London  and  New  York.  During  1902 
the  shipment  to  the  last-named  port  was  favored  by  cheap  freight  rates,  as  com- 
pared with  European  ports.  The  export  of  refined  antimony  sulphide  ore  from 
Shanghai  during  1902  amounted  to  2,200  long  tons,  as  compared  with  150  long 
tons  in  1901,  while  the  exports  of  partly  refined  ore  from  Hankow  during  1902 
are  reported  at  3,254  long  tons,  valued  at  $83,170,  as  compared  with  10,363 
long  tons,  valued  at  $285,675  in  1901. 

France. — There  were  26  antimony  mines  in  France  actively  operated  during 
1901-1902,  including  six  on  which  exploratory  work  only  had  been  miade.  The 
properties  are  situated  in  the  order. of  their  importance  in  the  following  dis- 
tricts:  Haute-Loire,  Mayenne,  Creuse,  Corse,  Cantal,  Arddche  and  Lozere. 


42 


THE  MINERAL  INDUSTRY. 


Mexico. — The  totimony  production  from  Catorce  in  the  State  of  San  Luis 
Potosi,  in  recent  years,  has  been  large  enough  to  dominate  the  price  of  the  metal 
in  Mexico.  The  ore  occurs  as  an  earthy  oxide  in  limestone  near  the  surface, 
and  as  shipped,  contains  more  than  45%  Sb.  A  metallurgical  plant  for  local 
treatment  of  lower  grade  ores  containing  from  30  to  40%  Sb  has  been  erected  at 
Wadley.    Heretofore  the  ore  has  been  shipped  to  Newcastle,  England. 

Portugal, — The  principal  antimony  mines  are  on  the  Commune  of  Qondomar, 
in  the  Porto  district;  the  ore  occurs  also  in  the  Braganza  district.  During 
1902  the  exports  of  antimony  ore  amounted  to  54  metric  tons,  valued  at  $1,720 
as  compared  with  126  tons,  valued  at  $2,650  in  1901. 

Turkey, — ^The  supply  of  antimony  ore  is  derived  from  the  mines  at  AUkhar, 
near  Rozdau,  and  near  Aidin.  The  export  shipments  of  ore  from  Salonica  during 
1900  amjounted  to  267  metric  tons,  valued  at  $13,965. 

The  New  York  Antimony  Market  in  1902, — ^Although  the  consumption  of 
antimony  in  1902  was  larger  than  in  1901,  the  market  was  rather  depressed 
throughout  the  year,  prices  ruling  considerably  below  the  figures  of  the  previous 
twelve  months.  Sales  of  wholesale  lots  were  difficult  to  effect.  The  Italian, 
French,  Japanese  and  Hungarian  brands  made  heavy  inroads  in  the  trade  pre- 
viously controlled  by  the  standard  English  (Cookson's  and  Halletfs)  brands, 
partly  on  account  of  the  fancy  prices  asked,  especially  for  Cookson^s  metal,  and 
partly  on  account  of  the  improving  quality  of  the  cheaper  grades. 

The  comparatively  easy  tone  of  the  antimonial  lead  market  also  tended  to 
restrict  the  demand  for  antimony. 

The  year  opened  with  Cookson's  selling  at  10c. ;  Hallett's,  8*25c. ;  Hungarian, 
Italian,  Japanese  and  TI.  S.  Star  at  7' 75c.  From  month  to  month  the  prices 
declined,  holders  being  anxious  to  sell  and  willing  to  make  concessions  for  fair- 
sized  orders.  The  market  closed  rather  dull  and  depressed  at  the  lowest  quota- 
tions of  the  year,  8  5@8-75c.  for  Cookson's,  7@7125c.  for  Halletffl,  6@8-75c. 
for  Italian,  French,  Japanese,  Hungarian  and  U.  S.  Star  brands. 


AVERAGE  MONTHLY  PRICES  OF  ANTIMONY  IN  NEW  YORK.      ( 

IN  CENTS  PER  POUND.) 

Year. 

Br&nd. 

Jan. 

Feb. 

MAr. 

April. 

May, 

J  tine. 

July. 

AUff. 

Sept, 

Oet 

Not. 

Dec. 

Year 

Oookson'B 

Hallett's 

8-00 
7*87 
7-60 
7-44 
9-81 
8-81 
8*81 

10^60 
9-76 
9*60 

10-00 
912 
9-S6 

8-00 
7-66 
7-69 
7-68 
10-«6 
988 
9*68 
9-82 

ib-BO 

9-75 
9-60 
lC-00 
9-22 
906 
8-76 
8-76 

io'oo 

8-04 
7-75 
7-75 
77B 
7-75 

8-26 
7-81 
7-81 
7-81 

10-87 
9-75 
9-7B 
975 
9-75 

10-60 
976 
9-60 

10*00 
8-90 
8-80 
876 
8-76 

8-06 
7-76 
775 
776 
775 

8-87 
7-96 
7-98 
7-90 

10-10 
9-80 
9-80 
9-80 
9-80 

10-60 
9-7S 
9-60 

10-31 
8-94 
878 
8-78 
878 
878 
9-87 
8-06 
776 
775 
7-76 
7-75 

9-20 

8-64 

8-64 

8-69 

10-60 

1000 

10-00 

10-00 

10-00 

10-60 

9-69 

9-50 

10-26 

876 

8*68 

8-6S 

8-68 

8-68 

9-87 

8-17 

7-90 

7-90 

790 

7-90 

9-65 

8-97 

8-97 

8-97 

10-60 

10-00 

10-00 

10-00 

10-00 

10-60 

9-62 

9-60 

10-25 

876 

8-68 

8-68 

8-68 

8-«8 

9-87 

825 

800 

8-0() 

800 

800 

9-75 
906 
9-06 
9-06 
10-60 
1000 
1000 
1000 

10-60 
9-68 
9-50 

10-26 
8-76 
8*68 
8-68 
8-68 
8-68 
976 
8-26 
8-00 
800 
800 
8-00 

976 
9-06 
906 
9-06 
10-60 
9-81 
9-81 

"9-76 
10-60 
9-60 
9-60 
10-26 
8-68 
8-60 
8-60 
8*60 
8-60 
976 
8-16 
7-90 
7-90 
7-90 
7-90 

9-76 
906 
9-06 
906 
10-60 
9-66 
9-66 

b-M 

10-10 
9-80 
9-80 

1018 
8-50 
8-87 
8-87 
8-87 
8-87 
9-69 
7-92 
7-65 
7-65 
7-66 
7-65 

970 
9-08 
9-08 
9-03 
10-60 
9-78 
9-60 

b-M 

1000 
9-25 
9-26 

10-09 
8-47 
8-84 
8-84 
8-84 
8-84 
9-44 
772 

7-»r 

7-87 
7-87 
7-87 

9-26 
8-81 
8-81 
8-81 
10-60 
9-76 
9-50 

'9-60 
10-00 
9-25 
9-26 
10-00 
8-87 
8-26 
8-26 
826 
8-26 
9*25 
7-44 
7-22 
7-22 
7-22 
7-22 

9-26 
8-81 
8-81 
8-81 
10  60 
9-76 
9-60 

'9-56 
10-00 
9-25 
9-25 
1000 
8-81 
8-00 
8-00 
800 
8-00 
9-90 
7-26 
692 
6  92 
69*.; 

9-08 
8-51 

1896.... 

U.  a  Star 

Japanese' 

Cookson's 

Hidlett^a 

8-6t 
8-61 
10-87 
9-67 

1809.... 
1900. . . . ' 

U.S.  Star 

Ohapmaa's. 

Hun|i;ariaD 

Oookion'a 

Hallett^ 

9-65 

10-84 
9*58 

U.S.  Star 

Oookfon'B 

Hallett^ 

9-42 
1012 
874 

1901.... 

U.S.  Star 

Hungrarian. ...... 

669 
8-61 

Italian.... 

8-61 

Japanese 

Cookson*! 

Hallett^ 

Vdob" 

817 
7-86 
7-86 
7-88 
7-86 

8-48 
9-71 
7-96 

1908.... 

U.S.  Star 

Hungarian 

Italian 

7-67 
7-67 

T-KT 

Japanese 

692     7-67 

ANTIMONY.  43 

Tbohnolooy. 

Electrolytic  Extraction  of  Antimony  from  Ores. — ^I.  Izart*  describes  a  process 
for  the  extraction  of  antiiDony  by  dissolving  the  antimony  sulphide  in  the  ore 
with  sodimn  snlphide.  The  solution  is  electrolyzed  in  a  vat  divided  by  a  dia- 
phragm, the  antimony  solution  being  put  in  the  cathode  compartment  while  the 
anode  compartment  is  filled  with  a  17%  caustic  soda  solution  to  which  sufficient 
ammonium  chloride  is  added  to  raise  the  sp.  gr.  to  that  of  the  antimony  solution. 
In  an  experimental  plant  at  Cassagnes,  France,  a  scaly,  lustrous  deposit  of  me- 
tallic antimony  was  obtained  with  a  current  density  of  0'8  ampere  per  square 
decimeter  and  an  electromotive  force  of  1'6  volts,  the  current  efficiency  being 
76%.  The  output  was  0'56  kg.  antimony  per  kilowatt  hour,  which  was  sub- 
sequently raised  to  0*621  kg.    (See  also  p.  226  of  this  volume.) 

Improved  Method  of  Antim/my  Smelting, — Thomas  C.  Sanderson,*  ctf  Chelsea, 
S.  I.,  New  York,  has  patented  a  continuous  method  of  antimony  smelting  which . 
has  been  in  successful  operation  for  more  than  a  year.  A  suitable  quantity  of 
ferrous  sulphide  is  melted  to  form  a  bath  on  the  hearth  of  a  reverberatory  fur- 
nace, and  after  shutting  off  the  draught,  the  hot  ore  is  charged  and  quickly  rabbled 
into  the  molten  bath ;  when  thoroughly  mixed,  scrap  iron  is  added  to  decompose 
the  antimony  sulphide.  The  temperature  of  the  furnace  is  then  raised,  the 
doors  being  closed,  and  when  sufficiently  hot,  the  contents  of  the  furnace  are 
thoroughly  rabbled.  When  the  reaction  is  completed,  the  metallic  antimony  is 
tapped  from  the  sump  of  the  furnace  until  iron  sulphide  fippears.  The  slag 
is  skimmed  from  the  bath  in  the  furnace,  and  a  sufficient  quantity  of  iron  sul- 
phide is  removed  to  lower  the  level  of  the  bath  to  its  original  position,  the 
furnace  then  being  ready  for  another  charge  of  ore.  Metallic  iron  is  sometimes 
added  and  rabbled  in  order  to  recover  a  small  quantity  of  antimony  from  the 
floating  slag,  which  being  most  part  alloyed  with  iron,  remains  in  the  furnace 
to  be  treated  with  the  next  charge.  Oxidized  ores  may  be  treated  in  a  similar 
way,  the  metal  being  reduced  by  iron  or  carbon,  or  both. 

N.  C.  Cookson  has  patented'  improvements  in  the  method  of  smelting  anti- 
mony ores  in  reverberatory  furnaces  to  prevent  volatilization. 

White  Antimony  Oxide. — ^A.  S.  Plows  has  patented*  a  process  of  making  white 
antimony  oxide,  in  which  the  ore  is  heated  to  a  bright  red  temperature,  and 
the  atmosphere  of  the  furnace  made  alternately  oxidizing  and  reducing  as  long 
as  antimonial  fumes  are  evolved.  Steam  is  injected  into  the  fumes  and  the 
antimony  oxide  is  condensed  and  collected  in  a  separate  chamber  provided  with 
means  to  extract  all  of  the  oxide  so  that  the  exit  gases  contain  not  even  a  trace. 

Determination  of  Antimony  and  Arsenic. — L.  B.  Skinner  and  R  H.  Hawley* 
have  published  a  method  for  determining  antimony  and  arsenic  in  mixed  pre- 
cipitated sulphides,  based  on  distilling  off  the  arsenic  after  adding  CuClj  and 
ZnCl,  and  titrating  the  AsCl,  with  I,  followed  by  distilling  the  antimony  with 

>  VEUetHciett^  XXD.,  I.,  p.  807  and  n.,  p.  88, 1908;  tOao  Journal  of  the  SoeUtp  of  Chemical  Jmduiirr,  ZXI., 
p.  107,  Oct  IB,  1«S. 

«  United  StfttesPMent  No.  714,040,  Nor.  18, 190B. 

■  BogUth  PMent  No.  90,981  of  1908. 

«  United  StatM  FBtent  No.  704,807,  July  8, 1908. 

•  WngtuBWimg  amd  MbUmg  Joumal,  p.  148,  Aug.  8, 1908. 


44  THE  MINBRAL  INDUBTRY 

HCl  gas,  precipitating  the  SbCl,  with  H,S,  and  weighing  the  Sb^S.,  formed. 
The  chloride  solution  for  arsenic  is  prepared  by  dissolving  300  g.  CuCla  cry- 
stals in  1  liter  of  HCl  (sp.  gr.  1*2),  and  adding  a  Solution  of  ZnClj  with  boil- 
ing point  of  180*'C.  The  ZnClj  solution  may  be  prepared  by  adding  1  lb.  stick 
zinc  to  1,250  c.c.  HCl  (sp.  gr.  1*2).  boiling  and  evaporating  to  bring  the  boil- 
ing point  to  180**  C.  The  I  in  1  c.c.  of  the  iodine  solution  corresponds  to  0*005  g. 
As.  It  is  prepared  by  dissolving  40  g.  KI  in  water,  adding  17  g.  I  and  diluting 
to  1  liter  when  the  I  is  dissolved.  In  order  to  standardize  it,  300  mg.  AsjOj 
are  dissolved  in  KOH  or  NaOH,  the  solution  is  diluted  to  1,200  c.c,  and  slightly 
acidified  with  HCl,  2  g.  NaHCOj  are  added,  and  the  titration  carried  to  a  per- 
manent blue.  A  check  should  be  made  by  dissolving  300  mg.  AsjOg  as  before, 
precipitating  with  HjS,  distilling  the  sulphide  (as  shown  below),  titrating  the 
distillate,  and  deducting  from  assays  the  number  of  c.c.  required  in  excess  of 
the  standard.  A  check  distillation  of  the  CuClg  and  200  mg.  C.  P.  Cu  is  neces- 
sary, and  the  distillate  titrated ;  the  number  of  c.c.  required  have  to  be  deducted. 
The  determination  is  as  follows :  Weigh  1  g.  ore,  place  in  a  casserole,  add  10  c.c. 
HNO,  (sp.  gr.  1*42)  and  warm.  When  the  evolution  of  red  fumes  ceases, 
add  10  c.c.  HjSO^  (sp.  gr.  1-84)  heat  only  to  copious  fumies  of  SO3,  as  arsenic 
is  liable  to  be  volatilized.  Allow  the  solution  to  cool,  add  40  c.c.  water  and 
10  c.c.  HCl,  and  boil  to  dissolve  all  soluble  mlatter.  If  antimony  is  to  be  deter- 
mined, add  H2C4H40e.  Filter  if  necessary,,  otherwise  wash  into  a  beaker,  reduce 
to  a  colorless  solution  with  a  mixture  of  one  part  NH^HSO^  and  two  parts  con- 
centrated NH4OH,  adding  it  drop  by  drop,  and  stirring  until  the  precipitate 
re-dissolves.  In  case  any  of  the  hydrates  formed  do  not  dissolve,  add  HCL 
In  the  presence  of  much  Au,  Se,  or  Te,  these  metals  will  be  precipitated  by  an 
excess  of  HjSOj,  and  will  darken  the  nearly  colorless  solution.  Darkening  of 
the  solution  shows  that  enough  reducing  agent  has  been  added.  Boil  to  drive 
off  excess  of  SOj,  introduce  H2S  in  a  rapid  stream  until  the  precipitates  begins 
to  collect,  filter,  wash  free  from  iron  salts,  and  test  filtrate  with  H,S.  Wash 
precipitate  with  dilute  HCl  (1  part  water  to  1  part  HCl,  sp.  gr.  1*2)  into  a  dis- 
tillation flask,  connected  with  a  Liebig  condenser  set  vertically.  Add  50  c.c. 
CuClj,  close  flask  with  a  rubber  stopper  containing  a  thermometer  reaching  to 
within  0*26  in.  of  the  bottom,  and  let  end  of  condenser  dip  0*5  in.  into  40  c.c. 
water  in  a  beaker.  Heat  to  115®C.  and  collect  distillate.  If  much  arsenic  is 
present,  remove  rubber  stopper,  add  16  c.c.  to  25  c.c.  strong  HCl  and  distil  again. 
Make  the  distillate  alkaline  with  NH^OH,  acidify  with  HCl,  cool,  add  2  g. 
NaHCOg,  then  starch  solution  and  titrate. 

If  antimony  is  to  be  determined,  replace  the  stopper  holding  the  thermomieter 
by  another,  with  a  glass  tube  reaching  nearly  to  the  bottom  of  flask  and  connect 
with  a  HCl  gas  generator.  Heat  the  distilling  flask  until  the  contents  are  nearly 
dry  and  collect  the  distillate  in  cold  water  as  before.  (Overheating  causes 
CuCla  to  pass  over.)  When  the  distillation  is  finished,  add  a  little  H2^i^fit\ 
to  distillate,  nearly  neutralize  with  NH^OH  and  pass  in  HjS.  If  colored  SbjS,, 
is  precipitated,  repeat  distillation  until  no  Sb  is  precipitated.  Filter  the  SbjS., 
through  a  Gooch  crucible,  heat  in  an  air  bath  at  225**C.  for  one  hour  and  weigh ; 
the   weight  obtained   multiplied    by   0*714  gives   the   antimony   oontent.     The 


ANTIMOIfT. 


45 


arppinc  and  antimony  distillations  take  about  15  minutes.  The  results  are  ac- 
r-urate,  and  0*6%  higher  than  those  obtained  by  the  Pearee  method  for  arsenic. 
In  the  presence  of  molybdenum,  however,  the  results  for  antimony  are  liable  to 
be  a  little  too  high.  Experiments  to  replace  CuCl,  with  Fe^Cl,  proved  unsatis- 
factory. 

Specific  Oravity  and  Composition  of  Hard  Lead. — The  determination  of  the 
exact  composition  of  a  hard  lead  alloy  containing  20%  Sb  has  been  made  by  F.  W. 
Kfifiter,  Ph.  Siedler,  and  A.  Thiel*  with  the  following  results: — 


SpedfloGraTity. 

ADtimony. 

Oorrection. 

Specific  Oravity. 

Antimooy. ' 

Oorrection. 

9-979 
9-974 
9-976 
9-9W 

9006 
9008 
9008 

1^« 

-^)06 
--008 
40-08 

9-977 
9-978 
9-979 
9*988 

9000 
19-98 
19-97 
19-98 

i 

000 

«  -4)08 

-4)08 

-4)08 

The  small  quantities  of  copper,  iron,  arsenic,  etc.,  which  occur  in  hard  lead  do 
not  interfere  with  the  determination.  When  making  the  determination,  carp 
must  be  taken  to  cool  the  alloy  gradually,  otherwise  the  outer  layer  may  cool 
first,  leaving  a  hard  shell  with  a  molten  interior,  which  on  cooling  contracts  and 
leaves  air  spaces. 


•  ChemUter  ZeiUmg,  XXVI.,  Not.  19, 1908,  p.  1107. 


ARSENIC. 

Bt  Joseph  Struthebs. 

The  production  of  arsenious  oxide  (white  arsenic)  in  the  United  States  during 
1902  was  1,353  short  tons,  as  compared  with  300  short  tons  in  1901.  The 
entire  product  was  made  by  the  Puget  Sound  Reduction  Co.,  at  Everett,  Wash., 
which  began  the  manufacture  of  this  important  product  in  1901.  The  largely 
increased  output  in  1902  is  a  very  favorable  sign  of  the  success  of  the  new 
industry.  Aside  from  the  arsenic  ores  which  occur  in  the  United  States,  there 
are  several  chemical  and  metallurgical  by-products  rich  in  arsenic — as  speiss  from 
the  lead  smelters,  and  precipitated  arsenic  sulphide  produced  in  the  purification 
of  sulphuric  acid — which  should  be  utilized  in  some  way  to  replace  the  large 
quantities  of  arsenic  compounds  that  are  imported  annually  from  Europe  and 
Canada.  The  occurrence  of  arsenic  ores  and  the  metallurgical  practice  of  Eng- 
land and  Germany  are  described  in  Vols.  II.  and  IV.  of  The  Mineral  Industry. 

Imports. — The  quantity  and  value  of  the  imports  into  the  United  States  of 
white  arsenic  (arsenious  oxide),  metallic  arsenic  and  arsenic  sulphides  (orpi- 
ment  and  realgar)  during  the  past  five  years  are  as  follows:  1898 — 8,686,681  lb. 
($370,347) ;  1899—9,040,871  lb.  ($386,791)  ;  1900—5,765,559  lb.  ($265,500) ; 
1901—6,989,668  lb.  ($316,525);  and  1902—6,110,898  lb.  ($280,055). 

New  York  Market — The  average  monthly  price  of  white  arsenic  at  New  York 
during  1902  was  as  follows :  January,  3*34c.  per  lb. ;  February,  3'58c. ;  March, 
3'5c. ;  April,  3'37c. ;  May,  3'25c. ;  June,  3'16c. ;  July,  3'04c. ;  August  to  Decem- 
ber (Inclusive),  2'94c.,  giving  an  average  of  3*16c.  per  lb.  for  the  entire  year, 
as  compared  with  3*92c.  during  1901.  The  average  monthly  price  of  red  arsenic 
(from  Gtermany)  at  New  York  during  1902  was:  January,  7'03c.  per  lb.-;  Febru- 
ary, 7c. ;  March,  6'87c. ;  April,  6'63c. ;  May,  6*72c. ;  June  to  December  (inclusive);, 
6*88c.,  giving  an  average  of  6'86c.  per  lb.  during  the  entire  year,  as  compared 
with  7'04c.  during  1901.  Pure  Paris  green  in  bulk  sold  at  ll@12'5c.  per  lb. 
during  1902,  as  compared  with  12@12'5c.  during  1901. 

Prior  to  1899  the  world^s  supply  of  arsenic  and  arsenical  compounds  was 
derived  chiefly  from  the  mines  at  Cornwall  and  Devon,  England,  and  at  Frei- 
burg, Germany,  but  the  closing  of  the  Devon  Great  Consols  mine,  near  Tavistock, 
in  1901,  called  for  an  increased  or  new  supply  from  other  localities.  In  1900 
Canada  contributed  a  small  quota,  which  has  since  been  largely  increased,  and 
in  1901  the  United  States  became  a  producer  on  a  small  scale,  and  more  than 
quadrupled  its  output  for  1902. 


ABSEma 


47 


The  statistics  of  the  world's  production  of  arsenic  and  its  compounds  are 
given  in  the  subjoined  table: — 

THE  world's  production  OP  METALLIC  ARSENIC  AND  ITS  COMPOUNDS.      (a)    (/) 

(in  metric  TONS.) 


1 

Germany. 

Japan. 

United 
Kingdom,  (e) 

Canada.  («) 

Prussia. 

Saxony.  (Jb) 

Italy,  (c) 

Portugal. 

Spain.  «0 

1807 
1886 
1889 
1900 
19m 

Tons. 
NiL 
NiL 
68 
975 
680 

Value 
41,676 

TonB. 
1,984 
i;684 
1,460 
1,688 
1,446 

Value. 
$148,775 
191,818 
188,678 
188,668 
108.480 

Tons 
1,068 
1,063 
968 
889 
1,100 

Value. 
$168,128 
181,710 
188,678 
194,687 
148,168 

Tons. 
900 
915 
804 
190 

Illil 

Tons. 
18 
7 
6 
6 

684 

751 

1,088 

1081 

687 

Value. 

180.869 
44^ 
61,866 
68,588 

a6,8r7 

Tons. 
944 
111 
101 
150 
180 

Value. 

•as 

18,166 
18,086 
14,400 

Tons. 
4,888 
4,941 
8,890 
<148 
8,416 

Value. 
$878,975 
1b8,985 
971,180 
885,140 
197,970 

(a)  From  official  reports  of  the  respectiye  oountriea.  (6)  Arsenious  oxide,  (c)  Metallic  arsenic  and  arseni- 
ous  add.  (d)  Natural  arsenic  sulphide;  does  not  include  the  manufactured  oxide,  (e)  Anenious  oxide.  (/) 
874  metric  tons  of  orpiment  and  realgar,  Talued  at  $91,600,  were  exported  from  Turkey  during  1900;  the  pro- 
duction of  arsenious  oxide  in  the  United  States  during  1901  was  978  metric  tons,  Talued  at  $18,000. 

Canada. — ^The  production  of  arsenious  oxide  (white  arsenic)  in  Canada  during 
1902  was  800  short  tons,  valued  at  $48,000,  as  compared  with  696  short  4ons, 
valued  at  $41,676  in  1901.  The  entire  production  was  made  by  the  Canadian 
Goldfields,  Ltd.,  at  the  Deloro  mine,  Ontario,  in  connection  with  the  extraction 
of  gold  from  arsenical  pyrites  by  the  Sulman-Teed  bromo-cyanide  process.  Mr. 
P.  Barkgaard  has  kindly  contributed  the  following  description  of  the  present 
method  of  treatment:  The  mispickel  when  pure  has  the  composition: 
Pe,  34-35% ;  S,  19*64% ;  As,  46*01%.  The  mined  ore  is  chiefly  quartz,  more 
or  less  heavily  impregnated  with  mispickel,  which  is  gold  bearing.  It  is  crushed 
in  a  30-stamp  mill,  wherein  an  average  of  from  57  to  60%  of  the  gold  value  is 
recovered  by  amalgamation,  and  the  tailings  from  the  plates  are  concentrated  on 
Wilfley  and  [Bartlett  tables  to  a  product  assaying  about  SiOj,  18*63%;  Pe, 
29-26%;  S,  1544%;  As,  28-75%,  and  undetermined,  7-92%.  The  gold  is  ex- 
tracted therefrom  by  the  Sulman-Teed  bromo-cyanide  process,  whereby  a  re- 
covery of  about  90-5%  is  eflPected,  which,  added  to  the  recovery  by  amalgamation, 
gives  a  total  winning  of  from  88  to  90%  of  the  gold  content  of  the  original  ore. 

After  the  leaching  of  the  gold,  the  mispickel  concentrates  (40-mesh  size)  con- 
taining an  average  of  As,  30%  and  S,  16%  are  roasted  in  two  Oxland  furnaces, 
arranged  in  series.  The  first  is  29*5X5*5  ft.,  and  the  second  is  60X6*5  ft.  A 
tube  conveys  the  ore  from  the  first  to  the  second  furnace  on  the  lower  level.  The 
furnaces  are  divided  internally  into  quadrants  by  means  of  tiling  (evidently 
an  adaptation  of  the  Roth  well  diaphragms)  which  extends  to  within  4  ft  of 
the  feed  end,  where  spiral  ribs  are  arranged  to  enable  the  ore  to  pass  down  into 
the  compartments.  The  first  cylinder  is  operated  by  mechanical  draft;  the 
second  has  an  independent  fireplace  and  chimney.  Nearly  all  of  the  arsenic  is 
volatilized  in  the  first  furnace,  the  burnt  ore  therefrom  assaying  about 
SiO„  43'23%  ;  ¥e^0^,  44*66% ;  S,  5*06% ;  As,  0*36%,  and  undetermined,  6*60%. 

The  fumes  from  both  furnaces  are  drawn  mechanically  through  a  dust  chamber 
100  ft.  long,  arranged  to  discharge  the  settlings  automatically  back  into  the 
first  fomaoe  and  then  through  zigzag  chambers  12  ft.  wide,  in  which  the  pure 
white  arsenic  is  deposited  and  drawn  by  gravity  into  cars  beneath  the  chambers. 


48  THE  MINERAL  INDUSTRY. 

The  product  resulting  from  this  operation  is  a  crude  arsenic  containing  about 
AS2O3,  85%,  and  S,  2  to  4%,  the  balance  being  silica  in  a  finely  divided  state. 

The  crude  arsenic  is  aublimed  in  two  specially  designed  single-hearth  re- 
verberatory  furnaces,  the  charge  in  each  case  being  1,600  lb.  Each  furnace  has 
a  capacity  of  three  charges  per  24  hours.  The  arsenic,  upon  being  volatilized, 
is  driven  through  a  long  hot  flue  and  thence  into  an  uptake  or  hot  chamber; 
during  the  passage  through  these  any  imipurities  that  may  have  been  carried 
over  with  the  highly  heated  gases  are  deposited  when  the  cooling  commences,  be- 
ing assisted  by  mechanical  means,  throughout  a  series  of  cooling  chambers. 
When  the  gases  have  been  cooled  to  80  °F.  they  are  forcibly  ejected  into  a  large 
condenser  and  made  to  expand  and  contract  alternately  imtil  perfectly  cooled  and 
free  from  arsenic.    They  then  escape  into  the  open  air. 

The  resultant  arsenious  oxide  is  pure;  analyses  showing  from  99*6  to  100% 
AsaOj.  The  impurity  is  silica,  doubtless  derived  from  the  mortar  and  brick  of 
which  the  chambers  are  built.  The  refined  arsenic  is  withdrawn  from  the  chambers 
every  two  weeks;  it  is  dropped  into  hutches,  which  are  tightly  closed  for  the 
double  purpose  of  keeping  the  oxide  warm  as  long  as  possible  and  preventing 
the  escape  of  the  poisonous  dust  into  the  building.  Finally,  the  arsenic  is  ground 
to  a  200-me8h  size  and  a  conveyor  takes  it  to  the  packer,  where  it  is  automatically 
packed  in  substantial  wooden  kegs  containing  an  average  of  500  lb.  each  and  is 
ready  for  the  market. 

A  new  occurrence  of  native  arsenic  has  been  reported  at  the  Corporation 
(Forsyth)  quarry,  near  Montreal,  Ontarioi  The  mineral  occurs  in  concentric  lay- 
ers forming  masses  often  of  several  pounds  in  weight.  An  analysis  gives  As, 
9814%  ;  Sb,  1-65% ;  S,  016%  ;  insoluble,  015%.  No  silver,  bismuth,  or  other 
metal  was  found. 

France. — The  production  of  arsenic  ore  in  France  during  1901  amounted  to 
7,500  metric  tons,  valued  at  $38,000.  The  entire  outpiut  ^as  derived  from  two 
mifepickel  properties  in  Villani^re  et  dn  Salsigne  (Aude). 

Oermany. — The  production  of  arsenic  ore  in  Germany  during  1901  was  4,060 
metric  tons,  valued  at  $78,000,  as  compared  with  4,380  tons  in  1900,  valued  at 
$79,000. 

India, — Arsenic  sulphide  ores  occur  at  Munsiari,  in  K^umaon,  Chitral,  in  the 
Punjab,  and  in  various  localities  in  Upper  Burma  and  Unan.  The  annual 
imports  of  orpiment  and  realgar  during  the  past  three  years  have  averaged 
638,400  lb.  The  foreign  imports  in  1900-1901  amounted  to  309,792  lb.,  valued 
at  56,390  rupees,  and  were  derived  mainly  from  Germany,  the  United  Kingdom, 
Hongkong,  and  the  Straits  Settlements.  It  is  impossible  to  determine  what 
proportion  of  the  imports  of  pigments  (if  any)  represent  arsenic,  but  the  con- 
sumption of  white  arsenic,  orpiment  and  realgar  in  the  industries  of  India  must 
be  extensive. 

Italy. — ^During  1901  there  were  produced  6  metric  tons  of  arsenic  ore,  valued 
at  $96. 

Spain. — A  white  arsenic  works  has  been  established  at  Badalona,  near  Barce- 
lona, by  Messrs.  Giron^s  and  Henrich,  to  treat  the  arsenical  pyrites  of  Caralps 


ARSENIC.  49 

in  the  Province  of  Gerona.  It  is  reported  that  these  works  produce  10  tons  per 
diem  of  pure  white  arsenic  assaying  from  99-8  to  99-9%  arsenious  oxide. 

United  Kingdom. — The  arsenic  industr}'^  in  England  during  1902  has  been 
greatly  depressed,  as  the  price  obtainable  for  white  arsenic  fell  to  so  low  a 
figure  that  its  manufacture  from  arsenic  ores  became  unprofitable  in  many  cases. 
Undergroimd  mining  at  the  Devon  Great  Consols  Co.,  Ltd.,  was  discontinued 
early  in  1902  pending  negotiations  aflPecting  the  renewal  of  the  lease  of  the 
mines.  The  production  of  arsenious  oxide  in  1902  was  2,464  metric  tons,  as 
compared  with  3,416  tons,  valued  at  $197,270.  in  1901,  and  4,146  metric  tons, 
valued  at  $335,140  in  1900.  According  to  the  thirty-eighth  report  of  the  Alkali 
Inspector,  an  improvement  in  arsenic  manufacture  in  Great  Britain  has  been 
the  erection  at  one  works  of  a  condensing  tower  containing  2  tons  of  iron  rods 
suspended  about  an  inch  apart,  whereby  70%  of  the  arsenious  acid  passing 
through  the  tower  is  removed.  This  appears  to  be  an  adaptation  of  the  Roesing 
wire  system  to  arsenious  oxide  condensation. 

Determination  of  Arsenic  and  Copper  in  Iron  Ores. — P.  Bischoff*  passes  HjS 
for  30  minutes  into  the  solution  of  iron,  copper  and  arsenic,  which  is  maintained 
at  a  temperature  of  70**C.  The  solution  is  allowed  to  stand  for  10  hours  and 
is  then  passed  through  a  filter;  the  precipitate  is  washed  with  HjS  water,  placed 
in  a  beaker,  a  10%  NaClO  solution  added  and  CI  gas  passed  until  the  solution 
assumes  a  green  color.  It  is  allowed  to  stand  for  a  few  hours,  filtered,  washed, 
HCl  added,  and  CI  expelled  by  boiling,  then  transferred  to  a  platinum  dish, 
KOH  added,  and  boiled.  The  precipitated  copper  hydrate  is  filtered,  washed, 
dissolved  and  determined  in  the  usual  manner.  To  the  filtrate  containing  the 
arsenic  HCl  is  added,  then  NH^Cl  and  NH^OH  to  alkaline  reaction,  the  solu- 
tion is  cooled  and  the  arsenic  precipitated  with  magnesia  mixture. 

Determination  of  Arsenic  and  Antimony  in  Sulphides. — See  under  the  sec- 
tion devoted  to  *' Antimony*^  earlier  in  this  volume. 

The  Westman  Electric  Furnace  Process  for  Arsenic. — See  page  226  of  this 
volume. 

Recovery  of  Arsenic  Fume  from  Furnace  Oases: — George  C.  Stone  has 
patented*  a  method  for  the  separation  and  recovery  of  arsenic  fumes  from  furnace 
gases  in  the  manufacture  of  sulphuric  acid,  which  consists  in  cooling  the  gases  to 
the  temperature  of  condensation  of  the  fumes,  collecting  the  deposited  material  in 
a  suitable  filter,  and  the  subsequent  recovery  of  the  arsenic  or  similar  compounds 
by  submitting  the  filter  with  contents  to  heat,  whereby  the  volatile  oxides  are 
expelled,  condensed  and  collected. 

s  Stahl  find  EUen,  Vol  XXII.,  756. 

•  Unitad  StatM  PMent  Na  711,187,  Oct  14,  lOOflL 


ASBESTOS. 

By  Henry  Fisher. 

There  was  an  increase  of  nearly  50%  in  the  production  of  asbestog  in  the 
United  States  during  1902  over  the  previous  year,  the  output  being  1,010  short 
tons,  valued  at  $12,400,  as  compared  with  747  short  tons,  valued  at  $13,498  in 
1901.  The  value  of  the  product  at  the  mine  decreased  from  $18'07  per  ton  in 
1901  to  $12*27  in  1902,  a  decrease  of  nearly  50%.  The  Sail  Mountain  Asbestos 
Co.,  at  Sail  Mountain,  White  County,  6a.,  continues  to  be  the  largest  producer 
of  asbestos  in  this  country. 

PRODUCTION  AND  IMPORTS  OF  ASBESTOS  IN  THE  UNITED  STATES. 


Production. 

Imports. 

Year. 

Short  Tons. 

Metric  Tons. 

Value. 

Value  per 
Metric  Ton. 

Manufac- 
tured. 

Unmanufac- 
tured. 

Total. 

1898. 

885 
913 

1,100 
747 

1,010 

803 
887 
908 
678 
916 

$18,485 
18,860 
16,500 
13,496 
12,400 

$16-72 
16-76 
16-54 
19*91 
13-54 

$12,899 
8,949 
24,155 
84,741 
83,818 

$887,686 
808,119 
881,796 
667,087 
729,481 

$300,585 

IgOQ   

812,068 

1900 

855,951 

1901    

691,888 

19a? 

762,784 

PRODUCTION  OF  ASBESTOS  IN  THE  WORLD,  (a)  (iN  METRIC  TONS.) 


Canada. 

Cape  Colony.^c) 

Italy. 

Russia. 

United  States. 

Year. 

Tons. 

Value. 

Tons. 

Value. 

Tons. 

Value. 

Tons, 

Value. 

Tons. 

Value. 

1896 , 

81,577 
22,938 
27,797 
86,475 
86,666 

$486,227 

488,299 

748,431 

1,269,769 

1,208,462 

161 

167 
89 

$10,185 
7,165 

181 

81 
(b) 
(6) 
id) 

$9,000 
7,264 

1,666 
2,693 
(d) 

If, 

$80,600 
97,842 

803 
827 
996 
078 
916 

$18,425 

1899 

lim 

1900 

16,500 

1901 

18,496 

1902 

12,400 

(a)  From  official  reports  of  the  respective  countries.  (6)  Not  stated  in  the  reports,  (c)  Exports, 
(d)  Statistics  not  yet  available. 

Several  discoveries  of  asbestos  have  been  made  in  1902.  Five  asbestos  claims 
have  been  located  in  the  chrome  district  in  Tehama  County,  Cal.,  and  another 
deposit  has  been  located  in  Pinto  Creek,  near  Globe,  Ariz.  The  fiber  from  the 
latter  deposit,  which  is  reported  to  be  large,  is  of  the  long  variety.  The  Pine 
Mountain  Mica  &  Asbestos  Mining  Co.  has  been  organized  at  Indianapolis.  Ind., 
to  develop  asbestos  and  mica  mines  in  Georgia  and  North  Carolina.  The  Mad 
River  Asbestos  &  Talc  Co.  has  been  ihcorporated  at  Kittery,  Me.,  to  mine  as- 
bestos, talc  and  other  minerals. 

Uralite  is  the  name  given  to  a  new  fireproof  material  composed  of  asbestos 
fiber,  chalk,  sodium  bicarbonnte  and  silicate,  invented  bv  a  Russian  artillery 


ASBESTOS.  61 

officer  and  chemist  named  Imschenetzky.  It  is  a  non-conductor  of  heat  and 
electricity  and  is  practically  waterproof.  The  manufacture  of  uralite  consists 
in  teasing  the  asbestos  iiber  and  freeing  it  from  sand  and  other  foreign  sub- 
stances, after  which  a  little  whiting  is  added,  and  the  mixture  is  run  through  a 
disintegrator,  and  is  then  separated  again  by  air  blast  and  sieving.  A  quantity 
of  whiting,  equal  in  weight  to  that  of  the  asbestos,  is  made  into  a  paste,  and  the 
asbestos  is  added  and  thoroughly  mixed.  The  mixture  is  delivered  to  a  re- 
volving blanket,  and  passed  through  a  series  of  rolls,  where  it  is  partly  dried 
and  compacted.  Fourteen  or  fifteen  thicknesses  are  passed  to  a  revolving  drum, 
and  a  solution  of  sodium  silicate  and  sodium  carbonate  added  to  serve  as  an  ad- 
hesive. The  layers  are  subjected  to  a  pressure  which  is  finally  increased  to  200  lb. 
per  sq.  in.  and  left  for  1-5  hours,  after  which  they  are  dried  for  one  day.  When 
dry  they  are  gradually  heated  in  a  gas-fired  oven,  cooled,  steeped  in  a  solution 
of  sodium  silicate,  washed,  dried  and  again  heated.  These  operations  are  re- 
peated till  the  proper  hardness  is  attained. 

Another  fireproof  asbestos  preparation  is  called  salamanderite.  It  is  claimed 
that  this  is  not  only  fireproof,  but  that  it  can  be  used  to  duplicate  the  decorative 
effects  of  wood  in  cabinet  work. 

Canada. — The  production  of  asbestos  during  1902  was  40,420  short  tons, 
valued  at  $1,203,452,  as  compared  with  40,200  short  tons,  valued  at  $1,259,759 
in  1901.  The  exports  of  asbestos,  which  are  divided  into  three  grades,  for  the 
fiscal  year  ending  June  30,  1902,  were  33,072  short  tons,  valued  at  $1,131,202, 
divided  as  follows :  25,053  tons  to  the  IJnited  States,  4,088  tons  to  the  United 
Kingdpm,  2,270  tons  to  Germany,  827  tons  to  Belgium,  469  tons  to  Italy,  and 
365  tons  to  France.  Owing  to  an  excess  of  production  in  Quebec  during  1902, 
according  to  J.  Obalski,  the  prices  declined  slightly.  The  asbestos  mines  at  Dan- 
ville, Thetford,  Black  Lake  and  Broughton  were  in  operation  during  the  greater 
part  of  1902,  but  toward  the  end  of  the  year  a  few  mills  were  closed  on  account  of 
the  bad  season  and  scarcity  of  coal  due  to  the  strike  in  the  United  States.  The 
Bell  Asbestos  Co.,  which  owns  mines  at  Thetford,  for  the  year  1902  reports  a  net 
profit  of  £4,395,  to  which  is  to  be  added  the  amount  brought  forward  from  the 
previous  year,  £2,538,  a  total  of  £6,933.  The  company  opened  up  new  sections  of 
its  territory,  using  a  steam  shovel  instead  of  hand  labor  to  remove  the  earth 
from  the  surface  covering  the  serpentine.  The  New  England  &  Canadian 
Asbestos  Co.,  of  Providence,  R.  I.,  purchased  the  Beaver  Asbestos  Co.,  and  the 
Black  Lake  and  Fraser  mines,  in  Broughton,  owned  by  the  Canadian  Asbestos 
Co.  The  mills  at  the  Johnson  and  Standard  Co.'s  mines  were  put  in  operation. 
Several  mills  will  be  erected  and  others  completed  in  1903.  The  total  shipments 
from  the  Province  of  Quebec  in  1902  were  30,634  short  tons  of  asbestos,  valued 
at  $1,161,970,  and  40,398  short  tons  of  asbestic,  valued  at  $12,738.  Of  the  total 
shipments  of  asbestos,  1,319  tons  ($240,401)  were  first  grade  crude,  3,131  tons 
($305,312)  second  grade  crude,  15,502  tons  ($412,388)  fiber,  and  10,682  tons 
($203,869)  paper  stock. 


ASPHALTUM. 

By  Joseph  Struthkbs. 

The  aggregate  production  in  the  United  States  during  1902  of  all  mineral 
bituminous  products,  embracing  as  well  that  portion  of  the  residuum  from  the 
refining  of  petroleum  which  is  sold  and  used  as  asphaltum,  was  83,651  short 
tons,  valued  at  $615,659,  as  compared  with  63,134  short  tons,  valued  at  $555,335 
in  1902. 

PRODUCTION   OF  ASPHALTUM  AND  BITUMINOUS   ROCK  IN  THE  UNITED  STATES. 

(in  tons  of  2,000  LB.) 


1000. 

1001. 

1008. 

SUIflt. 

Tons. 

Value. 

Per 
Ton. 

Tbns. 

Value. 

Per 
Ton. 

Ttena. 

Value. 

Per 

Tbn. 

BitainiooaB  landstoiie : 
California 

afl5,8S5 
8,080 

a|101,480 
87.478 

I4-80 
4-80 

94,806 
6.048 
1,000 

$77,661 

66,610 

4,880 

4*88 

liii 

4,680 
4,000 

$i-86 
>06 

Kentucky  

4*86 

ArkftniuM 

5*00 

84;W7 

8.660 
1,860 

Total 

||i 

I406 

500 
800 

34,818 

NU. 
8,070 
4.000 

$186,601 

$405 

57,887 

m. 

TOO 
90 

$167,006 

18-79 

MJSSl*"."'!^!^: 

Indian  Territory 

I^xae 

15,875 
18,000 

5-80 
4-60 

4,080 

8*66 

Arkannan 

«.Bg 

5*00 

Cftlifomia 

0*06 

Total 

9,010 
dll,140 

$16,880 
818,580 

14-80 
10'(» 

6,970 

880 
c  1,500 

$88,875 

816,660 
1,000 
10,600 

46,000 

$4-79 

15-88 
10-80 
6000 

80*87 

1.860 

Ay)80,9B 

876 

(9)846 

4,008 

8684101 

lis 

8,008 
61,168 

$410 
18*06 

Tndlan  Tftrrit^rv. .  r , ,  ,  r 

6*66 

16*80 

Oilsonite: 
XTtah . 

8,970 

06.870 

8000 

15*10 

(a)  Stetistict  ot  the  California  State  Mineralogist,    (b)  Includes  1,000  tons  of  liquid  asphaltum  Tslued  at 
0,850.       (c)  Estimated,    (d)  Includes  production  in  Indian  Territorv.    (e)  Includes  production  of  Oklahoma 
irritonr.    (/)  Includes  1,600  tons  of  liquid  asphaltum,  valued  at  $80,187.    (g)  Includes  by-product  asphaltum 
refining  c""'    " 


;  crude  oil. 

The  production  of  bituminous  sandstone  in  the  United  States  during  1902 
was  57,837  short  tons  ($157,093)  as  compared  with  34,248  short  tons  ($138,601) 
in  1901.  Practically  the  entire  output  was  obtained  from  California  amd  Ken- 
tuck}-.  The  quantity  of  bituminous  limestone  produced  in  1902  from  the  deposits 
of  Indian  Territory  and  Arkansas  amounted  to  1,859  short  tons  ($7,782),  as 
compared  with  6,970  short  tons  ($33,375)  in  1901 ;  probably  a  part  of  the  by-prod- 
uct asphaltum  from  the  refining  of  crude  oil  was  included  in  the  Texan  statistics 
for  1901.  The  production  of  hard  asphaltum  in  California,  Indian  Territory  and 
Texas  during  1902  (including  by-product  from  oil  refining  and  1,605  tons  of 


ASPHALTUM, 


53 


the  liquid  product,  valued  at  $20,172)  was  29,903  short  tons  ($389,602),  as 
compared,  with  20,416  jahort  tons  ($337,359)  in  1901.  The  quantity  of  gilsonite 
produced  in  1902  Tim  4,052  short  tons  ($61^182),  as  compared  with  a  production 
estimated  at  1,500. tons  ($46,000)  in  1901. 

A  complete  schedule  of  the  various  subsidiary  companies  that  formed  the 
National  Asphalt  Co;  and  the  Asphalt  Co.  of  America,  incorporated  in  1900 
with  a  capitalization  of  $22,000,000  was  filed  March  18,  1903,  in  the  United 
States  Circuit  Coiirt  at  Trenton,  N.  J.,  by  John  M.  Mack  and  Henry  Tatnall, 
receivers  of  the  .defunct  trust.  There  are  41  subsidiary  companies  of  the  Asphalt 
Co.  of  Avierica  which  show  a  net  loss  of  $1,594,000,  and  the  25  subsidiary 
companies  of  the  National  Asphalt  Co.,  which  show  a  net  loss  of  $60,000,  ag- 
gregating a  total  net  loss  of  $1,654,000.  On  May  16,  at  Trenton,  N.  J.,  the 
assets  of  both  companies  were  sold  at  auction  for  $6,000,000  to  Henry  C.  Ever- 
dell,  representing  the  reorganization  committee. 

Arkansas, — Acciording  to  C.  W.  Hayes,  in  The  Engineering  and  Mining  Jour- 
nal, Dec.  13,  1902,  bituminous  matter  in  the  form  of  a  heavy  semi-fluid  residuum 
or  asphalt  occurs  at  a  number  of  points  in  Arkansas,  Indian  Territory  and  Texas. 
In  Arkansas  the  rock  formation  consists  largely  of  coarse  unconsolidated  sands, 
with  beds  of  clay,  calcareous  lenses  and  fossiliferous  limestones,  overlying  beds 
of  shale  and  sandstone.  The  largest  deposit  of  asphaltum  in  Arkansas  occurs 
near  Pike  City,  Pike  County,  and  is  being  developed  by  the  Arkansas  Asphalt 
Co.  The  deposit  is  in  the  form  of  a  sand  stratum,  varying  in  thickness  from  6 
to  12  ft.,  and  contains  various  quantities  of  asphaltum.  A  pit  12  ft.  deep  has 
been  sunk  through  the  bed,  and  the  asphalt  oozes  out  into  the  pit.  Several  speci- 
mens of  asphaltic  rock  have  been  analyzed  with  the  following  results : — 


OompoiMDti. 

Oray-banded 

Brown  Gap 
Rock. 

Black  Sand 
Rock. 

Black,  Oummy 

Sandstone. 

Petrotone 

6916 
90-86 

,4. 

sn 

tt'40 

8-40 

siao 

S-96 

79-60 

•  14 

»■'« 

Affphll]t4^IM». 

MS 

Bilfoa 

OAliRhiin  cftrboiuitA. 

49-48 
46-00 

Test  borings  show  that  the  asphaltum  beds  extend  over  an  area  of  several 
acres.  A  pit  100  ft.  in  diameter  has  been  sunk  and  a  tramway  has  been  built 
to  the  railroad  half  a  mile  distant.  The  occurrence  of  limestone  with  the  sand- 
stone in  some  portions  of  the  bed  makes  it  possible  to  use  the  material  for  pav- 
ing purposes  without  the  addition  of  other  material.  At  other  places  of  the 
deposit  the  material  is  too  rich  in  asphaltic  matter  to  be  used  directly  for  paving 
purposes,  but  tests  of  these  portions  in  the  preparation  of  a  paving  mixture  have 
been  made  by  the  St.  Louis  Testing  &  Sampling  Works  with  excellent  re-, 
suits.  The  extent  to  which  the  deposit  can  be  used  for  paving  purposes  in  com- 
petition with  other  asphalts  will  be  determined  entirely  by  the  matter  of  freight- 
rates.  It  should  easily  control  the  market  in  adjacent  cities,  as  Little  Bock, 
Texarkana  and  Fort  Smith,  and  the  richer  portions  of  the  deposit  should  com- 
pete advantageously  with  other  asphalts  in  cities  as  far  distant  as  Memphis  and 
St.  Louis.  Borings  have  been  made  for  oil  also,  but  without  success,  the  sandstone 
not  being  of  a  nature  to  retain  oiL 


54  THE  MINERAL  INDUSTRY. 

Kentucky. — (By  William  E.  Burk.) — The  deposits  of  bituminous  sandstone 
or  asphalt  rock  in  Kentucky  occur  chiefly  in  the  counties  of  Logan,  Warren, 
Edmonson,  Butler,  Grayson  and  Breckinridge,  occupying  a  strip  in  the  central 
part  of  the  State  that  extends  from  Breckinridge  County  on  the  north  to  Logan 
County  oil  the  south.  A  few  deposits  are  found  also  in  the  western  parts  of 
Hardin,  Hart  and  Larue  counties.  The  asphalt-bearing  territory  apparently 
follows  the  line  of  the  Coal  Measures,  and  is  about  20  miles  wide  by  50  miles  in 
length.  The  main  basin  of  highly  mineralized  rock  is  located  well  to  the  south, 
the  richest  deposits  being  found  in  Logan  and  Edmonson  counties.  A  bituminous 
deposit  also  exists  in  Carter  County,  in  the  northeastern  part  of  the  State; 
the  material  is  impregnated  sandstone,  but  it  appears  to  lie  in  a  basin  altogether 
different  from  that  which  extends  into  West  Virginia,  and  portions  of  which 
are  found  scattered  over  other  eastern  counties  of  Kentucky.  The  deposits  occur 
in  fine-grained  sandstone  of  the  Sub-Carboniferous  formation.  The  strata  usually 
approximate  their  normal  horizontal  position,  and  from  geological  evidence,  it  is 
probable  that  the  bituminous  or  asphalt  material  represents  the  residual  matter 
from  pre-existing  petroleum  beds.  The  soft,  porous  sandstone,  which  once  was 
saturated  with  petroleum,  has  been  eroded  away,  and  the  channel  streams  of 
ancient  rivers  have  cut  deeply  into  the  rock.  This  has  resulted  in  valleys  and 
hills  of  sandstone  from  which  the  lighter  products  and  oil  have  distilled  and 
drained  away,  leaving  residual  petroleum  products  constituting  the  asphalt  or 
bitumen.  The  fact  that  petroleum-bearing  rock  formerly  existed  where  the  pres- 
ent asphalt  rock  occurs  should  not  be  taken  to  mean  that  quantities  of  petroleum 
must  occur  at  lower  depths,  for  the  underlying  strata  may  represent  altogether 
different  formative  conditions.  The  bituminous  deposits,  though  quite  generously 
distributed  in  Grayson  and  Edmonson  counties,  are  in  no  sense  uniform  as  te 
richness  and  magnitude.  The  horizontal  ledges  vary  in  thickness  from  2  to  20  ft. 
In  many  cases  the  deposits  are  quite  lean ;  the  material  locally  called  "black-rock" 
contains  only  a  small  percentage  of  bituminous  material,  and  has  no  commercial 
value.  The  known  deposits  of  commercially  valuable  material  are  few.  The 
richer  deposits  are  usually  enclosed  by  strata  of  "black-rock"  from  1  to  2  ft.  in 
thickness,  while  the  intervening  portion  of  asphalt  ledge  varies  from  3  to  15  ft. 
in  thickness,  and  contains  from  5  to  15%  total  bituminous  matter.  When  con- 
taining under  4%,  the  material  passes  under  the  class  of  *^lack-rock."  Deposits 
containing  as  high  as  20%  are  of  small  extent,  and  usually  due  to  local  con- 
centration conditions.  Of  the  total  bituminous  content  about  20%  is  of  the 
nature  known  as  asphaltene,  and  80%  of  petrolene.  After  the  removal  of  the 
bituminous  matter  the  sandstone  crumbles  to  a  very  fine  sand.  One  characteristic 
sample  upon  examination  showed  8-5%  of  sand  that  passed  through  a  150-me6h, 
and  82-5%  that  passed  through  a  75-mesh  sieve.  In  the  present  state  of  develop- 
ment only  those  deposits  lying  conveniently  near  railroad  or  river  have  received 
attention,  and  of  such  only  those  have  been  worked  which  offer  the  least  diflB- 
culty  in  the  way  of  uncovering.  Although  rich  material  is  sometimes  exposed 
in  bluffs,  no  tunnelling  or  drifting  has  been  attempted.  This  district  is  entered 
by  the  Green  Eiver  and  its  prominent  tributaries.  Considerable  asphalt  rock 
has  been  moved  by  barge  to  Ohio  River  points.    The  Green  River  Asphalt  Co., 


A8PHALTUM.  55 

operating  near  Young's  Ferry,  on  Green  Biver,  has  shipped  its  product  to  Evans- 
ville,  Ind.,  by  barge,  and  from  there  by  rail,  but  recently  the  company  changed 
its  policy,  and  is  now  shipping  to  Bowling  Green  by  water.  The  field  is  reached 
by  two  railroads,  the  Illinois  Central  Railroad  crossing  the  field  at  the  north, 
and  the  Louisville  &  Nashville  Bailroad  passing  in  a  southerly  direction  to  the 
east  of,  and  finally  crossing  the  Logan  County  deposits  at  Hussellville. 

Among  the  incorporated  companies  owning  or  controlling  deposits  are  the 
American  Standard  Asphalt  Co.,  the  Green  Hiver  Asphalt  Co.,  the  Breckinridge 
Asphalt  Co.,  the  Federal  Asphalt  Co.,  the  Natural  Asphalt  Co.,  and  the  National 
Bock  Asphalt  Co.  The  only  companies,  owning  property  that  is  developed  to  any 
extent  and  equipped  with  mining  plants,  are  the  American  Standard  Asphalt  Ca, 
the  Green  Biver  Asphalt  Co.,  and  the  Breckinridge  Asphalt  Co.  It  is  the  policy 
of  these  companies  to  mine  material  as  needed,  no  considerable  quantity  of  rock 
being  carried  in  storage.  This  occasions  quite  irregular  production.  The  total 
output  during  1902  of  the  Green  Biver  Asphalt  Co.,  the  American  Standard  As- 
phalt Co.,  and  the  Breckinridge  Asphalt  Co.  amounted  to  22,498  short  tons  ($68,- 
704).  The  Federal  Asphalt  Co.  shipped  a  few  carloads  of  product,  presumably 
for  experimental  purposes.  The  first  streets  constructed  of  Kentucky  asphalt  rock 
were  laid  in  the  city  of  Buffalo,  in  1890,  when  12  miles  were  paved  by  the  Breck- 
inridge Asphalt  Co. 

The  natural  asphalt  rock  quite  often  contains  bitumen  in  percentages  of 
asphaltene  and  petrolene  suited  for  street  making  purposes,  but  in  most  cases 
bitumen  must  be  added.  In  exceptional  cases  the  asphalt  rock  as  it  comes  from 
the  quarries  is  too  rich  in  bitumen  to  admit  of  proper  mixing,  and  the  American 
Standard  Asphalt  Co.  is  considering  the  extraction  of  bituminous  matter  by 
solvent  process.  For  street  composition  the  crushed  natural  rock  is  mixed  with 
pulverized  limestone  or  marl  and  an  asphaltic  cement.  The  asphaltic  cement 
consists,  as  the  conditions  may  require,  of  Trinidad  gum  asphalt  or  petroleum 
residuum,  in  amounts  determined  by  the  character  of  the  asphalt  rock  used. 
The  crushing  of  the  natural  rock  is  usually  done  at  or  near  the  quarries, 
while  the  mixing  of  ground  material  with  rock  and  asphalfic  cement  is  done  near 
the  street  under  construction. 

The  property  of  the  American  Standard  Asphalt  Co.  lies  about  four  miles 
northeast  of  Bussellville,  in  Logan  County,  and  is  quite  extensively  developed^ 
tiie  quarry  face  showing  about  17  ft.  of  asphalt  ledge.  The  plant  consists  of  a 
250-ton  gyratory  crusher,  with  plain  14X18-in.  rolls.  Quarries,  mill  and  tipple 
are  connected  by  1-5  miles  of  narrow  gauge  track,  with  45  tram  cars  in  operation. 
At  Louisville,  Ky.,  the  same  company  is  equipped  with  a  plant  for  mixing  and 
preparing  asphalt  material  for  street  work.  One  short  ton  of  crushed  asphalt 
rock  lays  about  11  eq.  yd.  of  2-in.  pavement.  The  plant  of  this  company  has  a 
capacity  of  preparing  material  to  cover  2,000  sq.  yd.  of  street  area  per  day. 

The  property  of  the  Green  Biver  Asphalt  Co.  lies  near  Green  Biver,  at  Young's 
Ferry,  in  Warren  County.  The  overburden  is  moderately  light,  and  the  de- 
posit is  quarried.  The  location  of  the  ledge  is  high  above  the  water  level,  af- 
fording the  advantage  of  gravity  in  handling  the  spalls  from  quarry  to  crusher 
and  from  crusher  to  barge.    Becently  the  company  has  established  a  crushing 


56 


THE  MINERAL  INDUBTBT. 


plant  at  Bowling  Green,  to  which  point  the  spalls  are  shipped  by  water.  In 
this  plant  corrugated  rolls  are  used  and  hot  air  is  injected  into  the  stream  of 
ore  as  it  comes  from  the  crufiher  to  expel  moisture.  This  plant  has  a  capacity 
of  200  tons  per  day. 

The  property  of  the  Breckinridge  Asphalt  Co.  is  situated  in  Breckinridge 
County  near  the  town  of  Garfield.  At  the  plant  of  this  company  the  broken 
asphalt  rock  passes  through  beaters  revolving  about  a  horizontal  shaft.  The 
first  beater  revolves  at  a  velocity  of  600  revolutions  per  minute,  delivering  the 
rock  to  a  2-in.  screen.  A  second  beater  revolving  at  a  velocity  of  1,200  revolutions 
per  minute  takes  the  material  and  delivers  it  to  a  0-25-in.  screen.  Material  over 
00625-in.  ( yV )  Js  returned  to  beaters.  The  capacity  of  the  plant  approximates 
100  tons  per  day. 

The  property  of  the  Federal  Asphalt  Co.,  near  Big  Clifty,  in  Grayson  County, 
has  been  slowly  developed,  owing  to  a  fire  which  destroyed  the  mill  on  the  first 
day  of  operation.  The  erection  of  another  plant  of  large  capacity  is  contem- 
plated. 

THE   world's  production   OF  ASPHALTUM   AND  A8PHALTIG   ROCK,    (a)     (iN 

METRIC  TONS.) 


AustrU. 

Fmnoe. 

Germany 

Hungary. 

Italy. 

Riusia. 

Spain. 

I 

Asph. 
Rock. 

Asphaltum 

Asph. 

limestone. 

(6) 

Aaphal- 
tom. 

Asphal- 
tam. 

Asphal- 
(fc) 

Asph. 
Rock. 

Asphalt 

Asphaltum 

Asph. 
Rock. 

1897 
1806 
1800 
1900 
1901 

800 
648 

641 

17,988 
18,838 
88,100 
86,886 
80,891 

80,046 
86,000 
80,000 
84,003 
89,816 

6!,646 
67,640 
74,770 
89,686 
00,108 

8,067 
8,185 
8,060 
8,000 
8,878 

18,644 
17,818 
41,788 
38,127 
81,814 

66,880 
08,760 
81,967 
101,788 
104,111 

88,888 

18,018 
88,061 

8%M 

8^646 
8,881 

1,666 
8^864 
84SM 
<!« 
8,066 

Trinidad. 

United  States. 

Venesu'la 

(Bermu- 

des). 

(«) 

Tear. 

Asphal 
turn. 
</) 

Asphal- 
ticftook. 

ia) 

1807.... 
1896.... 
1800.... 
1000.... 
1001.... 

188,310 
108,708 
144,840 
161,800 
167,858 

84,864 

88,806 

18,608 

(08,886 

(010^888 

46.288 
67,788 
50,061 
41,009 
87,898 

g:gf 

88,115 

NoTB.— There  is  a  oonsi  arable  production  of 
the  above  table,  the  Swiss  xSoTenmient  not  -  "' 


(a)  From  the  official  reports  of  the  respectiTe  countries, 
except  where  noted  to  the  contrary.  Tlw  productioo  of 
gilsonite  in  the  United  States  and  Blanjak  in  Barbados  is 
not  included.  (Jb)  France  produces  a  large  amount  of  Utumin- 
ouB  shales,  used  for  disdlllng  oil,  whksh  is  not  imduded  in 
these  statistics.  (d)  Not  yet  reported,  (e)  Exports  (crude 
equiTslent)  reported  oy  The  New  Trinidad  Lake  Asphalt  Co. 
(/)  Statistics  reported  by  the  California  State  MineralMctet, 
practicaily  the  entire  American  product  being  derived  from 
California,  {g)  Statistics  based  on  direct  reports  from  the 
producers,  including  asphaltic  limestone  and  sandstone,  (h) 
including  mastic  and  bitumen.  «)  Statistics  of  the  United 
States  Geological  Survey. 

dtio  stone  in  Switserland  of  which  no  aoooont  is  takan  la 
any  mineral  statistics. 


The  Asphaltum  Industry  in  Foreign  Countries. 

Cuha.^ — (By  H.  C.  Brown.) — ^The  output  of  asphalt  in  1901  amounted  to  4,55'4 
tons,  valued  at  $96,380,  of  which  all  but  500  tons  were  exported.  Of  the  total  ship- 
mentfe  New  York  received  3,300  tons,  while  754  tons  went  to  Europe,  the  bulk 
of  which  went  to  Germany  and  a  small  portion  to  England.  The  selling  price 
ranged  from  $12  to  $50  per  ton,  according  to  quality.  There  were  nine  concerns 
engaged  in  mining  asphalt,  and  the  individual  output  varied  from  24  tons  to 
1,400  tons. 

Province  of  Pinar  del  Rio. — A  Spanish  company  has  denounced  asphalt 
>  Tliraugh  the  courtesy  of  the  United  States  Geological  Susvey. 


A8PHALTUM,  67 

property  north  of  the  Sierra  de  Oro,  and  is  engaged  in  developing  several 
mines.  The  Magdalena  and  Bodas  Concepcion  mines,  which  have  been  worked 
to  some  extent  in  the  past,  were  re-opened,  and  a  railroad  was  constructed  tt) 
Mariel  Bay  to  furnish  an  outlet  for  the  product.  The  company  operating  these 
mines  has  entered  into  a  contract  with  the  Trinidad  Asphalt  Manufacturing 
Co.,  of  St.  Louis,  to  furnish  200  tons  of  asphalt  per  month,  and  has  arranged 
also  to  forward  shipments  at  their  convenience  to  New  York.  An  analysis 
of  asphalt  from  La  Union  shows:  total  bitumen,  63-90%;  insoluble  material, 
3  29%;  volatile  oils,  0-77%;  moisture,  2-83*%;  rock  material  (principally  lime- 
stone), 39-21%. 

Province  of  Havana. — Tho  West  Indies  Co.,  of  Nefw  York,  which  operates  the 
Angela  Elmira  mine  near  Bejucal,  has  shipped  asphalt  to  New  York  and  Wash- 
ington for  use  as  paving  material,  it  being  known  in  trade  as  the  "Royal  Palm" 
brand.  An  analysis  of  this  asphalt  is  given  in  The  Mineral  Industry,  Vol.  X. 
The  Habana  mine,  situated  on  the  United  Railways  of  Havana,  about  19  milcvs 
east  of  the  city  of  Havana,  was  worked  during  the  year,  and  the  product  shipped 
to  New  York  and  European  ports.  The  material  is  pronounced  a  pure  gilsonite 
suitable  for  varnish  and  japan  manufacture.  The  Arizona-Cuban  Asphalt  & 
Mining  Co.,  incorporated  with  a  capital  stock  of  $5,000,000,  has  denounced 
asphalt  properties  near  Jaruco,  and  is  said  to  own  13  claims  in  the  eastern  prov- 
inces. 

Province  of  Matanzas. — ^The  property  known  as  *'La  Paz  "  situated  id  miles 
from  the  town  of  Perico,  was  operated  and  the  product  shipped  from  Havana  to 
Hamburg,  Germany.  This  mine  is  owned  by  a  Cuban  company  which  is  also  de- 
veloping a  deposit  near  Ranchuelo  that  is  said  to  yield  asphalt  suitable  for  roofing 
and  pavement.  Analysis  of  the  material  shows:  Carbon  and  combustible  sub- 
stances, 52% ;  residue,  45-5% ;  mloisture  and  gases,  2-5%.  Of  the  several  de- 
posits around  the  Bay  of  Cardenas,  the  Perseverancia  was  alone  operative  last 
year.  It  produces  an  inferior  grade  of  asphalt,  which  sells  in  New  York  for 
$20  per  ton.  The  most  productive  of  the  mineral  tar  deposits  near  Sabanilla  de 
la  Palma  was  operated  by  the  Hamel-Eeynolds  Asphalt  Mining  Co.  The  mineral 
tar  is  won  by  sinking  a  well  and  removing  the  material  from  time  to  time  which 
oozes  into  the  excavation  from  the  surrounding  rock.  The  well  owned  by  the 
company  is  250  ft.  deep,  and  yields  about  one  ton  per  day.  It  is  planned  to  erect 
a  refinery  and  to  continue  the  development  of  the  property.  Near  the  mouth  of 
the  Rio  de  la  Palma  a  deposit  of  soft  bitumen  has  been  prospected. 

Province  of  Santa  Clara. — The  most  important  asphalt  mine  in  the  vicinity  of 
Santa  Clara  is  on  the  Santa  Eloisa  property  in  the  Barrio  de  Loma  Cruz.  A  por- 
tion  of  the  product,  which  is  characterized  as  a  hard  glance  pitch  is  used  with 
coal  in  gas  manufacture,  while  some  of  it  has  been  sent  to  New  York  and  used  in 
the  manufacture  of  paint  and  varnish.  Of  the  mines  in  the  district  of  Yaguajay, 
near  the  boundary  olF  Santa  Clara  and  Puerto  Principe,  only  one,  the  Santa  Rosa 
Eufemia,  is  at  present  productive.  The  asphalt  from  this  mine  resembled  gil- 
sonite very  closely,  but  contains  a  large  proportion  of  sulphur.  It  is  used  in  the 
manufacture  of  fine  varnishes. 

Province  of  Puerto  Principe. — The  Talaren  mine,  which  yields  glance  pitch. 


58 


THE  MINERAL  INDUaTBT, 


has  been  operative  for  several  years,  and  the  product  is  well  established  in  the 
markets  of  the  United  States. 

Frcmce. — ^The  Val  de  Travers  Asphalte  Paving  Co.,  Ltd.,  reports  an  income 
of  £46,199  during  1902,  and  expenses,  including  depreciation,  £12,423.  A  divi- 
dend of  £20,000  at  the  rate  of  20%  for  the  year  was  paid,  leaving  £2,776  to  be 
brought  forward,  which,  with  £10,271  from  the  previous  year,  gave  a  total  of 
£13,047.  This  company  holds  the  concessions  from  the  Soci6t6  des  Asphaltes  du 
Val  de  Travers  for  the  exclusive  supply  to  the  TJnited  Kingdom  of  rode  from 
the  Val  de  Travers  mine,  Neuchatel,  Switzerland.  It  has  also  acquired  the 
Compagnie  Gen6rale  des  Asphaltes  de  France  for  £184,000,  to  be  paid  in  stock, 
which  company  owns  property  at  Pyriment-Seyssel,  Seyssel  Volant,  Chavaroche, 
and  elsewhere  in  Prance;  bituminous  property  in  Venezuela,  mines  in  Sicily,  and 
properly  in  New  York,  Alexandria  and  Charenton,  France. 

Italy. — ^In  Sicily  the  asphalt  industry  is  in  the  hands  of  a  few  large  companies, 
who  are  increasing  the  capacity  of  their  factories  for  extracting  the  bitumen 
from  the  asphalt  rock  and  compressing  it  into  blocks,  and  also  for  pulverizing 
the  rock  for  shipment  in  bags.  The  three  largest  concerns  are  the  French  Com- 
pany, which  has  important  mines  at  Ragusa  and  Vizzini ;  the  TJnited  limmer  and 
the  Sicula  Company.  A  large  part  of  the  output  is  exported  from  Syracuse  and 
Mazzarellis.  In  1901  the  exports  amounted  to  62,770  tons,  of  which  the  United 
States  received  11,870  tons,  Germany  29,300  tons,  Holland  3,760  tons.  Great 
Britain  7,630  tons,  and  France  and  Austria-Hungary  the  balance. 

Trinidad  and  Tobaffo, — ^The  exports  of  asphalt  from  the  Island  of  Trinidad 
are  given  in  the  following  table,  for  which  we  are  indebted  to  the  courtesy  of 
the  New  Trinidad  Lake  Asphalt  Co.,  Ltd.  Seven-eighths  of  the  asphalt  exported 
is  dug  from  Pitch  Lake,  which  is  leased  to  the  company  till  1930.  The  removal 
of  1,885,000  long  tons  of  asphalt  during  the  past  35  years  has  apparently  made  but 
little  impression  on  the  deposit.  The  New  Trinidad  Lake  Asphalt  Co.  contributes 
the  greater  bulk  of  the  exports,  although  some  30,000  tons  are  annually-'handled 
by  smaller  shippers  from  other  properties.  The  lake  contains  no  liquid  asphalt, 
but  in  other  parts  of  the  island  this  variety,  from  which  illuminating  and  lubri- 
cating oils  can  be  distilled,  is  found  widely  distributed.  Glance  pitch,  also  is 
found  on  the  island,  and  is  used  for  electric  insulations  and  for  black  varnishes. 
Manjak,  another  variety,  has  recently  been  discovered  in  quantity,  about  10  miles 
north  of  the  pitch  lake. 

EXPORTS   OP   LAND  ASPHALT   FROM   TRINIDAD,    (a)     (iN   TONS   OF   2,240   LB.) 


To  United  States. 

To  Europe. 

To  Other  Countries. 

Grand 
Total  of 
Exports 
in  Crude 
BquiTa- 

Year. 

Crude. 

£pur6. 

Total 
EquiTa- 
lentin 
Crude. 

Crude. 

ftpurfi. 

Total 
EquivSr 
lentin 
Crude. 

Onide. 

Bpur6. 

Total 
Eqnivsr 
lentln 
Crude. 

1808.... 
18W 

TteM. 
18,160 
96.618 
84,796 
81,767 
85,008 

Tons. 

m. 

846 

% 

ino 

Tons. 
18,160 
26,190 
84,796 
81,767 
25,158 

Tons. 
700 
275 
251 

1,704 
200 

Tons. 
268 
280 

Tons. 

1,087 
606 
261 

1,704 
200 

Tons. 
404 

Tons 
812 

100 

Tons. 
872 
150 
107 

1.446 
90 

Tons. 
20,110 
26,075 

1000.... 
1001.... 
1908.,,. 

197 

1,446 

15 

85,244 
84,017 
25,448 

ASPHALTUM. 


59 


BXPORTd  OF  PITCH-LAKE  ASPHALT  FROM  TRINIDAD,     (a)     (iN  TONS  OF  2,240  LB.) 


To  United  States. 

To  Europe. 

To  Other  Countries. 

Grand 
Total  of 
Exports 
in(>ado 

Tsar. 

Crude. 

Dried. 

Total 
Equiva- 
lent in 
Crude. 

Crude. 

fipur* 

and 

Dried. 

Total 
Equiva- 
lent In 
Crude. 

Crude. 

fipui« 

and 

Dried. 

Total 
Equiva- 
lentin 
Crude. 

18OT.... 
1809. 

Ty>ns. 
46,089 
70,111 
67,758 
80,449 
101,876 

Tons. 
1,698 
480 
8.180 
NU. 
9,811 

Tons. 
48,494 
70,777 
70,938 
80,449 
104,966 

Tons. 
16.708 
81,887 
28,886 
81,218 
17,711 

Tons. 
18,288 
13,749 
16,114 
16,816 
10,509 

Tons. 
85,587 
41,056 
47,852 
64,761 
88,474 

Tons. 
696 

Tons. 

1,646 

1609 

9,490 

686 

686 

Tons. 
8,999 
8,869 
4,468 

844 
746 

Tons. 
86,960 
116,008 

1900.... 
1901 

1,428 

188,748 
186,064 
189,176 

190S.... 

(a)  The  exports  prior  to  1808  wiU  be  found  in  Tbx  Uzhsbal  Industbt,  Vol.  Vm.  (b)  Inchided  in  the  ship- 
ments of  erude. 

At  the  Island  of  Barbados^  nine  manjak  mines  were  operated  during  1902^ 
three  of  which  were  controlled  by  the  Barbados  Manjak  Mines^  Ltd.,  employing 
from  70  to  100  laborers.  No  statistics  of  production  are  made  to  the  Govem- 
ment»  bnt  the  custom  returns  showed  that  during  1901,  1,044  tons  of  manjak, 
valued  at  £9,394,  were  exported  from  Barbados.  The  chief  uses  for  manjak  ore, 
or  glance  pitoh,  as  it  is  sometimes  called,  is  to  make  Brunswick  varnish,  used  to 
insulate  electric  cables,  etc.  The  exports  from  Barbados  in  long  tons  during 
recent  years  are  reported  as  follows:  1897,  1,880;  1898,  1,160;  1899,  1,026; 
1900,  1,120;  1901,1,043. 

Turkey. — ^The  asphalt  resources  of  Turkey  have  been  described  by  J.  E.  Spurr 
in  The  Engineering  and  Mining  Journal,  Oct.  4,  1902.  There  are  a  number  of 
asphalt  deposits,  of  which  the  best  known  are  in  Albana,  near  the  Adriatic  Sea, 
and  in  Palestine.  Selinitza  is  the  chief  producing  locality  in  Albania,  where 
the  deposits  are  operated  by  the  Imperial  Ottoman  Bank.  The  asphalt,  which  is 
not  of  superior  quality,  brings  $13  per  ton  in  Trieste.  The  deposits  in  the  region 
of  the  Dead  Sea  (Lake  Asphaltsi)  have  long  been  noted,  and  bituminous  springs 
at  Nebi  Musa  contain  from  30  to  40%  asphaltum.  The  so-called  Assyrian  asphalt 
is  mined  near  Hasbaya,  in  the  Province  of  Damas,  by  the  Civil  List  of  the  Sultan. 
The  mineral  is  of  great  purity  and  is  used  chiefly  in  the  manufacture  of  var- 
nishes and  aniline  dyes.  It  is  marketed  chiefly  at  Trieste,  where  it  is  quoted 
at  $84  per  ton,  boxed  and  delivered.  The  demand,  however,  is  limited,  so  that 
the  yearly  output  is  only  a  few  hundred  tons.  An  Anglo-German  company,  with 
headquarters  at  Constantinople,  has  been  formed  to  work  other  deposits  in  Pales- 
tine, but  so  far,  it  has  not  obtained  the  concession.  An  effort  is  being  made  to  ex- 
ploit  the  bituminous  schists  near  Beyrouth,  and  a  large  lot  has  been  sent  to 
England  for  trial.  Bituminous  springs  occur  opposite  the  town  of  Nasarieh, 
Province  of  Busreh,  100  miles  from  the  site  &t  Babylon.  Although  near  a 
navigable  river,  the  asphalt  is  exploited  only  to  a  minor  extent  by  the  natives, 
who  use  it  as  a  building  cement  and  as  a  substitute  for  ceiling  wax. 

Venezuela. — ^The  exports  of  Bermudez  asphalt  from  Venezuela  to  the  United 
States  during  1902,  were  7,677  long  tons  crude,  and  422  long  tons  dried,  a  total 
of  8,099  long  tons,  as  compared  with  21,767  long  tons  in  1901.  The  large  decrease 
during  the  past  year  was  due  to  the  litigation  in  which  the  Bermudez  Co.  was 
engaged. 


60  TBS  MINERAL  INDUSTBT. 

Ozokerite. 

The  ozokerite  deposits  at  Boryslaw  in  Galieia,  Austria,  still  continue  to  supply 
practically  the  entire  output  of  the  world.  The  methods  of  mining  and  refining 
the  crude  material  and  the  uses  of  the  refined  product  have  been  fully  described 
in  former  volumes  of  The  Mineral  Industry.  Early  in  1903,  J.  Muck  pub- 
lished a  complete  description  of  the  occurrence  and  refining  of  ozokerite  at  Bory- 
slaw, in  Galieia,  Austria,  in  a  book  entitled  "Der  Erdwachsbergbau  in  Boryslaw'' 
(Julius  Springer,  Beriin,  1903). 

In  the  United  States  during  1902,  the  Summit  Placer  Minings  Co.  and  the 
Utah  &  Wasatch  Co.  produced  20  shoii  tons  of  ozokerite  from  the  deposits  at 
Soldier  Summit,  Utah.  The  properiy,  consisting  of  16  lode  claims,  is  covered  by 
six  160-acre  placer  claims.  The  crude  ozokerite  is  melted  and  cast  into  10-lb. 
cakes  and  shipped  in  sacks,  each  containing  10  cakes.  In  1903,  the  deposits  at 
Soldier  Summit,  at  Colton  (seven  miles  east  of  Soldier  Summit),  and  at  Mid- 
way (four  miles  west  of  Soldier  Summit)  will  be  operated. 

In  1901,  the  exports  of  crude  ozokerite  from  Austria  amounted  to  2,717  metric 
tons  ($554,400)  as  compared  with  5,109  tons  ($1,047,085)  in  1900,  while  the 
exports  of  the  refined  product  (ceresin)  in  1901  were  771  metric  tons  ($205,200) 
as  compared  with  906  metric  tons  ($234,546)  in  1900.  Of  the  quantity  ex- 
ported in  1901  the  shipments  to  Germany  amounted  to  7*3  metric  tons  and 
those  to  the  United  States  to  24-7  metric  tons.  The  output  of  ozokerite  in  Galieia 
in  1902  was  3,275  metric  tons,  of  which  Boryslaw  produced  2,565  tons,  Dzwiniacz- 
Starunia  650  tons  and  Truskawiec  60  tons.  There  were  8  mines  in  operation  in 
1902,  as  follows:  Galizische  Kreditbank  and  Aktiengesellschaft  'TBoryslaw,"  in 
Dzwiniacz;  Aktiengesellschaft  "Boryslaw,**  Lautmann;  Lucki  &  Co.;  Wolfarth 
in  Starunia ;  Compes  &  Co.  and  Ochrymowicz  &  Co.,  in  Truskawiec.  The  average 
price  for  the  year  per  metric  ton  was  1,100  crowns  ($220). 

I         Petroleum  and  Maltha  Products  Used  in  the  Paving  Industry. 

By  A.  W.  Dow. 

There  is  practically  nothing  known  of  the  chemistry  of  the  petroleum  and 
maltha  products,  and  there  are  no  reliable  chemical  tests  for  estimating  their 
value  for  paving  purposes.  The  greatest  demand  for  such  materials  is  in  the 
bituminous  paving  industry,  where  they  are  largely  employed  to  soften  or  *'flux" 
hard  asphalt  for  paving  cements.  They  are  used  also  as  paving  cements  with- 
out the  addition  of  any  of  the  hard  natural  asphalt,  and  in  small  quantities  to 
grout  brick  and  stone  pavements. 

Bituminous  or  asphalt  pavements  are  of  two  classes,  i,e,,  sheet  asphalt,  which 
is  laid  with  a  continuous  surface ;  and  asphalt  block,  consisting  of  paving  material 
pressed  into  blocks  and  laid  in  this  form.  The  same  process  is  used  in  the  manu- 
facture of  the  paving  material  in  both  classes  of  pavement.  The  asphalt,  if  too 
hard,  is  softened  to  the  desired  consistency  by  the  addition  of  a  suitable  flux, 
this  fluxed  asphalt  being  known  as  asphalt  paving  cement.  The  asphalt  paving 
cement,  in  a  ^molten  state  is  mixed  with  the  heated  mineral  ingredients,  and  the 
asphalt  mixture  is  either  hauled  to  the  street  and  laid  as  sheet  asphalt  pavement 


A8PHALTVM,  61 

or  compressed  into  blocks  for  the  block  asphalt  pavement.  In  both  classes  of 
pavements  the  asphalt  cement  should  show  only  slight  changes  in  physical  prop- 
erties as  a  result  of  evaporation  or  oxidation  at  the  temperatures  employed  in  the 
manufacture  of  the  pavement.  For  sheet  asphalt  laid  in  one  continuous  expanse, 
it  is  essential  that  the  asphalt  cement  should  be  ductile  at  low  temperatures 
to  allow  for  the  contraction  of  the  pavement.  It  is  also  necessary  that  the 
asphalt  cement  be  but  slightly  susceptible  to  changes  in  temperature,  so  that 
the  pavement  will  not  soften  too  much  in  the  summer  or  become  so  hard  in  the 
winter  as  to  lose  its  ductility  and  permit  the  pavement  to  crack  or  grind  away. 
In  asphalt  block  pavements  the  requirements  as  to  ductility  are  not  so  rigid,  as 
the  pavement  is  laid  in  small  blocks,  thus  reducing  to  a  minimum  the  danger  of 
cracking  from  contraction.  It  is  important,  however,  that  the  paving  cement 
should  not  be  brittle  at  low  temperatures,  for  then  the  blocks  wear  very  rapidly 
in  cold  weather  by  chipping  of  the  edges ;  while,  on  the  other  hand,  the  blocks 
must  not  be  so  soft  as  to  lose  their  shape  in  hot  weather.  In  other  words  especial 
care  must  be  exercised  that  the  asphalt  cement  be  as  little  susceptible  to  changes 
in  temperature  as  is  possible.  In  selecting  the  cements  used  in  the  two  classes 
of  pavements,  it  is  evident  that  the  cement  for  sheet  asphalt  must  be  ductile  at 
all  temperatures,  and  to  attain  this  quality  the  susceptibility  to  changes  in  tem- 
perature may  be  sacrificed  to  some  extent.  In  the  case  of  asphalt  block  cement, 
however,  the  effects  of  variations  in  temperature  must  be  reduced  even  at  the 
expense  of  ductility.  There  is  no  cement  known  that  shows  both  ductility  and 
non-susceptibility  to  changes  in  temperature ;  and  for  successful  work  it  is  neces- 
sary that  the  properties  of  the  cement  should  accord  with  the  purpose  for  which 
it  is  to  be  used. 

The  flux  that  has  been  most  extensively  used  for  asphalt  (imdoubtedly  owing 
to  the  cheapness  in  price)  is  ordinary  residuum  from  the  distilling  of  Eastern  or 
parafime  petroleum  oils.  These  residuums  do  not  completely  dissolve  asphalts, 
and  they  produce  cements  inferior  to  those  resulting  from  the  use  of  heavy  oils 
containing  fewer  of  the  parafline  hydrocarbons,  such  as  the  residuums  from  oils, 
chiefly  from  the  Beaumont  field,  Texas,  and  the  asphaltic  oils  or  malthas.  They 
are  not  sufficiently  objectionable,  however,  to  prohibit  their  use  with  soft  asphalts, 
which  require  comparatively  little  flux  to  produce  a  cement  of  proper  consistency. 

The  residuum  of  paraffine  petroleums  vary  in  character  according  to  the 
quality  of  the  crude  oil  from  which  they  are  derived  and  the  process  used  in 
refining.  It  is  generally  considered  that  the  best  residuums  are  obtained  when 
low  temperatures  and  steam  are  used  in  the  refining,  that  is,  when  there  is  a 
minimimi  amount  of  cracking  of  the  oil  in  the  distillation.  The  better  grades 
of  these  residuums  are  fluid  at  ordinary  temperatures,  they  have  a  specific  gravity 
ranging  from  0946  to  0-921,  or  from  18"*  to  22**  Baum6,  a  flashing  point  above 
400*P.,  they  are  not  homogeneous  liquids  and  contain  considerable  paraflBne. 

The  residuums  from  Texas  petroleum  have  been  used  but  little  as  fluxes  before 
1902,  most  of  them  are  produced  from  the  Beaumont  oils.  Their  general  charac- 
teristics are:  Fluidity  at  ordinary  temperatures,  sp.  gr.  from  0-972  to  0-9589,  or 
14*  to  16*  Baum^,  and  flashing  point  about  50**  lower  than  that  of  the  paraffine 
residuums.     They  contain  traces  only  of  paraffine  scale,  and  produce  paving 


63  THE  MINERAL  INDUSTRY. 

cements  that  are  superior  to  the  paraffinie  residuum  cement  in  ductility  and 
cementing  properties,  but  they  are  slightly  more  susceptible  to  changes  in  tem- 
perature. 

The  maltiias  or  asphaltic  oils  from  California  have  been  used  almost  exclusively 
in  the  past  for  fluxing  hard  asphalts  that  were  only  slightly  soluble  in  parafiBne 
residuums ;  but  during  the  past  year  they  have  been  supplanted  to  a  large  extent 
by  the  residuums  from  Texas  oils,  due  to  the  cheapness  of  the  latter.  The  asphal- 
tic oils  are  very  viscous  fluids  at  ordinary  temperatures,  with  a  specific  gravity 
ranging  from  1  to  0986  or  from  10*"  to  12**  Baum6,  and  a  flashing  point  some- 
what lower  than  that  of  the  average  Texas  residuum.  They  contain  no  paraffine 
scales  and  are  homogeneous  liquids.  Asphalt  cements  made  with  these  fluxes 
are  more  ductile  and  cementitious  but  more  susceptible  to  changes  in  tempera- 
ture than  cement  made  with  the  former  two  oils. 

In  the  early  days  of  the  asphalt  industrj-,  wax  tailings  or  still-wax  was  em- 
ployed in  rare  cases  as  a  flux  for  asphalts,  but  owing  to  its  variable  character  its 
use  has  not  expanded.  Petroleum  refiners  state  that  they  are  never  certain  as 
to  the  quality  of  the  still-wax  to  be  produced  from  the  run  of  the  still,  and  no 
two  runs  are  ever  identical  even  when  the  same  oil  is  used  apparently  imder  the 
same  conditions. 

The  first  solid  product  from  oil  for  use  in  the  paving  industry  was  produced 
by  refining  California  maltha  by  distillation  until  the  residue  had  the  consistency 
of  asphalt  paving  cement.  These  asphalt  cements  were  produced  about  1890,  but 
they  were  not  extensively  used  until  1895.  When  these  cements  are  obtained  by 
ordinary  process  of  distillation,  they  are  characterized  by  great  ductility  and 
cementitiousness,  but  are  very  brittle  and  very  susceptible  to  changes  in  tem- 
perature and  in  some  cases  they  harden  too  rapidly  by  ageing. 

In  1892  a  patent*  was  obtained  for  an  artificial  asphalt,  produced  by  treating 
petroleum  residuum  with  sulphur  at  a  temperature  of  about  400®  P.  The  action 
of  sulphur  on  the  oil  appears  to  promote  the  removal  of  hydrogen  from  some  of 
the  heavier  products  of  the  residuum,  forming  hydrogen  sulphide.  This  arti- 
ficial asphalt  known  to  the  trade  as  "Pittsburg  flux'*  is  a  rubber-like  substance 
even  at  low  temperature ;  it  lacks  ductility,  and  is  but  little  affected  by  changes 
in  temperature.  The  inventor,  doubtless,  intended  to  use  this  material  in  pave- 
ments as  a  substitute  for  asphalt,  but  the  cementing  powers  were  so  low  that 
it  has  never  i-eaohed  beyond  the  experiment  stage.  The  material  was  used  to  a 
limited  extent,  together  with  residuum,  as  a  flux  for  asphalt  in  sheet  asphalt 
pavements,  and  although  the  asphalt  cements  showed  less  susceptibility  to  changes 
in  temperature,  the  improvement  was  counterbalanced  by  a  decrease  in  ductility., 
and  for  this  reason  its  use  for  the  purpose  was  abandoned.  However,  as  a  flux 
in  the  manufacture  of  asphalt  blocks,  where  the  danger  from  lack  of  ductility  is 
reduced  to  a  minimum,  it  has  proved  superior  to  the  ordinary  petroleum  residuum. 

The  same  artificial  process  was  applied  in  1895  to  the  asphaltic  oils  of  Cali- 
fornia; the  product  obtained  possessed  greater  cementing  powers  and  more 
ductility  than  that  produced  from  the  paraffine  oils.  This  artificial  asphalt  was 
manufactured  and  used  with  some  success  in  paving  for  several  years  until  the 
patent  was  bought  by  the  Asphalt  Trust. 

>  United  BUtes  Patent  No  468,867,  Feb.  16, 1898. 


ASPHALTtTM, 


63 


The  action  of  sulphur  on  paraflRne  oils  differs  from  that  on  the  asphaltic 
oils.  With  the  former,  the  addition  of  sulphur  beyond  a  certain  limit  has  no 
influence,  the  sulphur  remaining  inert.  In  the  case  of  asphaltic  oil  the  action  of 
the  sulphur  continues  until  the  material  is  changed  to  a  coke.  In  1894  a  patent* 
was  granted  on  a  product  known  commercially  as  "Byerlite,"  which  is  obtained 
by  blowing  air  into  petroleum  residuum  heated  to  a  high  temperature.  The  re- 
action is  similar  to  that  produced  by  sulphur,  i.e,,  hydrogen  is  removed  from  the 
oils  with  the  fprmation  of  water.  The  reaction  between  the  air  and  the  oils  is 
not  limited,  however,  as  in  the  case  of  sulphur.  The  products  obtained  from 
residuum  of  paraffine  pefroleums  are  quite  similar  to  those  obtained  by  treating 
these  oils  with  sulphur. 

This  oxidation  process  has  recently  been  applied  to  the  Beaumont  residuum 
oil  and  produces  a  material  resembling  that  from  the  paraflfine  residuum  except 
that  it  is  slightly  more  brittle  and  more  ductile.  Products  made  by  the  oxida- 
tion of  paraflfine  residuum  and  Texas  residuum  are  now  being  used  by  the  asphalt 
block  manufacturers  as  fluxes  for  asphalt,  aud  they  produce  a  cement  which  is 
far  superior  for  this  purpose  than  those  formerly  made  with  residuum  oil.  This 
process  of  oxidation  is  now  being  applied  to  the  refining  of  California  malthas 
and  the  material  produced  is  itself  an  excellent  paving  cement  for  sheet  asphalt 
pavement.  A  patent^  has  lately  been  granted  to  me  on  a  process  of  treating 
maltha  that  is  similar-'to  the  two  processes  above  mentioned.  Instead  of  remov- 
ing the  hydrogen  atoms  by  the  use  of  sulphur  or  oxygen,  I  subject  the  oil  to  a 
long,  continuous  heating  at  a  high  temperature  which  produces  a  more  or  lesft 
severe  cracking,  and  causes  the  oil  to  break  up  into  light  hydrocarbons,  propor- 
tionally richer  in  hydrogen  atoms  than  the  original  oil,  and  which  volatilize  when 
considerably  dehydrogenafed. 

The  following  tahles  give  the  tests  that  illustrate  the  different  physical  prop- 
erties of  asphalt  cements,  the  first  as  made  from  the  same  maltha,  but  by  the 
different  processes  mentioned,  and  the  second  table  as  made  by  fluxing  the  same 
asphalt  with  different  fluxes : — 


Asphalt  Cement  from  IfaltluL 


Ordinary  dtetillatlon 

Distilled  with  air 

Distilled  with  sulphw 

Crackini^  process 

ExoesslTe  air  treatment 

EzoeacdTe  aulphur  treatment . 


Susceptibility  to  Chanfee  in  Temperature 
Consistency  by  Penetration  at 

S2»  F. 

77»  F. 

lOOoF. 

115-  F. 

7-5 

46 

149 

340 

15 

47 

100 

215 

16 

46 

101 

100 

14 

46 

104 

200 

80 

48 

70 

106 

fl7 

44 

66 

100 

Ductility 
at77«F. 


70 
26 
20 
22 
6 
4 


Kind  of  Cement 


Asphalt  and  residuum 

Asphalt  and  Byerlite 

A^ihalt  and  PittsbuiK  flux. . 


Consistency  by  Pene- 
tration at  115°  F. 


7« 
60 
66 


BrlttlenesB  by 
Impact  at  82<>  F. 


10 
S5 
88 


Ductility 
atTT'F. 


10 
4 
4 


•  United  States  Patent  No.  684480,  Aug.  7, 1894;  Nos.  688,429,  686,480,  Oct  24, 1899;  and  Nos.  694,681.  694,622, 
March  4, 1008. 

•  United  States  Patent  No.  688,078,  Dec  18, 1901. 


BARYTES. 


Bt  Joseph  Struthers  and  Henry  Fisher. 

The  production  of  barytes  in  the  United  States*  during  1902  amounted  to 
58,149  short  tons  valued  at  $186,713,  as  compared  with  49,070  short  tons  valued 
at  $157,844,  in  1901,  showing  an  increase  of  9,079  short  tons.  The  supply  was 
obtained  from  Virginia,  North  Carolina,  Tennessee,  Missouri,  and  in  the  order 
of  their  production. 

The  following  tables  give  the  production,  imports  and  consumption  of  barytes 
in  the  United  States  from  1898  to  1902  and  the  world^s  output  for  the  years 
1898  to  1902,  inclusive. 

PRODUCTION,   IMPORTS,  AND   CONSUMPTION   OF   BARYTES   IN   THE   UNITED   STATES. 

an  tons  of  2,000  lb.) 


Production. 

Imports. 

Oonsumptlon. 

Ymt. 

Quftntitj. 

Value 
Per  Ton. 

Value. 

Quantity. 

Value 
Per  Ton. 

Value. 

Quantity. 

Value. 

1896 

28,247 
82,686 
41,466 
49,070 
56,149 

1400 
4-20 
8-90 

$118,988 
187,071 
lfil.717 

1,914 
4,312 
6.6S5 
5.601 

$6-98 
6-59 
6-77 
7-04 
6-59 

snip 

80,161 
86,948 
47,091 
54,674 
65,986 

$194,844 

1899 

166,478 

1900 

194.178 

1901 

8-22             167,844 

197,8p6 
288,424 

1908 

3-21               186.718     1        7.836 

PRODUCTIOy  OF  BARYTES  IN  THE  PRINCIPAL  COUNTRIES,    (a)    (iN  METRIC  TONS.) 


Year. 

Belgium. 

Canada. 

France. 

Oermaoy. 

United 
Kingdom. 

21,614 
25,059 
29,987 
28,054 
28,986 

United 

Baden. 

Bavaria. 

Prussia.  (6) 

Saxony. 

States. 

1896.... 
1899.... 
1900. . . . 
IflOI.... 
1902. . . . 

21,700 
26.900 
38,801) 
22,800 

(c) 

971 
668 
1,207 
502 
909 

2,768 

4.068 
8,635 
4.146 

(c) 

1,100 
2,430 
2,970 
3,991 

(c) 

4,889 

6,214 
10,515 
8,711 
8,034 

48,088 
62,920 
60,099 
76,584 
(c) 

478 
216 
516 
410 
(c) 

28,247 
29.607 
37,618 
44,516 
52,661 

(a)  From  official  reports  of  the  respective  countrim,  except  the  statistics  for  the  United  States.  (6)  Out- 
put of  the  mining  districts  of  Clausthal  and  Bonn,    (o  Statistics  not  yet  available. 

Missovri, — Barytes  is  found  with  galena  occurring  in  pockets  within  a  few 
feet  of  the  surface  of  thick  beds  of  residual  clay  overlying  limestone  in  Washing- 
ton and  Crawford  counties.  The  mineral  is  graded  according  to  quality;  the  pure 
white  variety  constituting  the  first  class ;  the  second  and  third  classes  consisting 
of  barytes  stained  with  iron  oxides.     The  inferior  grades  can  be  bleached  by 

1  Through  the  courtesy  of  the  U.  S.  Geological  Survey* 


BARTTE8  66 

digesting  the  finely  pulverized  material  with  sulphuric  acid  which  dissolves  the 
iron  oxide,  66*67  lb.  of  60 °B.  acid  being  required  for  each  percent  of  iron  per 
ton. 

North  Carolina. — Barytes,  according  to  J.  H.  Pratt*  is  mined  in  Madison  and 
Oaston  counties,  in  the  former  near  Marshall,  Stackhonse,  Sandy  Bottom  and  Hot 
Springs,  and  in  the  latter  near  Bessemer  City,  Kings,  Crowder's  and  Anderson 
mountains.  Small  seams  and  elongated  pockets  of  pure  barjrtes  from  3  to  10  ft. 
wide,  are  found  in  Madison  County,  and  in  Gaston  County  veins  of  the  min- 
eral occur  between  walls  of  micaceous,  argillaceous  schist,  the  width  varying 
from  2-5  to  6  ft.  In  1901,  the  output  of  these  two  counties  amounted  to  7,390 
tons  valued  at  $22,615.  The  Carolina  Mineral  Co.  cleans  and  grinds  the  mineral 
at  its  mill  at  Marshall,  but  the  other  companies  sell  their  crude  output  to  the 
manufacturers. 

Tennessee, — ^According  to  R.  A.  Shiflett,  there  were  produced  in  1902,  3,265 
short  tons  of  bar}'tes  valued  at  $14,647.     Only  one  mine  was  operated  during  the 
year,  employing  26  men  at  average  wages  of  $1  per  day.     There  are  mines  at 
Cleveland,  Sweetwater  and  Madisonville ;  also  at.  Sinking  Springs,  in  Sevier , 
County. 

Virginia. — ^The  Tri-State  Mining  &  Manufacturing  Co;,  operating  mines  in 
Tazewell  and  Russell  coimties,  is  producing  daily  at  its  plant  in  Richlands 
30  tons  of  finished  barytes,  which  analyzes  96%  pure,  and  is  sold  for  $18  per  ton. 
The  doubling  of  the  present  capacity  of  the  plant  is  being  considered.  A  vein 
of  barytes  has  been  uncovered  showing  a  30-ft.  breast,  but  its  depth  has  not  yet 
been  ascertained.  A  tram  road  11  miles  long  is  to  be  built  to  transport  the  ore 
from  the  mines  to  Swords  Creek,  where  it  is  loaded  on  the  Norfolk  &  Western 
Railroad,  and  shipped  to  the  mill. 

Market. — Consumption  in  1902  was  good  and  prices  ruled  steady.  New  York 
quotations  were:  Crude,  No.  1  domestic,  $9  per  short  ton;  No.  2,  $8;  No.  3, 
$7-75;  for  wholesale  quantities.  German  barytes,  gray  in  color,  was  $14-50  per 
ton,  and  white,  $17.    Blanc  fixe  (artificial  barium  sulphate)  was  2c.  per  pound. 

Canada. — During  1902,  Canada  produced  909  metric  tons  of  barytes,  valued 
at  $3,957,  as  compared  with  592  metric  tons,  valued  at  $3,842  m  1901.  Nova 
Scotia  produced  545  metric  tons,  Quebec  484  metric  tons,  valued  at  $3,055,  of 
which  363  tons,  valued  at  $2,471  were  exported,  and  Newfoundland  produced 
316  tons,  valued  at  $630,  the  total  output  being  exported  to  the  United  States. 

Technology. 

Barium  Chloride. — ^Three  methods  are  used  to  make  barium  chloride:  (1)  By 
the  smelting  process  from  barytes;  (2)  from  barium  carbonate  with  hydro- 
chloric acid;  (3)  from  barium  sulphide  with  hydrochloric  acid.  In  the  first 
method,  a  mixture  of  300  parts  of  ground  barytes,  176  parts  of  calcium  chloride 
and  from  115  to  120  parts  of  coal  are  heated  in  a  reverberatory  furnace,  the  mass 
being  rabbled  from  time  to  time,  which  yields  barium  chloride  according  to  the 
following  reactions:  BaSO^+4C=BaS+4CO,  and  BaS+CaCLirrBaCl.+CaS. 
The  operation  requires  from  2-5  to  3  hours.     The  molten  mass  which  has  a  black- 

•  ''The  Mining  Industry  tn  North  Carolina  in  1901,"  North  Carolina  Geological  Surrey,  Paper  No.  8. 


66  THE  MINERAL  INDUaTHY, 

ish  gray  color  is  subsequently  allowed  to  cool  in  iron  boxes^  and  dissolved  in  water, 
from  which  barium  chloride  is  crystallized.  In  the  second  method  hydrochloric 
acid  is  added  to  witherite,  and  the  barium  chloride  is  crystallized  from  the  solu- 
tion, in  the  third  method,  the  finely  ground  barytes  is  mixed  with  coal,  and 
roasted  in  a  reverberatory  furnace  at  a  high  temperature,  the  mass  being  rabbled 
from  time  to  time.  The  resultant  barium  sulphide  is  cooled  in  iron  boxes  out  of 
contact  with  the  air  and  moisture,  and  the  cooled  mass  is  lixiviated  in  iron  tanks 
placed  in  terraces,  the  water  nmning  from  the  highest  tank  to  the  ones  set  at 
lower  levels,  until  the  solution  is  of  the  right  strength.  Hydrochloric  acid  is  then 
added  to  the  yellow  solution  of  barium  sulphide,  and  barium  chloride  and  hydro- 
gen sulphide  gas  are  formed.  The  barium  chloride  is  then  crystallized  from  the 
solution. 

Barium  Oxide. — ^The  United  Barium  Co.,  of  Niagara  Palls,  N.  Y.,  is  operating 
two  furnaces  of  the  direct  heating  arc  type,  and  is  producing  about  12  tons  of 
barium  hydrate  per  day.  A  third  furnace  is  held  in  reserve.  Each  furnace 
uses  400  H.P.  and  requires  2,500  amperes  at  120  volts,  the  efiiciency  being  about 
74%.  One  ton  of  barium  sulphate  treated,  evolves  SOj  sufficient  to  make  0-5  ton 
of  50%  H2SO4.  The  barytes  used  was  first  obtained  from  Missouri  at  a  cost 
of  $6  per  ton  at  Niagara  Falls,  and  was  about  90%  pure.  The  company  now 
owns  a  large  barytes  deposit  on  the  north  shore  of  Lake  Superior  near  Silver 
Island,  estimated  to  contain  250,000  tons.  Barium  hydrate  is  used  for  making 
white  paint,  blanc  fixe,  for  the  recovery  of  sugar  remaining  uncrystallized  in 
molasses,  and  for  softening  boiler  water.  The  barium  sulphide  and  sulphy- 
drate  in  the  mother  liquor  is  used  in  removing  hair  from  hides,  in  making  litho- 
phone  and  barium  carbonate,  the  latter  being  used  in  the  manufacture  of  cyanides 
and  bricks.  When  mixed  in  small  proportions  with  clay  it  is  said  that  it  prevents 
red  bricks  from  turning  white,  and  white  bricks  from  turning  green. 

C.  B.  Jacobs*  purifies  barium  hydrate  crystals  by  a  process  which  consists  in 
fusing  the  crystals  in  their  own  water  of  crystallization,  and  then  treating  with 
superheated  steam. 

Lithophone. — The  German  manufacturers  of  this  pigment  have  combined  to 
regulate  the  scale  of  prices,  23  marks  per  100  kg.  being  asked  for  30%  ZnS  and 
16  marks  for  16%  ZnS,  the  price  varying  with  the  zinc  sulphide  content.  The 
best  lithophone  is  white,  while  the  inferior  grades  are  grayish  or  yellowish  due  to 
the  presence  of  carbon  and  iron  oxide.  The  United  States  continues  to  import 
lithophone,  although  it  is  made  in  this  country  by  several  companies,  chiefly  the 
Grasselli  Chemical  Co.  and  the  New  Jersey  Zinc  Co.  Lithophone  is  used  in 
enameling  oilcloth  and  iron.  It  becomes  dark  on  exposure  to  sunlight,  but  re- 
gains its  whiteness  when  removed  from  the  light.  To  analyze  lithophone,  accord- 
ing to  P.  Drawe"  from  1  to  1-5  g.  is  treated  with  10  c.c.  HCl  (sp.  gr.  1-9)  and 
a  little  KClOg,  and  evaporated  to  one-half  its  volume  on  a  water  bath.  The 
solution  is  diluted,  H2SO4  added,  and  the  insoluble  matter  filtered  off.  The  fil- 
trate is  neutralized  with  NajCOg,  the  zinc  precipitated,  washed,  ignited,  and 

•  United  states  Pntent  No.  790,087,  Feb.  17, 1008. 

*  ZeiUchrift  fner  angewandte  CAemie,  XV.,  lOQB,  8, 174,  and  Journal  of  the  Society  of  Clhemfoal  iipui««fry« 
]faroh81,190i,487. 


BARTTB8.  67 

weighed  as  ZnO,  from  which  the  t»tal  Zn  in  the  lithophone  may  be  calculated. 
A  second  portion  of  1  g.  is  digested  for  half  an  hour  with  1%  HCaH.Oj,  the 
insoluble  matter  filtered  oflf  and  treated  as  stated  above.  The  result  gives  ZnO, 
in  quantity  corresponding  to  ZnS  of  the  original,  the  ZnO  being  soluble  in  dilute 
HCjHjOj  is  determined  by  diflference.  The  COj  and  SO,  in  the  pigment  are 
detennined  by  the  usual  methods,  and  calculated  to  the  corresponding  zinc  com- 
pounds. The  insoluble  residue  is  BaSO^.  W.  J.  Armbruster*  makes  lithophone 
by  mixing  solutions  of  zinc  sulphate,  an  alkali  metal  carbonate  and  barium  sul- 
phide, and  recovering  the  resulting  precipitates.  Another  process*^  consists  of 
adding  the  hydrate  of  an  alkali  metal  to  a  soluble  salt  of  zinc,  then  adding  a  salt 
of  barium,  and  recovering  the  resulting  precipitates. 

W.  G.  Waring*  makes  a  white  pigment  consisting  of  barium  sulphate  and 
zinc  oxide,  by  precipitating  a  mixed  solution  of  zinc  sulphate  and  chloride  with  an 
emulsion  composed  of  magnesium  oxide  suspended  in  a  solution  of  barium 
chloride. 

•  United  states  Patent  No.  710,41^  Feb.  8.  lOOD. 

•  United  States  Patent  No.  734,885,  March  81, 1MB. 
V  Ublted  States  Patent  Na  718,66B,  Jan.  18, 1008. 


BISMUTH. 

By  Joseph  Struthebs. 

Colorado  continuea  to  supply  the  output  of  bismuth  ores  in  the  United  States, 
which  amounted  to  375  short  tons  in  1902,  as  compared  with  the  marketed  out- 
put of  318-6  tons  in  1901.  The  entire  production  during  1902  was  obtained 
from  the  Ballard  mine,  but  was  not  sold  during  that  year.  The  output  during 
1901  was  purchased  by  the  Leadville  Sampler,  at  Leadville,  and  the  State  Ore 
Sampling  works  at  Denver,  or  was  shipped  direct  to  Johnson,  Matthey  &  Co., 
Ltd.,  England. 

The  production  and  price  *of  bismuth  and  its  ores  continue  under  the  .con- 
trol of  Johnson,  Matthey  &  Co.,  Ltd.,  and  the  Government  of  Saxony — ^a  com- 
bination of  interests  formed  in  order  to  maintain  for  the  products  a  price  at 
which  the  mines  could  be  operated  with  profit.  The  supply  of  metallic  bismuth 
far  exceeds  the  demand,  and  unless  the  output  be  restricted  the  price  would  fall 
to  a  point  which  would  render  the  manufacture  of  the  metal  no  longer  profitable. 
The  schedule  of  prices  of  ore  is  based  on  the  market  price  of  the  metal.  The 
latest  published  figures  for  Colorado,  with  metal  at  $1-25  per  pound,  were: 
10%  ore,  $150  per  ton;  15%  ore,  $250  per  ton;  20%  ore,  $350  per  ton;  30% 
ore,  $550  per  ton ;  40%  ore,  $750  per  ton ;  50%  ore,  $1,000  per  ton.  The  price 
in  the  United  States  for  the  bismlith  content  of  the  ore  varies  from  $8  to  $11 
per  unit,  the  producers  being  paid  also  for  the  gold  and  silver  contents.  No  price 
was  quoted  for  the  output  during  1902,  but  as  near  as  can  be  ascertained  the 
value  of  the  output  in  1901  was  $80  per  ton,  not  including  charges  for  trans- 
portation or  treatment.  The  wholesale  price  for  metallic  bismuth  throughout 
1902,  f.  o.  b.  works,  was  $150  per  lb. 

Bismuth  occurs  both  free  and  combined  in  many  of  the  Western  States.  In 
Colorado  it  has  been  found  as  metallic  bismuth,  bismuth  carbonate,  bismuth 
telluride,  and  bismuth  tellurate.  A  recent  discovery  of  bismuth  carbonate  ore 
is  reported  in  Arizona,  on  Salt  River,  near  its  junction  with  the  Verde  River, 
between  Fort  McDowell  and  Superstition  Mountain,  and  excellent  specimens 
of  bismuth  tellurate  (the  mineral  montanite,  Bi2Og.TeO3.2H2O)  have  been  ob- 
tained from  Salida,  Chaffee  County,  Colo.  Bismuth  ore  varies  greatly  in  com- 
position. That  produced  during  1901  assayed  from  4  to  12%  of  bismuth,  from 
1  to  2  oz.  of  gold,  and  from  5  to  6  oz.  of  silver  per  ton.  That  produced 
in  1902  contained  from  78  to  27-1%  of  bismuth,  from  3-5  to  22T)  oz.  of  gold, 
and  from  3  45  to  3-5  oz.  of  silver  per  ton. 

Bismuth  is  usually  found  in  ores  containing  other  motals  which  render  its 
extraction  somewhat  complex.  The  trade  and  the  price  being  under  control  and 
the  domestic  demand  befing  comparatively  small,  the  erection  of  new  works  to 


BISMUTH,  69 

manufacture  and  refine  this  metal  in.  the  United  States  is  hardly  attractive  from 
a  commercial  point  of  view. 

I'mporis. — The  imports  of  metallic  bismuth  into  the  United  States  in  1902 
were  190,837  lb.,  valued  at  $213,704,  as  compared  with  165,182  lb.,  valued  at 
$239,061,  in  1901.  There  was  imported  also  a  small  quantity  of  bismuth  salts 
in  pharmaceutical  compounds. 

Australia. — The  output  of  bismuth  and  bismuth  ore  in  New  South  Wales 
during  1902  amounted  in  value  to  £3,100,  as  compared  with  21  long  tons, 
valued  at  £6,665  in  1901,  and  10  tons,  valued  at  £5,640  in  1900.  Early  in  1902 
the  price  of  ore  containing  at  least  20%  metallic  bismuth  was  at  the  rate  of  26. 
per  lb.  of  bismuth  content.  A  5%  ore  is  salable,  but  it  is  doubtful  if  it  would 
be  profitable.  The  demand  being  small,  the  market  is  restricted.  In  Queens- 
land the  production  of  bismuth  ore,  during  1902  had  decreased  to  1  long  ton, 
valued  at  £123,  as  compared  with  20  long  tons,  valued  at  £3,684  in  1901.  An 
analysis  of  a  sample  of  ore  from  the  mine  of  the  Mt.  Black  Proprietary  Mining 
Co.,  in  Tasmania,  is  reported  as  Bi  7  44%,  Cu  0  8%  and  0-95  oz.  gold  and  0-48  oz. 
silver  per  ton.  The  minerals  of  the  deposit  are  quartz,  tourmaline,  fluorite, 
pjrrite,  chalcopyrite,  wolframite  and  bismuthinite. 

Review  of  Analytical  Chemistry, — The  determination  of  bismuth  as  molyb- 
date,  according  to  H.  J.  Riederer,*  is  as  follows:  The  ore  is  decomposed  with 
HNO3  and  evaporated  to  fumes  with  H2SO4,  diluted,  the  residue  filtered  off 
and  treated  again  with  HNO3,  diluted  and  filtered.  The  filtrates  are  combined, 
and  the  bismuth  is  precipitated  with  H2S,  filtered  and  washed.  The  bismuth 
sulphide  is  dissolved  in  HNO3,  the  solution  is  exactly  neutralized  with  NH4OH, 
using  methyl  orange  as  an  indicator,  and  then  made  acid  again  with  one  or  two 
drope  of  30%  HNOg.  A  large  excess  of  ammonium  molybdate  is  added  and  the 
solution  is  heated  gently  until  the  precipitate  collects.  It  is  then  filtered  and 
washed  with  a  3%  (XH4)2S04  solution.  The  precipitate  is  dissolved  in  H2SO4, 
passed  through  a  column  of  zinc  (Jones  reductor)  with  suction,  and  titrated 
with  potassium  permanganate.  If  copper  is  present  with  the  bismuth  it  may 
be  separated  by  adding  to  the  acid  solution  of  the  ore,  30  c.c.  of  a  saturated  solu- 
tion of  ^^CJlfi^^  and  making  the  solution  alkaline  with  KOH.  The  pre- 
cipitated bismuth  hydroxide  is  dissolved  in  a  slight  excess  of  KCN,  and  the 
solution  is  saturated  with  HjS.  Bismuth  sulphide  only  is  precipitated,  which  is 
then  treated  as  outlined  above. 

Leaching  Process  for  Bismuth  Ore. — According  to  P.  G.  Eulert,  of  La  Paz, 
Bolivia,*  a  row  of  wooden  vats  with  filter  bottoms  are  arranged  in  steps.  About 
1,000  kg.  of  finely  ground  ore  is  charged  in  each  vat,  and  a  solution  of  common 
salt,  saltpeter  and  sulphuric  acid  is  introduced  into  the  first  of  the  series.  The 
liquor  flows  through  each  vat  in  succession,  finally  yielding  a  concentrated  solu- 
tion of  bismuth  which  flows  into  a  vat  wherein  it  is  diluted  with  water;  the 
precipitated  bismuth  oxychloride  is  removed,  dried  and  smelted  for  the  metal. 

>  Dl^'sertatlon.  "  The  Volumetric  Determination  of  Binnuth  and  Its  Separation  from  Copper,"  Columbia 
tJnlTersity.  1908. 

*  Gerrof  n  Patent  Ko.  180,068. 


BORAX. 

Bt  Joseph  Stbuthebs. 

The  production  of  borax  in  the  United  States  continues  to  be  supplied  chiefly 
from  the  colemanite  deposits  of  California,  although  the  marsh  deposits  of  Cali- 
fornia and  Nevada  contributed  a  small  portion  of  the  total  output  of  1903.  The 
reported  returns  of  production  of  refined  borax  and  boric  acid  during  1902 
amounted  to  17,202  short  tons,  valued  at  $2,434,994,  of  which  862  short  tons, 
valued  at  $165,000,  were  boric  acid. 


IMPORTS  OF  BORATES, 

ETC.,   INTO  THE 

UNITED  STATES. 

1901. 

1900. 

MetrtclbDS. 

Pounds. 

Value. 

Metric  Tons. 

Founds. 

Value. 

Borax 

847S0 
47-OB 

§  l§ 

Ill 

810-60 

84-78 
878-87 

684,537 

188,807 
888,907 

8%,796 

18,007 
80,48:3 

Borates  of  lime  or  soda  (crude  sodium  borate 
and  imflnMl  iiodium  borate'tt ................... 

Boric  add 

Calif omia. — The  colemanite  mines  at  Borate,  12  miles  N.  B.  of  Daggett,  which 
are  operated  by  the  Pacific  Coast  Borax  Co.,  continue  to  yield  a  suflBcient 
quantity  of  ore  to  satisfy  the  market  requirements.  In  the  mining  of  this  ma- 
terial the  increasing  depth  has  added  to  the  cost  of  extraction.  The  ore  at  Borate 
occurs  in  large  masses  more  or  less  connected  by  stringers  and  bands,  consisting 
of  colemanite  in  bedded  deposits  of  from  5  to  30  ft.  in  thickness.  The  re- 
fined product  reaches  the  market  in  the  form  of  sodium  bi  borate  (borax) 
(Na2B407,  IOH2O)  and  boric  acid  (old  name,  boracic  acid,  HsBOs).  Other  bedded 
deposits  have  been  f oimd  in  a  number  of  places  in  Death  Valley,  and  about  Owens 
Lake,  but  they  have  not  yet  been  exploited  sufficiently  to  determine  their  limits. 
During  1902  the  Pacific  Coast  Borax  Co.  has  continued  the  search  for  colemanite 
deposits  in  the  Death  Valley  region,  and  has  acquired  much  additional  property. 
The  deposits  in  the  Armagosa  Valley  are  under  careful  examination,  the  ore 
therefrom  being  carried  by  traction  engines  to  the  railroad  at  Manvel,  a  distance 
of  100  miles,  from  whence  it  is  shipped  to  the  refinery  in  order  to  determine  its 
value.     The  extent  of  the  deposits  on  this  property  will  soon  be  determined. 

The  large  refining  plant  at  Bayonne,  N.  J.,  which  was  destroyed  by  fire  in 
April,  1902,  ha&  been  entirely  rebuilt.  The  Pacific  Coast  Borax  Co.  continues 
to  supply  by  far  the  greater  part  of  the  borax  output  of  the  United  States  as 
well  as  a  large  proportion  of  the  boric  acid  production,  and  the  control  of  the  do- 
mestic market  of  borax  is  practically  in  its  hands. 


BOBAX. 


71 


The  American  Borax  Co.,  which  is  under  the  control  of  the  Standard  Sanitary 
Co.,  of  Pittsburg,  Pa.,  has  greatly  extended  its  plant  at  Daggett,  and  now  has 
installed  ten  20,000-gal.  digesters  in  which  the  crude  material  from  the  mud  de- 
posits in  that  vicinity  is  treated  by  sxdphurous  acid.  The  new  plant  has  largely 
increased  the  output  of  boric  acid  and  boric  acid  concentrates  by  this  company, 
and  owing  to  the  satisfactory  results  obtained,  it  is  contemplated  to  extend  the 
works  still  further  during  the  coming  winter  season.  A  new  refinery  is  being 
erected  near  Pittsburg,  Pa.,  for  the  final  treatment  of  the  products  from  Daggett. 

The  Stauflfer  Chemical  Co.,  of  San  Francisco,  is  actively  developing  the 
oolemanite  mines  in  Ventura  County,  which  yield  at  present  from  76  to  100  tons 
of  very  high  grade  ore  per  month.  This  ore  is  used  solely  for  the  manufacture 
of  refined  boric  acid  at  the  company's  works  in  San  Francisco. 

There  has  been  a  smaU  output  from  the  marshes  in  California  and  Nevada,  but 
the  quantity  is  comparatively  so  insignificant  that  it  has  not  affected  the  market. 

The  saline  deposits  of  California  have  been  fully  described  by  M.  B.  Campbell 
in  Bulletin  No.  200,  of  the  United  States  Geological  Survey  (1902),  and  by  Gil- 
bert E.  Bailey  in  Bulletin  No.  24  of  the  California  State  Mining  Bureau  (1902). 

Oregon. — In  recent  years  the  marsh  deposits  of  sodium  borate  in  Harney 
County  have  contributed  yearly  an  output  of  refined  borax  amounting  to  about 
400  tons.  For  1902,  however,  no  production  was  reported,  the  operations  at  the 
deposits  having  been  confined  solely  to  development  work.  The  principal  con- 
cern in  this  region  is  the  Rose  Valley  Borax  Co.,  which  controls  2,000  acres 
of  the  richest  portion  of  the  marsh  deposit  near  Lake  Alvord,  which  extends 
over  a  total  area  of  10,000  acres.  The  description  of  this  deposit  and  the  method 
of  obtaining  the  ore  is  given  in  the  section  on  "Borax'*  contained  in  The  Min- 
eral Industry,  Vol.  X. 

Market. — ^The  price  of  borax  fiuctuated  but  little  during  1902,  averaging  from 
7@7-25c.  for  refined  borax  and  from  6-75@7c.  for  concentrated  borax.  The 
latter  grade  is  gradually  disappearing  from  the  market  owing  to  its  non-uniform 
quality.     The  refined  article  is  now  being  marketed  under  guarantee. 

THE  world's  production  OP  BORATES,  ETC.     (a)    (iN  METRIC  TONS.) 


Year. 

United  Sta-uss. 
Calcium 
Borate 

Chile. 
Calcium 
Borate,  (b) 

India. 

Borax. 

(6) 

Germany. 
Boradte. 

Italy. 

BoricAdd, 

Crude. 

Peru. 

Calcium 

Borate,  (b) 

Turkey. 
Pandermite 
(6)  (c) 

1897 

17,600 
18,911 
21,884 
88,466 
16^287 

8,168 
7,084 
14,961 
18,177 
11,647 

880 
184 
860 
884 
188 

198 
880 
188 
888 
184 

8,704 
8,660 
8,074 
8,491 
8,668 

11,860 
7,178 
7,688 

'}2f 

11,W6 

1898 

1999 

IflOO 

MJl 

(a)  From  official  reports  of  the  respective  countries  except  the  United  States,  (b)  Exports,  (c)  Fiscal  years. 
The  manufacture  of  boric  acid  was  begun  in  the  United  States  in  1896,  in  which  year  there  was  a  production 
of  681,000  ib.  There  are  no  statistics  for  subsequent  years,  (e)  Not  reported.  (/)  Total  exports,  1897  to 
1901  inclusive,  were  48,861  tons. 

The  Borax  Consolidated,  Ltd.,  (the  international  borax  combination)  has  is- 
sued £400,000  of  5%,  second  mortgage  debenture  stock,  the  company  now  be- 
ing capitalized  at  £2,800,000.  For  the  fiscal  year  ending  Sept.  30,  1902,  gross 
profits  are  reported  of  £250,209,  as  compared  with  £258,021  for  the  year  preced- 
ing. From  the  gross  profits  for  1902  the  following  disbursements  were  made: 
Interest  £47,625,  dividends  on  common  and  preferred  shares  £52,000,  (the  total 
dividends  thus  amounting  to  £99,625),  income  tax  £3,201,  which  gave  a  balance 


72  THE  MINERAL  USTDUSTRT. 

of  £147,383.  Adding  to  this  balance  £15,795  brought  forward  from  the  previous 
year  and  subtracting  £17,825  for  depreciation  on  reserve  and  sinking  fund  leaves 
a  surplus  of  £142,353,  out  of  which  it  is  proposed  to  pay  a  dividend  of  £1  per 
share,  less  income  tax,  on  the  ordinary  shares,  making  a  total  dividend  payment  of 
17-5%  for  the  year.  The  net  profits  for  1902  amounted  to  £181,658  as  compared 
with  £190,278  in  1901.  The  working  of  the  mines,  deposits  and  factories  have 
been  satisfactory  and  by  effecting  economies  in  the  cost  of  production,  the  lower 
prices  obtained  for  some  of  the  products  have  been  counterbalanced. 

Argentina. — Calcium  borate  deposits  varying  in  thickness  from  a  few  inches 
to  several  feet,  are  found  in  the  "National  Territory  of  the  Andes,"  (now  a  part 
of  Argentina),  the  principal  districts  being  Caurchari,  Antuco,  Partos  Grandes, 
Hombre  Muerto,  Batones  and  Diabillos.  The  altitude  of  these  districts  ranges 
from  18,000  to  18,500  ft.,  and  the  transport  of  the  mineral  is  accomplished  by 
mule-back  over  precipitous  trails  to  the  railroad  at  Salta,  a  distance  of  from 
150  to  200  miles.  A  load  of  300  lb.  is  carried  by  each  mule,  and  the  time  occu- 
pied in  transport  amounts  to  7  or  8  days.  Under  the  present  conditions  of 
labor,  the  cost  per  ton,  including  mining  and  transportation,  f.  o.  b.  ship  at  the 
coast  is  about  £7  68.  5d.  Adding  to  this  amount  the  ocean  freight  of  £1,  and 
insurance,  etc..  Is.  6d.,  makes  the  total  cost  per  ton  delivered  in  England 
£8  7s.  lid. 

Bolivia. — The  production  of  calciurb  borate  in  Bolivia  during  1901  amounted 
to  3,065  metric  tons,  valued  at  $410,524  (Bolivian  currency),  as  compared  with 
1,485  metric  tons,  valued  at  $148,510  in  1900. 

Chile. — The  borate  deposit  of  Ascotan  in  the  interior  of  the  Province  *of  An- 
tofagasta  produces  the  greater  part  of  the  total  output  of  boracite  and  borax. 
Of  the  production  during  1900,  which  amounted  to  13,177  metric  tons  of  cal- 
cined boracite  and  27  metric  ^ons  of  borax,  Ascotan  contributed  10,920  metric  tons 
the  balance  being  obtained  from  the  deposits  in  the  Province  of  Carcota.  The 
exports  of  calcium  borate  during  1901  amounted  to  11,455  metric  tons  ($1,302,410 
Chilean  currency),  as  compared  with  13,177  metric  tons  ($1,317,676). 

Italy. — ^The  production  of  boric  acid  in  Italy  during  1901  amounted  to  2,558 
metric  tons,  valued  at  $194,408,  as  compared  with  2,491  metric  tons,  valued  at 
$169,425  in  1900.  The  entire  production  is  obtained  from  the  natural  steam 
fumaroles  in  the  provinces  of  Pisa  and  Grosetto. 

Peru. — ^Though  borates  occur  in  many  localities  in  Peru,  the  only  deposit  which 
is  operated  with  profit  is  at  Salinas  near  the  boundary  of  the  provinces  of  Are- 
quipa  and  Moquegua.  In  1900  the  exports  of  borates  amounted  to  7,080  metric 
tons,  valued  at  £56,638. 

Turkey. — The  boracite  deposits  in  Turkey  were  discovered  in  1856,  but  were 
not  operated  until  recent  years.  The  mines  of  Sultan-Tcha'ir  are  situated  within 
the  Sandjak  of  Karassi  and  in  the  Merkez-caza  of  Balikesser  and  Nahie  of  Ivet, 
and  all  are  now  under  control  of  the  Borax  Consolidated  Co.,  Ltd.  The  total 
quantity  of  mineral  exported  from  1897  to  1901  inclusive,  amounted  to  43,851 
tons,  valued  at  £789,318.  The  quantity  reported  to  have  been  produced  from 
March  1,  1899,  to  March  1,  1902,  is  28,420  tons,  milking  an  average  yearly  out- 
put of  9,473  tons  for  this  period.     The  mineral  is  exported  from  Pandermn. 


BROMINE. 

By  Joseph  Struthbbs. 

The  production  of  bromine  in  the  United  States  during  1902,  including  the 
quantity  of  bromine  contained  in  potassium  bromide,  amounted  to  513,913  lb., 
as  compared  with  552,043  lb.  in  1901.  The  price  per  lb.  during  1902  averaged 
25c.,  as  compared  with  28c.  in  1901.  The  production  of  bromine  in  the  world 
continues  to  be  controlled  by  the  associated  American  producers  and  by  the 
Jjeopoldshall-Stassfurt  convention,  the  latter  being  operative  for  several  years  to 
come. 

PRODUCTION   OF   BROMINE  IN   THE   UNITED   STATES. 


Ytar. 

Mtefaigao. 

Ohio. 

Pennsyl- 
vania. 

West 
Virginia. 

Total. 

Metric 
Tons. 

Value. 

Total. 

Per  Pound. 

1898 

Pounds, 
(a)  141,288 
(a)  188,273 
(a)  210,400 
(0)217,995 
(a)  296,408 

Pounds. 

106,860 
82,868 
91,188 

186,467 

100,491 

Pounds. 
119,998 
111,160 
105,592 
101,595 
96,595 

Pounds. 
118388 
101,218 
114,270 
106,986 
98,875 

Pounds. 
486,97h 
488,00i 
581,444 
(6)558,048 
518,918 

221 
196 
887 
860 
288 

$186,854 
125,671 
140,790 
154,572 
128,4:iK 

28c. 

1899 

89c. 

1900 

87c 

1901 

28c. 

1909 

25c. 

(a)  Including  the  bromine  equivalent  of  the  product  recovered  as  potassium  bromide, 
duction,  848,918  pounds  were  in  the  liquid  form. 


(b)  Of  the  total  pro- 


Michigan. — The  greater  part  of  the  bromine  output  of  the  United  States  con- 
tinues to  be  supplied  by  Michigan.  The  brines  of  this  State  have  been  well 
described  by  Alfred  C.  Lane  in  the  report  on  Lower  Michigan  Mineral  Waters, 
U.  S.  Geological  Survey,  Water  Supply  and  Irrigation  Paper  No.  31,  1899.  So 
far  as  known  the  entire  central  basin  of  the  lower  peninsula  of  Michigan  con- 
tains one  vast  brine  deposit,  which  carries  a  larger  percentage  of  bromine  than 
any  brines  yet  discovered.  This  deposit  extends  from  the  Indiana  boundary 
line  on  the  south,  to  Grayling  on  the  north,  and  from  the  Saginaw  Valley  on 
the  east  to  Lake  Michigan  on  the  west.  The  highest  percentages  of  bromine  are 
reported  from  the  wells  in  Midland  and  Gratiot  counties.  The  supply  of  brine 
seems  to  be  unlimited,  and  wells  in  Midland  County  which  have  been  pumped 
for  more  than  twenty  years  show  no  signs  of  exhaustion.  Since  1883  thirteen 
companies  have  been  engaged  in  the  bromine  industry  in  Midland,  and  eight 
companies  at  different  times  have  manufactured  bromine  at  other  localities  in 
this  basin.    At  present,  however,  the  entire  production  of  the  State  is  made  by 


74  THE  MINER iL  [NDU8TRT, 

two  companies  in  Midland.  The  Saint  Louis  Chemical  Co.,  at  Saint  Louis, 
Gratiot  County,  is  now  drilling  its  second  well,  and  it  will  probably  contribute  to 
the  production  in  the  near  future. 

The  producers  of  bromine  in  the  United  States  axe  as  follows:  The  Dow 
Chemical  Co.,  Midland,  Mich. ;  Myers  Bros.  Drug  Co.,  St  Louis,  Mo.  (works  at 
Midland,  Mich.) ;  Independent  Chemical  Co.,  Saginaw,  Mich.;  Wayne  Chemical 
Co.,  Saginaw,  Mich. ;  John  A.  Beck  &  Co.,  Allegheny,  Pa. ;  J.  L.  Dickinson  &  Co., 
Maiden,  W.  V.;  Hope  Salt  and  Coal  Co.,  Mason,  W.  Va.;  Liverpool  Salt  and 
Coal  Co.,  Hartford,  W.  Va.;  Hartford  City  Salt  Co.,  Hartford,  W.  Va.;  Syra- 
cuse Coal  &  Salt  Co.,  Syracuse,  0. ;  Coal  Bidge  Salt  Co.,  Pomeroy,  0. ;  Buckeye 
Salt  Co.,  Pomeroy,  0.;  Excelsior  Salt  Works,  Pomeroy,  0.,  and  United  Salt 
Co.,  Pomeroy,  0.    The  last-mentioned  concern  has  made  no  output  since  1900. 

The  brines  found  at  all  of  the  above-named  localities,  except  Midland,  have 
practically  the  same  composition.  On  the  average  360  gal.  of  brine  are  required 
for  one  barrel  (280  lb.)  of  salt,  and  100  bbl.  of  salt  yield  55  lb.  of  bromine,  but 
at  Pittsburg  the  yield  is  as  high  as  75  to  80  lb.  per  100  bbl.  The  brines  contain 
calcium  and  magnesium  chlorides,  iron,  and  traces  of  sodium  and  potassium 
sxdphates.  An  analysis  of  water  from  the  Coal  Ridge  Salt  Co.'s  wells,  near 
Pomeroy,  0.,  published  in  Vol.  VI.  of  the  Ohio  Geological  Survey  reports,  showed 
total  solids  amounting  to  9  528%,  with  the  following  composition:  NaCl, 
79-27a%  ;  CaCla,  14  397%  ;  MgCl^,  6097% ;  MgBr^,  0  097%  ;  Nal,  001!&% ; 
SiOj,  0043%;  FcjOs  and  Al^Og,  0082%.  The  composition  of  the  Pittsburg 
brine  may  be  deduced  from  the  above  by  adding  0043%  MgBrj. 

With  the  exception  of  the  Dow  Chemical  Co.,  all  of  the  companies  use  the 
same  process  of  recovery.  HgSO^  and  KCIO,  are  added  to  the  brine  in  stone 
stills  of  from  400  to  800  gal.  capacity,  and  the  liquid  is  agitated  by  steam 
jets  under  about  40  lb.  pressure.  The  Midland  brine,  which  is  nearly  four 
times  richer  in  bromine  than  the  brines  of  Ohio  and  West  Virginia,  is. treated 
by  a  special  process,  briefly  outlined  as  follows:  The  unoxidized  bromides 
contained  in  the  brine  are  brought  into  contact  first  with  air  aijd  subse- 
quently with  a  mixture  of  air  and  free  chlorine.  All  natural  brines  carry- 
ing bromine  contain,  apart  from  sodium  chloride,  in  many  cases,  KCl,  CaClj, 
MgClg  and  LiCl  as  well  as  FeCO.,;  in  other  cases,  HjS  and  traces  of  iodides 
are  present;  furthermore,  natural  brine  deposits  frequently  contain  oil.  The 
Dow  process^  is  worked  in  the  cold,  and  the  oxidation  of  impurities  is  ac- 
complished mainly  by  air  supplemented  by  wash  gases  containing  traces  of 
chlorine  and  bromine.  Considering  that  natural  brines  contain  less  than 
01%  Br,  the  importance  of  air  oxidation  is  evident,  for  if  chlorine  alone  be  used 
as  an  oxidizing  agent,  several  times  the  quantity  would  be  necessary.  The 
oxidizers  in  present  use  consist  of  a  series  of  electrol}i:ic  cells  of  special  construc- 
tion. By  the  Dow  process,  bromide  containing  less  than  03%  CI  is  made  with- 
out difficulty,  whereas  by  the  former  blowing-out  process,  it  was  impossible  to 
extract  much  more  than  one-half  the  bromine  in  the  brine  without  having  the 
product  so  contaminated  with  chlorides  as  to  render  it  unsalable. 

>  United  states  Patent  No.  714,610,  Nov.  25, 1902,  H.  H.  Dow. 


CALCIUM  CARBIDE  AND  ACETYLENE. 

By  Hbnrt  Fishbb. 

That  the  nse  of  acetylene  gas  will  increase  from  year  to  year  cannot  be 
doubted^  when  consideration  is  given  to  the  simple  apparatus  needed  for  its  manu- 
facture, and  the  few  substances  required  for  its  production.  Especially  will 
this  be  the  case,  when  all  dangers  of  explosion  have  been  eliminated  as  now  seems 
fairly  in  the  way  of  being  accomplished. 

Acetylene  Generators, — ^During  1902  many  patents  were  taken  out  in  the 
United  States  and  in  Europe  for  acetylene  gas  generators,  more  than  75  patents 
being  granted  by  the  United  States  Government  alone,  covering  claims  for  vari- 
ous improvements.  Some  of  these  generators  operate  on  the  "carbide-to-water" 
and  some  on  the  "water-to-carbide"  principle.  There  were  186  firms  in  the 
United  States  in  1902  engaged  in  manufacturing  various  forms  of  acetylene 
apparatus. 

Lamps. — For  mine  lighting,  a  new  form  of  acetylene  lamp  has  been  intro- 
duced, which  consists  of  a  body  holding  the  water  supply,  a  gas  chamber  and  a 
carbide  holder.  Each  lamp  is  provided  with  an  extra  gas  chamber  and  carbide 
holder  in  order  that  the  supply  may  be  renewed  while  the  light  is  kept  burning. 
The  lamp  is  very  compact,  bums  from  two  to  three  hours,  and  gives  a  bright 
light  of  about  20  candle  power. 

Car  Lighting. — In  an  article^  entitled  "Acetylene  Stored  and  Transported  in 
Safety,"  J.  S.  Seymour  states  that  if  a  steel  cylinder  be  packed  with  porous  brick 
of  80%  porosity,  or  with  asbestos  disks  covered  with  an  alkaline  silicate,  and  a 
quantity  of  acetone  be  introduced  equal  in  volume  to  40%  of  the  capacity  of  the 
cylinder,  the  latter  at  room  temperature  will  hold  240  volumes  of  acetylene  at 
10  atmospheres  pressure.  In  a  cylinder  of  this  description,  all  danger  from  acci- 
dental explosions  is  eliminated,  or  if  an  explosion  be  produced  intentionally,  it 
is  localized.'  In  order  to  prove  this  assertion,  a  spark  apparatus  was  introduced 
into  a  tank  charged  with  acetylene  and  a  spark. produced.  No  explosion  took 
place,  but  on  opening  the  cylinder,  it  was  found  that  the  asbestos  disks  about  the 
plug  were  covered  with  carbon,  showing  that  the  acetylene  had  been  decomposed. 
He  also  states  instances  where  these  tanks  of  acetylene  have  been  used  on  railroad 
cars  and  yachts  with  perfect  satisfaction. 

To  prevent  the  explosion  of  acetylene  within  the  storage  apparatus  with  dis- 
astrous results,  a  patent*  has  been  obtained  by  M.  Toltz  and  A.  lipschutz,  for 
the  use  of  a  fusible  valve  on  the  storage  tank,  and  of  lengths  of  fusible  pipe,  pro- 
viding piping  also  is  used,  which  fusible  material  melts  below  the  dissociation 
point  of  acetylene,  so  that  in  case  the  gas  becomes  unduly  heated  from  any  cause, 
instead  of  exploding  it  escapes  and  bums. 

In  studying  the  explosion  limits  of  combustible  gases  and  vapors  with  air, 

>  Journal  of  the  Franklin  Institute,  July,  1908,  pp.  1-18. 

•  EDffUsh  FiAteDt  No.  84,6T7,  Dec.  8, 1001;  United  States  Patent  No.  090,725,  Maj  18, 1008. 


76  THE  MINERAL  INDUSTRY. 

P.  Eitner*^  found  that  the  explosive  limits  of  acet3'lcne  in  ti.e  Bnnte  burette, 
stated  in  percentages  of  moist  combustible  gas  in  the  mixture,  were:  Ix)wer 
limit,  3-35%  and  upper  limit,  52*3% ;  the  actual  quantity  of  acetylene  present 
in  the  two  cases  being  3*25%  and  51*3%,  respectively. 

According  to  F.  Gaud,*  the  clogging  of  acetylene  burners  having  small  orifices 
by  the  deposition  of  carbon  due  to  the  decomposition  of  'the  gas,  is  caused  by 
the  presence  of  hydrogen  sulphide  and  other  sulphur  compounds  in  the  acetylene. 
The  impurities  increase  the  tendency  of  the  gas  to  decompose  into  its  elements, 
but  when  purified  acetylene  is  used,  there  is  no  fouling  of  the  burner,  pro- 
vided the  normal  rate  of  consumption  of  gas  is  observed,  if  the  rate  of  flow  be 
reduced,  however,  clogging  cannot  be  prevented. 

According  to  the  statements  of  6.  Keppler,**  the  impurities  in  acetylene 
are  phosphorus  and  sulphur  compounds,  ammonia,  oxygen,  air,  hydrogen,  car- 
bon monoxide,  hydrogen  silicide,  methane  and  other  hydrocarbons.  For  purify- 
ing acetylene  five  substances  have  been  proposed,  as  follows:  (1)  ferric  hy- 
droxide; (2)  *Tieratol,"  a  solution  of  chromic  acid  in  acetic  or  sulphuric  acid 
absorbed  in  kieselguhr;  (3)  "acagine,"  a  mixture  of  bleaching  powder  with  15% 
lead  chromate;  (4)  "puratylene,"  a  mixture  of  bleaching  powder  with  calcium 
chloride  and  calcium  hydroxide,  prepared  by  a  special  process  to  give  it  porosity, 
and  (5)  "frankoline,"  a  solution  of  cuprous  and  ferric  chloride  in  strong  hydro- 
chloric acid  absorbed  in  kieselguhr. 

Caloium  Carbide. — Market. — In  Europe,  the  Nuremberg  Syndicate  at  the 
head  of  which  stands  the  Neuhausen  Aluminium  Werke,  with  its  plant  at  Lend 
Qastein,  has  fixed  the  price  of  calcium  carbide  for  1903  for  home  consumption,  at 
24-5  marks  per  100  kg.  in  southern  Germany,  at  25*55  marks  in  Berlin,  and  at 
25-95  marks  in  Cologne.  All  the  French  carbide  plants  belong  to  the  syndicate. 
Lots  of  one  ton  and  more  in  drums  of  100  kg.  each,  cost  345  fr.  at  Annecy  and 
399  fr.  in  Caen.  The  annual  consumption  of  Germany  is  estimated  at  10,000 
tons.  The  annual  production  in  France  is  estimated  at  18,000*  tons.  France  ex- 
ports more  than  1,000  tons  of  carbide,  chiefly  to  Brazil,  Argentina,  Madagascar, 
the  West  Coast  of  Africa,  China  and  Japan.  The  expense  of  shipping  carbide 
to  Brazil  is  143  fr.  per  metric  ton,  so  that  French  carbide  costs  about  550  fr.  per 
ton  in  Brazil.  Some  of  the  plants  that  are  independent  of  the  Nuremberg  Syn- 
dicate are  at  Gurtnelle,  Patemo,  a  small  Hungarian  works  at  Jadvoelgy  near 
Nagy-Varad,  and  at  Terni  (Italy).  The  last  produces  annually  20,000  tons  of 
carbide,  of  which  one-half  is  exported. 

In  the  United  States,  the  Union  Carbide  Co.  at  Niagara  Falls,  N.  Y.,  is  making 
daily  50  to  GO  tons  of  carbide  at  a  reported  cost  of  $24  per  ton.  Export  carbide 
is  sold  f.  o.  b.  ship  at  New  York  at  $50  per  ton,  but  for  home  consumption  in 
lots  of  one  ton  and  upward  $70  per  ton  is  charged,  or  $3-75  per  100  lb.  The 
product  is  graded  into  three  sizes,  the  smallest  including  pieces  from  00833 
(1^2  )  to  ^'25  (i)  in.,  the  next  from  0-5  to  2  in.,  and  the  largest  from  2  to  35  in. 

»  Journal  ftter  Oasbeleuchtung,  45  (2),  pp.  21-84:  (5),  pp.  60-72;  (6),  pp.  90-93,  and  (7),  pp.  112-115;  abstract 
in  the  JounuU  of  the  Society  of  Chemical  Industry,  March  81,  1902,  pp.  895-396. 

*  Comptea  rendu8, 134  (3),  pp,  176-177. 

•  Journal  fuer  Gnabeieuchtung,  1902,  45,  pp.  777,  802  and  820;  abstract  in  the  Journal  of  Society  of  Chem- 
ical Industry,  Nov.  29,  1902,  pp.  1886-1888. 


CALCIUM  CARBIDE  AND  ACETYLENE.  77 

It  is  estimated  that  the  United  States  consumes  annually  16,000  tons,  practically 
all  of  it  being  used  for  lighting  purposes. 

Manufacture. — It  is  stated  by  V.  Rothmund"  that  for  the  formation  of  calcium 
carbide  more  than  700  watts  are  necessary,  and  that  the  reaction  takes  place  at  a 
temperature  of  1,620** C. 

I.  L.  Roberts  has  patented^  a  process  for  making  calcium  carbide  in  which  he 
uses  anthracite  coal  in  place  of  coke.  The  coal  having  a  higher  specific  gravity 
than  the  coke,  does  not  separate  from  the  lime  when  charged  into  the  furnace. 
The  resxdting  carbide  is  stated  to  be  less  porous,  and  therefore  more  permanent 
than  the  carbide  made  with  coke. 

A  process  for  making  calcium  carbide  cartridges  consists  in  compressing  the 
material  and  immersing  it  in  molten  naphthalene.  The  naphthalene  is  said  to 
retard  the  too  rapid  action  of  the  water  on  the  carbide,  while  the  heat  evolved 
by  that  action  volatilizes  the  naphthalene,  which  in  the  gaseous  form  mixes  with 
the  acetylene  and  improves  its  illuminating  power.  As  the  cartridges  contain 
the  same  amount  of  carbide  each  time,  they  yield  the  same  amount  of  gas. 

Uses. — Calcium  carbide  is  used  to  destroy  the  phylloxera  in  the  vineyards  of 
^  France  and  Italy,  and  the  higher  the  percentage  of  phosphorus  it  contains,  the 
/  greater  is  its  germidical  property.     This  seems  to  be  due  to  the  evolution  of 
hydrogen  phosphide  when  the  carbide  is  exposed  to  moisture. 

R.  Hopfelt  uses  in  the  arc  light>  electrodes  made  of  carbide  covered  with 
aluminum  or  a  waterproof  material,  and  claims  that  he  obtains  a  brighter  and 
more  powerful  light 

Reducing  Agent. — According  to  Dr.  B.  Neumann®  calcium  carbide,  like  alumi- 
num, acts  as  a  reducing  agent  when  brought  in  contact  with  metallic  oxides  and 
salts,  but  it  is  not  as  powerful  a  reducer  as  aluminum.  Warren,  Moissan,  Siemens 
and  Halske  and  von  Kiigelgen,  also,  experimented  with  carbide  as  a  reducing 
agent.     The  reaction  which  takes  place,  according  to  Neumann  is  as  follows : — 

3M,0+CaC,=3M2+CaO+2CO ;  2M20+2MCl+CaC=3M2+CaCl2+2CO, 
while  von  Kiigelgen  claims  that  the  reaction  which  takes  place  is : — 
5M20+CaC2=5M2+CaO+2C02 ;  4M,0+2MCl+CaCj=5M2+CaCl2+2C02. 
M  indicating  a  monovalent  metal.  The  former  claims  that  carbon  monoxide 
is  produced,  and  that  one  part  of  carbide  reduces  six  parts  of  metal,  the  latter 
that  carbon  dioxide  is  produced,  and  that  one  part  of  carbide  reduces  ten  parts 
of  metal. 

This  property  has  recently  been  made  the  basis  of  a  process  for  making  the 
alkaline  metals.  A  simple  or  double  fluoride  or  silicofluoride  of  the  metal 
is  mixed  with  calcium  carbide  and  heated  to  red  heat  when  a  double  de- 
composition takes  place,  and  an  alkali  carbide  and  calcium  fluoride  result.  On 
heating  the  mixture  still  higher,  the  alkali  carbide  breaks  up,  and  the  liberated 
metal  can  be  distilled  over.  If  nitrogen  or  ammonia  gas  is  led  over  the  metal 
to  prevent  oxidation,  a  part  of  the  carbide  is  converted  into  cyanide  which  can 
be  -recovered  by  the  lixiviation  of  the  fused  mass. 

•  Chemiker  Centramatt,  1  (18),  p.  1045.  »  United  8tate*i,  Patent  No.  708,921,  Sept.  9,  1908. 

•  Zeitaehrift  fuer  Ktektrochemie,  Oct.  2. 1902,  p.  772. 


CARBORUNDUM. 

Thb  production  of  carborundum  during  1902  by  the  sole  manufacturer  using 
two  units  of  1,000  H.P.  each,  amounted  to  3,741,500  lb.,  valued  at  $374,160,  as 
compared  with  3,838,175  lb.  of  crude  carborundum,  valued  at  $345,435  in  1901, 

PBODUCTION  OF  CARBORUNDUM  IN  THB  UNITED  STATES. 


Year. 

Quantity. 

Value. 

1900 

Pounds. 
1,741,946 
8,888,176 
8,741,600 

$916,000 

146,486 

874,160 

1901 

1902 

and  1,741,245  lb.,  valued  at  $216,090  in  1900.  The  average  price  in  1900  was 
12-4c.  per  lb.;  in  1901,  8-9c.  per  lb.,  and  in  1902,  10c.  per  lb.  It  is  reported 
that  the  cost  of  manufacturing  this  material  is  4  or  5c.  per  lb.  The  cost  of 
material  is  0-75c;  labor,  0-6c.;  power,  l-25c.,  and  final  washing  and  grading, 
1-5  to  2-6c.  per  lb.  The  crystals  are  graded  in  20  sizes,  from  No.  8,  passing 
througK  an  8-mesh  sieve,  to  No.  220,  passing  through  a  220-me8h  sieve.  The 
three  grades  of  fineness  F,  FF,  and  FFF,  known  as  "carborundum  flour,*'  are 
obtained  by  washing  the  finest  crystals.  By  stirring  the  fine  powder  in  water 
and  allowing  it  to  settle  one,  two,  four  or  more  minutes  and  then  decanting  the 
water  and  allowing  it  to  settle,  powders  called  'Tiand-washed*'  one,  two,  four, 
etc.,  minute  powders  are  obtained. 


CEMENT. 


The  production  of  Portland  cement,  natural  hydraulic  cement  and  dry  cement 
in  the  United  States  during  1902  was  as  follows:  Portland  cement,  16,535,000 
bbl.  (of  400  lb.),  valued  at  $16,637,500,  as  compared  with  12,711,225  bbl.,  valued 
at  $12,532,360  in  1901;  natural  hydraulic  cement,  9,083,759  bbl.  (of  300  lb.), 
valued  at  $4,087,692,  as  compared  with  7,084,823  bbl.,  valued  at  $3,056,278  in 
1901,  and  slag  cement,  547,175  bbl.  (of  400  lb.),  valued  at  $465,099,  as  com- 
pared with  272,689  bbl.,  valued  at  $198,151  in  1901. 

PRODUCTION    OF    PORTLAND    CEMENT    IN    THE    UNITED    STATES.     (iN    BARRELS    OP 

400  LB.)     (380   LB.   NET.) 


1901. 

1908.  (c) 

States. 

Barrels. 

Value  at  WorlES. 

Barrels. 

Value  at  Woita. 

TotaL 

Per  Bbl. 

Total. 

PerBbL 

California 

146,848 

S618.968 

$8-60 

220,000 

100,000 

900,000 

400,000 

600,000 

2,400,000 

1,900,000 

990,000 

700,000 

8,000,000 

200,000 

886loOO 

■  lllillllli 

$8-50 

Colorado 

110 

Illinois 

110 

Indiana     

110 

Kanfuui ■ 

110 

Michigan    

1,0»,718 

1,612,000 

617,288 

619,862 

7,001,500 

1,450,800 
617,228 
671,887 

6,882,860 

iio 

0-90 
100 
110 
0-90 

1-10 

New  jensy 

0-90 

New  York 

1*00 

Ohio 

1-10 

T^nnflvlvania.  ,  ......tttr - 

0*90 

TexBB, 

MO 

XjtAh. 

(b) 

Yiridnia 

247,500 

1*10 

OthAr  StAtea  (a^t 

1,608,079 

1,867,887 

110 

Ibtal 

12,711,225 

112,582,880 

$0-98 

16,585,000 

116,687,600 

11-01 

(a)  Includes  Arkansas,  Illinois,  Indiana,  Kansas,  Virginia,  North  Dakota,  South  Dakota,  and  Texas,    (b)  In- 
cluded in  California,    (c)  Compiled  by  Charles  F.  McKenna. 

PRODUCTION    OF    NATURAL    HYDRAULIC    CEMENT    IN    THE    UNITED    STATES.     (iN 

,    BARRELS  OP  300  LB.) 


States 


nUnois 

Indiana  and  Kentucky. 

Kansas 

Maryland , 

Minnesota 

New  York: 

Ulster  County 

Onondafca  County. . . . . 

Schoharie  Conn^.  ... 

Erie  County , 

Other  counties 

Ohio 

Pennsylvania 

Virginia 

West  Virginia , 

Wisoonsfai , 

Other  States  (a) 


Total. 


1901. 


Barrels. 


469,842 

2.150,000 

146,760 

851,829 

(b)  126,000 

1,184,007 
141,629 
62,702 
668,800 
182,000 

(c)  104,000 
942,884 

id) 

(d) 

481.020 

80,857 


7,084.823 


Value 


atJ9[brks. 


Total. 


$187,986 
762,600 

72,880 
175,666 

63,000 


1,117,066 


62,400 
876,954 


182,788 
66,069 


$8,066,278 


Per  Bbl. 


$0-40 
0-86 
0-50 
0-50 
0-50 


000 


0-60 
0-40 


0-88 
0-81 


$0-48 


1902.  (e) 


Barrels. 


,000 


8,000,000 
7t)0,000 


"0,000 


000 


Value  at  Works. 


Total. 


$112,1 


^SO&^l 


1,650.000 


815,000 


ido.r 


(f) 


820.000 
87.600 
45,000 


(.9)9,083.760         $4,087,692 


PerBU. 


.$0*45 


0-66 


0-45 


0-40 
0-50 
0-45 


$0-45 


(a)  Includes  Georeia,  Tennessee,  West  Virginia,  Texas  and  Nebrnnka.  (b)  Includes  North  Dakota,  (e)  In- 
clttdas  Virginia  and  West  Virginia,  (d)  Included  in  Ohio,  (e)  Compiled  by  R  W.  Lesley.  (/)  Not  separately 
reported,    (g)  Preliminary  statistics  of  U.  S.  Geological  Surrey. 


80 


THE  MINERAL  INDUSTRY. 


Slag  Cement. — The  output  of  slag  cement  in  1902  was  109,435  short  tons, 
valued  at  $465,099,  as  compared  with  54,536  short  tons  (equivalent  to  272,689 
bbl.  of  400  lb.),  valued  at  $198,151  in  1901.  The  production  and  value  increased 
markedly  in  sympathy  with  the  highly  satisfactory  condition  in  the  Portland  ce- 
ment trade  during  the  latter  half  of  1902.  The  distinction  made  by  the  Board  of 
Engineers,  U.  S.  A.,  that  "Steel  Portland  Cemenf  cannot  be  substituted  for  Port- 
land cement  in  Government  work  where  the  specifications  call  for  the  latter,  but  is 
to  be  classed  as  puzzolana  slag  cement,  has  been  accepted  by  most  of  the  slag 
cement  manufacturers ;  and  efforts  are  being  made  to  push  the  sale  of  slag  cements 
only  for  those  uses  to  which  they  are  particularly  adapted.  A  greatly  increased 
production  should  result  in  1903  unless  the  state  of  the  iron  market  is  too  good 
to  permit  attention  being  paid  to  the  utilization  of  by-products.  The  review  of 
the  slag  cement  and  slag  brick  industries  of  the  United  States  during  1902  is 
given  by  Mr.  E.  C.  Eckel,  later  in  this  section. 

CEMENT    PRODUCTION,    IMPORTS,    EXPORTS    AND    CONSUMPTION     IN     THE     UNITED 
STATES,   (in  barrels  OP  300  LB.) 


Productton. 

Imports. 

Exports,  (b) 

Consumptioii. 

Tmt. 

Natural 
Hydnulic. 

Portland, 
(a) 

Total 
Barrels. 

Value. 

Barrels. 

Value. 

Barrels 

Value. 

Barrels. 

Value. 

1898 

1898 

1900 

1901 

1908 

ill 

4,989,664 
8,087,161 
11,809,068 
18,988.914 
17,088,175 

18,150.748 
17,763,608 
80,486,874 
80.068,788 
86,165,9&1 

$10,888,888 
16,860,781 
16,893,109 
15,688,688 
88,088,848 

1 
8,686,098, 18,684,888 
8.810,961,    8,868,886 
8,188.845     8.880,445 
1,889,856,    1,806,698 
8,669,781     8,581,883 

70.898 
147,089 
186,686 
884,880 
488,189 

$98,181 
818,457 
889,186 
768,067 
575,868 

16.764,948 
80,417,680 
88,481,988 
80,690,449 
88,408,466 

118,749,989 
18,606,560 
18,484,808 
16,148.8:8 
84,089,800 

(a)  Includes  slai;  cement.  (b)  Includes  re-exports  of  foreifi^. 

IMPORTS  OF  CEMENT  INTO  THE   UNITED  STATES  ACCORDING  TO   SOURCE. 


Year. 

BeUdum. 

Canada. 

France. 

Qermany. 

Short  Tons. 

Value. 

Short  Tons. 

Value. 

Short  Tons. 

Value. 

Short  Tons. 

Value. 

1898 

188,806 
184,880 
166,858 
00,686 
188,159 

1,001,188 
877,517 
784,090 

965 
880 
903 
1,818 
788 

$8,858 
8;868 
9,896 

18,180 
8,888 

8,469 
8,180 
6.648 
8,854 
8,984 

$88,884 
88,868 
47;798 
80,481 
84.705 

906,968 
888,799 
881,110 
118,119 
861.858 

$1,894,651 
1,698.782 

1899 

1900 

1,728,104 
804,710 

1901 

1908 

1,098,684 

Tear. 

United  Kingdom. 

Other  Countries. 

Total  Imports. 

Exports,  (a) 

Short  Tons. 

Value. 

Short  Tons. 

Value. 

Short  Tons 

Value. 

Short  Tons. 

Value. 

1896   

47,818 
80,987 
58,584 
7,478 
16,817 

$888,405 
809,614 
416,987 
68,670 
105,894 

10,360 
14,118 
19,989 
6.177 
4.488 

$64,847 
78,872 

188.098 
88,894 
86.887 

408.764 
481.648 
477,837 
188,978 
898,958 

$8.(fiS4J288 
8,858,966 
8,880,446 
1.806,098 
8,581,888 

10,688 
88,064 
87,968 
88,685 
74,688 

$96,181 
818,457 
889,186 
788,057 
576,868 

1899 

1900 

1901 

1908 

(a)  Estimated  from  number  of  barrels  reported  at  1  bbl. = 400  lb.    Includes  re-exports  of  f oreiipi. 

The  Cement  Industry  in  the  United  States  during  1902. 
By  Charles  F.  McKknna. 
Portland  Cement. — T^o  other  branch  of  the  mineral  industry  in  the  United 
States  has  ever  furnished  more  striking  figures  of  rapid  yet  healthy  growth  than 
those  encountered  in  the  study  of  the  manufacture  of  Portland  cement.     Econ- 
omists have  marveled  at  the  continued  steady  expansion  in  the  production  of  pig 


CEMENT. 


81 


iron,  which  has  shown  a  100%  increase  in  a  decade;  but  there  is  more  cause  to 
wonder  at  the  leaps  and  bounds  in  the  rate  of  the  annual  production  of  Portland 
cement,  which  was  measured  10  years  ago  bv  a  few  thousand  barrels,  and  by  mil- 
lions of  barrels  at  the  present  time.  The  Portland  cement  industry,  which  was 
already  well  established  in  1894  with  24  operatize  factories,  has  grown  2,606% 
in  eight  years,  the  factories  have  increased  three-fold  in  number  and  some  of  the 
larger  ones  eight-fold  in  capacity.  The  annual  rate  of  increase,  which  is  shown  by 
the  subjoined  table,  is  of  great  interest. 

RATE  OP  INCREASE  IN  THE  ANNUAL  PRODUCTION  OP  PORTLAND  CEMENT  IN  THE 

UNITED  STATES,   (a) 


YeBT. 

Production. 

Rate  of  In- 

craaae  over 

Previous  Year. 

Rate  of  Ill- 
crease  Referred 
to  1894. 

Year. 

Production. 

2Ute  of  In- 
crease over 

Rate  of  In- 
crease Referred 
to  1894. 

1804... 

Bbl.  of  400  lb. 

611,229 

749,050 

1,577,288 

2:480.008 

8,584,586 

% 

% 

1899.... 
1900.... 
1901.... 
1902.... 

Bbl.  of  400  lb. 
5.806,680 
7,991,689 
12,711,225 
16,6S5,000 

0^0 
87-6 
49-8 
800 

1,178-8 
1,204-6 
2.0000 
2,606-2 

1895.... 
1896.... 
1807.... 
1896.... 

22-5 
110-6 
64*0 
47-4 

22-5 
1580 
297-7 
486-5 

(a)  1894-1901,  from  Thx  Uinbbal  Industbt,  Vols.  IV.  to  X.  inclusiye:  1002,  estimated  bj  Charles  F.  MoKenna. 

It  is  the  general  belief  that  the  rate  of  increase  will  be  larger  in  1903  than  that 
shown  for  1902,  due  to  the  construction  of  new  mills  of  which  a  few  will  begin 
operation  early  in  19Q3.  The  condition  of  the  industry  classified  by  States  dur- 
ing 1901  and  1902  is  best  shown  by  the  statistical  table  given  at  the  beginning 
of  this  section. 

The  total  consumption  of  Portland  cement  in  the  United  States  during  1901 
and  1902  is  shown  in  the  subjoined  table  (barrels  of  380  lb.) : 


Year. 

Production. 

Imports,  (a) 

Consumption. 

1901 

12,711,225 
16,685,000 

894,160 
1.945,490 

878,964 
840,821 

18,281,441 
18,189,660 

1002 

(a)  Includes  Ronutn  and  other  natural  hydraulic  cement. 

The  reports  of  delinquent  companies  which  are  now  being  received  indicate 
a  very  large  increase  in  the  production  during  1903,  due  to  the  contemplated 
•extension  of  works  already  established  as  well  as  those  at  new  sites.  This  con- 
tinued increase  in  the  quantities  of  Portland  cement  annually  produced,  which  is 
almost  in  geometric  progression,  has  resulted  from  increased  number  of  uses  and 
consequent  larger  demand.  The  consideration  whether  or  not  these  increments 
can  continue  is  of  vital  importance  to  all  interested  in  the  industry.  The 
information  published  in  the  technical  journals  indicates  that  there  is  much  hope 
for  the  continuing  growth,  as  engineers  and  technologists  seem  to  be  following  a 
fad  in  suggesting  and  considering  this  excellent  hydraulic  material  for  positions 
entirely  novel,  and  for  combinations  and  interweavings  with  other  materials  until 
the  list  of  its  applications  becomes  greatly  expanded.  Admitting  that  many  of 
these  suggestions  will  not  be  justified  by  necessity,  economy,  or  structural  strength, 
there  should  still  remain  a  reasonable  number  whose  success  will  be  followed 
by  rapid  adoption  at  the  hands  of  enthusiastic  advocates.  For  the  future,  the 
manufacturers  must  carefully  study  these  new  uses,  and  come  in  closer  relation 
to,  the  consumer  of  the  material.    With  all  the  advance  that  has  been  made  in 


82  THE  MINERAL  TNDV8TR7, 

engineering  practice  with  concrete  there  yet  remains  much  to  be  determined  in 
the  study  of  the  ways  in  which  the  cement,  the  water,  the  aggregates,  and  the 
finished  concrete  shall  be  treated.  Failures  and  discredit  of  this  material  are 
more  often  traced  to  ignorance  of  these  factors  than  to  defective  qualities  of  the 
cement.  Since  it  is  the  foreman  concreter  and  the  laborer  who  have  most  to 
do  with  these  factors  it  is  obvious  that  systematic  instruction  furnished  to  them 
would  quickly  prove  its  value.  It  is  probable  that  if  manufacturers  to-day  were 
not  pressed  to  supply  orders,  but  were  rather  seeking  trade,  the  eflfort  would  take 
the  form  of  supporting  traveling  schools  of  concreting.  The  influence  of  the 
good  workmanship  thus  taught  would  spread  from  railroad  engineering  and 
municipal  engineering  to  farm  engineering,  house  building,  and  other  fields  of 
activity  where  the  economy  of  cement,  its  mode  of  treatment,  and  its  successful 
applications  have  not  yet  been  developed  to  their  full  values. 

The  testing  of  Portland  cement,  which  has  given  rise  to  much  frictioii  in  the 
past  between  manufacturers  and. consumers,  has  become  better  understood  and 
great  good  has  resulted  from  its  application  both  in  the  factory  and  at  the  site 
of  use.  The  Committee  on  Cement  Testing  of  the  American  Society  of  Civil 
Engineers  is  entitled  to  much  credit  for  its  work  in  this  field,  and  its  report 
published  during  the  year  1902  is  a  model  of  simplicity  when  it  is  considered 
how  the  subject  might  have  been  overburdened  with  confusing  details,  which 
would  have  discouraged  many  an  earnest  experimenter  and  inspector.  The  Com- 
mittee on  Cement  Testing  of  the  American  Section  of  the  International  Asso- 
ciation of  Testing  Materials  is  now  co-operating  with  the  committee  of  the 
American  Society  of  Civil  Engineers,  and  the  investigation  of  the  sufiiciency  and 
value  of  its  findings  will  have  the  joint  support  of  both  societies. 

The  technology  of  Portland  cement  during  1902,  while  recording  no  striking 
invention  or  improvement,  affords  many  evidences  of  advance  both  in  the  effi- 
ciency of  apparatus  and  in  better  plan  and  disposition  in  *the  works.  The 
rotary  kiln  is  absolutely  triumphant,  and  attention  is  being  concentrated  not 
upon  efforts  to  replace  it  with  any  other  type,  but  upon  improvements  in  the 
details  of  form  and  arrangement  of  burner,  selection  and  care  of  brick  lining, 
r^ulation  of  blast,  control  of  draft,  and  many  minutiae  incident  to  uninter- 
rupted operation.  Undoubtedly  the  year  1902  can  record  a  general  increase  of 
jrield  per  kiln  as  a  result  of  such  attention,  and  both  fuel  consumption  and  labor 
cost  have  been  reduced  to  some  extent.  Heat  economies  are  studied,  and  a  few 
works  are  reported  to  have  been  successful  in  utilizing  the  heat  of  the  flue  gases 
for  feed-water  heating.  The  saving  of  the  heat  of  the  clinker  also  is  practiced 
in  some  types  of  clinker  coolers,  but  apparatus  of  this  character  must  commend 
itself  for  simplicity  before  an  attempt  to  make  such  a  minor  saving  is  warranted. 
The  mechanical  engineer  also  is  advancing  the  art  of  cement  manufacture,  and 
trade  rivalry  among  the  promoters  of  milling  machinery  is  undoubtedly  a 
favorable  influence.  The  battle  between  the  advocates  of  the  Griffin  mill  and 
those  of  the  ball  and  tube  mill  has  continued,  and  it  is  believed  that  improve- 
ments have  been  made  on  both,  so  that  a  continuation  of  the  contest  may  be 
expected.  A  few  new  works  have  been  designed  in  which  the  ball  and  tube 
mills  are  used  to  grind  the  raw  material  and  Griffin  mills  to  grind  the  clinker 


CEMENT.  88 

— a  practice  which  is  recommended  by  some  engineers  when  the  materials  are 
diverse  and  a  thorough  mixing  consequently  becomes  absolutely  essential. 
Advance  is  being  made  in  the  steam  power  plants  of  mills,  in  electrical  equip- 
ment, in  the  driving  and  carrying  mechanisms,  and  in  every  feature  open  to  the 
genius  of  the  mechanical  engineer. 

The  crisis  in  the  coal  trade  which  supervened  in  the  summer  of  1902  produced 
a  poweriful  effect  upon  the  technology  not  yet  fully  perceived.  The?  cement  manu- 
facturer now  realizes  j;hat  coal  is  a  very  important  factor  of  the  total  cost  of 
manufacture,  and  information  is  being  sought  which  will  enable  him  to  asceri»in 
the  economic  values  of  the  coal  used  and  to  learn  the  attendant  economics  of 
its  use. 

With  regard  to  the  price  of  Portland  cement  during  1902  peculiar  features  are 
to  be  recorded.  At  the  opening  of  the  year  a  feeling  of  nervousness  manifested 
itself  among  the  manufacturers  which  was  more  pronounced  than  any  before 
experienced.  The  large  stocks  accumulating  in  certain  mills  appeared  to  some 
to  be  a  menace,  while  the  lack  of  room  for  this  accumulation  at  other  mills  ap- 
peared to  others  as  an  additional  menace.  Reports  of  large  increases  in  pro- 
ducing units  by  resourceful  companies  drove  the  small  manufacturers  into  a 
panic,  and  agents  of  importers  relaxed  their  efforts  and  ordered  but  little  from 
abroad.  The  lowest  prices  ever  known  in  the  history  of  the  cement  business 
were  reported  and  contracts  of  great  magnitude  were  made.  Suddenly  upon  the 
disappearance  of  winter  and  its  effects,  an  unexpectedly  large  demand  arose. 
Prices  improved  in  April,  grew  strong  in  May,  and  in  June  hardly  an  important 
producer  felt  able,  or  at  least  warranted  in  taking  contracts.  The  enormous  de- 
mand for  cement  which  began  in  June  and  lasted  until  the  end  of  the  year, 
surpassed  even  the  large  increase  in  the  total  production,  thereby  creating  an 
unprecedented  shortage  of  supply  of  amazing  proportions,  which  created  imme- 
diately  a  demand  for  any  grade  of  Portland  cement.  The  importers  were 
not  long  in  starting  large  shipments  to  the  United  States,  and  in  August  and 
September  imported  cement  was  being  shipped  by  the  fastest  ocean  liners  re- 
gardless of  the  high  freight  charges.  At  the  end  of  the  year  almost  no  stocks  were 
on  hand  in  the  American  mills.    Prices  during  December,  1901,  and  January, 

1902,  could  be  fairly  stated  to  have  been  90@95c.  a  barrel,  f.  o.  b.  at  the  mill 
whereas  in  July  and  August  $l-60@$l-75  were  the  ruling  prices,  followed  by  no 
marked  fall  during  the  remainder  of  the  year,  and  both  demand  and  inquiries 
continued  good  to  the  close. 

The  outlook  for  the  Portland  cement  industry  in  the  United  States,  particu- 
larly in  the  near  future,  may  be  judged  from  the  fact  that  ii\  1902  approximately 
375  kilns  were  in  operation,  a  number  which  will  be  increased  to  500  during 

1903.  But,  as  noted  in  the  table  given  at  the  introduction  of  this  review  the 
rate  of  increase  for  1902  over  1901  was  only  30%,  while  50%'  increases  had  been 
recorded  for  several  years  directly  preceding.  This  failure  to  keep  abreast  of  the 
demand  produced  a  shortage  of  probably  5,000,000  bbl.,  which  left  for  1903  a 
splendid  legacy  of  orders  and  prospects.  The  amount  of  heavy  construction 
planned  or  contracted  for  in  the  near  future  in  the  large  cities  of  the  country 
promises  to  afford  a  very  great  source  of  demand.    In  addition,  the  American 


84  THE  MINERAL  INDUSTRY. 

manufacturer  still  has  the  opportunity  to  develop  the  export  trade  almost  from 
the  very  beginning.  It  would  secrm  that  there  will  be  nothing  but  success  for 
the  manufacturer  who  looks  well  to  the  economies,  and  it  seems  also  as  if  as- 
surance can  be  given  the  user  that  plentiful  supplies  will  be  available. 

Natural  Hydraulic  Cement. — The  changing  influences  of  the  natural  cement 
products  upon  the  market  for  Portland  cement  continued  as  slight  as  they  have 
been  for  several  years.  This  variety  of  hydraulic  material  holds  its  own,  but  ap- 
pears to  make  no  progress.  At  the  beginning  of  1902  a  consolidation  of  more  than 
75%  of  the  Rosendale  natural  cement  plants  at  Rondout,  N.  Y.,  was  consum- 
mated. The  production  during  1902  of  natural  cements  in  this  district  approxi- 
mated 2,350,000  bbls.  of  300  lb.  each.  The  total  production  of  natural  hydraulic 
cement  in  the  United  States  during  1902  would  be  difficult  to  gauge  accurately 
since  the  factories  are  many  in  number,  small  in  size  and  much  scattered,  but  it 
may  be  stated  tentatively  at  10,000,000  bbl.  Natural  cement  is  produced  also 
at  certain  mills  in  Pennsylvania,  and  mixtures  of  this  product  are  made  with 
Portland  cement.  These  mixed  quantities,  however,  are  not  included  in  the  sta- 
tistics given  in  the  table  showing  tiie  production  of  Portland  cement  in  the  United 
States. 


SLAG  CEMENT  AND  SLAG  BRICK  MANUFACTURE.  85 

Slag  Cement  and  Slag  Bkick  Manufacture  during  1902. 
By  Edwin  C.  Eokel. 

The  present  paper  is  supplementary  to  the  detailed  discussion  of  the  slag- 
jement  industry  contained  in  Vol.  X.  of  The  Mineral  Industry,  and  gives  a 
resume  of  progress  made  during  the  past  year.  In  addition,  however,  to  supple- 
mentary data  relative  to  the  slag-cement  industry,  the  manufacture  of  slag  bricks 
and  slag  blocks  is  discussed  in  some  detail.  These  industries  were  not  treated 
in  the  article  cited,  and  at  present  it  seems  probable  that  they  will  soon  attain 
considerable  commercial  importance  in  the  United  States. 

Slag  Cement. — During  the  past  year  the  slag-cement  industry  of  the  United 
States  has  been  in  a  very  prosperous  condition,  the  production  for  1902  largely 
exceeding  that  for  1901,  while  the  average  value  per  barrel  showed  a  slight 
increase.  The  report  of  the  board  of  army  engineers  on  slag  cements,  while 
having  temporarily  a  depressing  effect  on  the  industry,  has  doubtless  resulted  in 
permanent  good.  Several  plants  manufacturing  a  puzzolana  cement  from  slag 
have  adopted  the  policy  of  frankly  announcing  both  the  methods  of  manufacture 
and  the  known  defects  of  the  material  for  certain  uses,  relying  on  its  equally 
well-known  value  for  other  uses  to  accomplish  its  sale.  An  extensive  corre- 
spondence with  municipal  engineers,  which  was  carried  on  by  me  during  1902, 
shows  that  those  who  have  experimented  with  slag-cement  for  such  work  as  founda- 
tions, sub-pavements,  etc.,  regard  it  with  favor,  and  permit  its  use  in  public  works. 

Three  new  slag-cement  plants  at  various  points  in  Pennsylvania  were  planned 
or  were  under  construction  during  1902.  Only  one  of  these,  however,  was  com- 
pleted in  time  to  commence  operations  before  the  close  of  the  year.  This  plant, 
erected  by  the  Stewart  Iron  Co.,  and  located  at  Sharon,  Pa.,  commenced  pro- 
ducing in  December,  but  this  early  start  was  made  to  test  its  economic  and 
mechanical  efficiency,  rather  than  as  the  opening  of  an  active  campaign.  Early  in 
1903,  operations  were  recommenced,  and  the  plant  has  since  been  operated  stead- 
ily. The  slag  used  is  selected  from  that  made  by  the  Stewart  Iron  Co.  furnaces, 
and  has  the  following  average  composition:  Silica,  32-72%;  alumina,  12-95%; 
iron,  2'51%;  lime,  47*67%;  magnesia,  2*71%;  sulphur,  1*44%.  After  granu- 
lation, the  slag  is  elevated  and  fed  to  three  Ruggles-Coles  dryers.  The  lime  is 
burned,  slaked  and  mixed  with  the  dried  slag  in  a  Broughton  mixer,  and  the 
mixture  is  finally  reduced  in  tube  mills.  The  finished  cement  has  the  following 
composition:  Silica,  27-33%;  alumina,  1161%;  iron,  2-43%;  lime,  55-83%; 
magnesia,  1*93%  ;  sulphur,  0*87%. 

The  process  followed  at  the  slag-cement  plant  of  the  Soci6t6  Frangaise  des 
Hauts  Foumeaux  de  Champigneullcs,  Department  of  Yonne,  France,  deserves 
notice.  It  may  be  ilegarded  as  a  method  for  regulating  (principally,  of  course, 
accelerating)  the  set  of  slag  cements,  but  it  is  in  reality  somewhat  more  than 
this,  as  the  following  brief  description  will  show.  Slag  of  the  usual  composition 
is  granulated.  The  granulated  slag  is  not,  however,  dried  as  in  ordinary  practice : 
but  is  mixed  while  still  wet  with  slaked  lime.  If  an  ordinary  lime  be  used,  the 
proportions  are  25  to  30  parts  lime  to  75  to  70  parts  slag;  if  hydraulic  lime  be 
employed,  the  proportions  are  35  to  40  parts  lime  to  65  to  60  pari«»  slag.     The 


86 


THE  MINERAL  INDUSTBT, 


mixture  is  stirred  up  with  water  until  of  the  consistency  of  a  thick  paste,  and 
after  grinding  is  formed  into  bricks  and  allowed  to  harden  for  several  days. 
At  the  end  of  this  time  the  bricks  are  broken  into  lumps  and  burned  at  a  dark  or 
bright  red  heat,  according  to  the  rapidity  of  set  desired,  and  then  finally  reduced 
to  powder.  This  process  gives  a  very  rapid  setting  cement.  If  it  is  too  rapid, 
the  set  is  retarded  to  any  desired  degree  by  mixing  with  the  cement  a  greater 
or  less  proportion  of  dry  powdered  granulated  slag  and  slaked  lime.  It  will 
be  noted  that  this  process  is  intermediate  between  the  methods  used  in  manu- 
facturing ordinary  slag  cements,  and  that  adopted  in  Portland  cement  manu- 
facture. In  fact  if  the  mixing  and  guiding  of  the  materials  were  carried  on 
more  carefully,  and  the  burning  accomplished  at  a  higher  temperature,  the 
product  would  undoubtedly  be  a  Portland  cement. 

Slag  Bricks. — In  a  previous  article^  I  have  made  a  distinction  between 
the  terms  "slag-bricks"  and  "slag-blocks."  The  distinction  seems  of  value  and 
will  be  restated  here.  The  term  "slag-bricks"  is  applied  to  those  bricks,  tiles, 
etc.,  made  by  mixing  slaked  lime  with  crushed  or  granulated  slag,  molding  the 
mixture  by  hand  or  in  a  brick  machine,  and  drying  the  product.  The  term 
"slag-blocks,"  on  the  other  hand,  refers  to  the  blocks  made  by  pouring  molten 
slag  into  a  mold. 

In  Europe  the  manufacture  of  slag  bricks  is  an  important  industry,  though 
it  has  not  come  extensively  into  practice  in  this  coimtry.  It  is  usually  carried 
on  in  connection  with  the  manufacture  of  slag  cement,  in  which  case  the  only 
additional  requirements  are  a  few  machines  and  considerable  floor  space.  The 
processes  of  manufacture  may  be  briefly  stated  as  follows :  Slags  of  approximately 
the  same  type  as  those  used  in  the  manufacture  of  slag  cement^  are  granulated, 
dried  and  finely  ground.  The  following  analyses  of  slags  used  in  the  manu- 
facture of  slag  brick  at  various  plants  are  fairly  representative;  No.  4,  how- 


snicacsio,) 

Alumina  )A1«Ot) 

Iron  oxide  (Fe) 

Manganene  oxide  (MnO), 

Lime(CaO) 

Magnesia  (MgO) 

Sulphur  (S) 


(1) 

22-5 

<2) 

(8) 

(4) 

(6) 

26-8 

270 

880 

85-0 

140 

17-8 

19-8 

18-87 

16-0 

8-8 

1-6 

1-7 

10 

1-1 

•0 

•0 

01 

4-26 

0-8 

61  0 

61-5 

61-5 

400 

46-0 

1-4 

0-4 

8-5 

2-88 

Trace. 

0-8 

1-8 

1-8 

1-88 

0-4 

ever,  is  peculiarly  low  in  lime,  requiring  the  addition  of  considerably  more 
slaked  lime  than  usual,  and  giving  a  brick  that  dries  and  hardens  with  more  than 
average  slowness.  Sufficient  slaked  lime  is  added  to  the  slag  to  bring  the  total 
lime  (CaO)  content  of  the  mixture  up  to  about  55%,  and  the  materials  are 
carefully  and  thoroughly  mixed.  If  the  slaked  lime  has  been  added  in  the  form 
of  paste,  the  material  is  ready  for  the  brick  machine.  If,  however,  the  slaked 
lime  was  a  dry  powder,  it  will  be  necessary  to  add  a  smajl  quantity  of  water 
to  the  mixture,  in  order  that  it  may  be  sufficiently  plastic  to  form  good  bricks. 
On  issuing  from  the  brick  machine,  the  bricks  are  placed  on  racks  to  dry,  eithei 
in  the  open  air  or  in  a  drying  house.    In  from  6  to  10  days'  time,  according  to 

»  Thx  Miksral  iNDrsTRT,  Vol.  X.,  pp.  84-95, 1902. 
>  Engineering  NevoB^  Vol.  XLIX.,  pp.  884,  885, 1908, 


SLAG  CEMENT  AND  SLAG  BRICK  MANUFACTURE,  87 

composition  and  weather  conditions,  they  are  sufficiently  firm  to  bear  transpor- 
tation, and  are  then  ready  for  market. 

Slag  bricks  thus  made  are  light  in  color,  varying  from  light  to  dark  gray. 
They  weigh  less  than  clay  bricks  of  equal  size ;  require  less  mortar  in  laying  up ; 
and  are  equal  or  superior  to  clay  bricks  in  crushing  strength. 

At  several  plants,  pipes  and  other  articles  are  made  from  the  same  mixture  as 
tliat  used  for  slag  brick,  the  plastit;  material  being  forced  into  iron  molds  by 
rammers.     These  pipes  seem  to  be  satisfactory  either  as  water  or  sewer  pipe. 

Slag  Blocks. — "Slag  blocks,^'  as  the  term  is  used  in  the  present  paper,  are 
made  by  pouring  molten  slag  into  molds.  The  molds  may  naturally  be  of  any 
desired  form,  so  that  the  slag  block  can  be  shaped  like  a  common  brick,  a  tile, 
or  a  massive  block.  Slag  blocks  are  made  somewhat  extensively  in  the  Lehigh 
Valley,  and  have  been  used  as  paving  material,  notably  in  Philadelphia.  They 
are  very  durable,  but  objectionable  because  of  their  slipperiness.  This  difficulty 
has  been  overcome  in  practice  in  the  Middlesboro  district,  England,  by  casting 
the  blocks  in  a  double-size  mold  encircled  by  a  projection,  which  results  in  a 
groove  encircling  the  slag  block.  The  two  halves  of  the  block  after  cooling 
are  split  apart  with  a  chisel,  and  the  rough  fracture-surface  of  each  is  laid  upper- 
most in  paving. 

In  ordinary  practice,  slag  blocks  are  cast  in  iron  molds,  with  the  top  uncovered. 
This  favors  rapid  cooling,  and  therefore  requires  little  floor  space  for  storage  of 
the  cooling  blocks.  In  the  best  practice,  however,  blocks  are  cast  in  sand,  or 
occasionally  in  iron  molds,  which  are  covered  immediately  after  pouring  with 
a  thick  layer  of  sand.  This  treatment  allows  the  slag  to  cool  very  slowly,  giving 
a  tough,  dense,  and  resistant  block.  More  floor  space  for  storage,  however,  is 
required  than  in  the  first  method. 


83  THE  MINERAL  INDU8TRY. 

The  Mechanical  Equipment  of  a  Modern  Portland  Cement  Plant. 

By  F.  H.  Lewis. 

The  Portland  cement  industry  in  America  had  its  beginning  in  1875.  At 
that  time  a  small  plant  was  started  near  Allentown,  Pa.,  by  David  0.  Saylor, 
employing  as  the  raw  materials  the  so-called  cement  rock  of  that  section  of  Penn- 
sylvania which  had  previously  been  used  in  the  manufacture  of  natural  cement, 
and  which  was  brought  up  to  the  proper  composition  for  Portland  cement  by 
the  addition  of  pure  limestone.  An  exhibit  of  this  cement  was  made  at  the  Cen- 
tennial Exposition  in  Philadelphia  in  1876.  Baylor  was  thus  the  originator  of 
the  enormous  industry  which  has  developed  in  this  section  of  Pennsylvania,  and 
in  similar  rock  deposits  in  western  New  Jersey  since  that  time.  About  the  same 
date  (1875)  Thomas  Millen  started  the  manufacture  of  Portland  cement  at 
South  Bend,  Ind.,  using  the  wet  process,  the  raw  materials  being  the  wet  marls 
and  clays  of  that  section.  This  factory  was  afterward  abandoned  for  a  new 
location  in  New  York  State,  and  for  twenty  years  the  growth  of  the  industry 
by  the  wet  way  in  America  was  extremely  slow.  Since  1897,  however,  there  have 
been  an  extraordinary  number  of  factories  built  in  the  marl  sections  of  Ohio, 
Indiana  and  Michigan,  making  Portland  cement  by  the  wet  method.  Yet  it  is  to 
be  noted  that  while  David  Saylor^s  enterprise  has  been  growing  since  its  incep- 
tion, and  is  now  a  very  large  plant,  none  of  the  original  marl  plants  has  expanded 
by  natural  development  to  large  industries.  The  great  establishments  in  the 
marl  regions  are  all  of  them  new  enterprises  and  not  developments  from  small 
beginnings. 

During  the  first  20  years  of  its  existence,  the  cement  industry  made  slow 
progress,  the  total  product  in  the  United  States  in  1895  being  but  750,000  bbl, 
85%  of  this  being  produced  in  Pennsylvania  and  New  Jersey.  Since  that  date, 
however,  the  growth  of  the  industry  in  all  sections  of  the  country  has  been  extraor- 
dinarily rapid,  the  total  product  for  the  year  1902  being  over  16,000,000  bbl. 
But  in  spite  of  this  extraordinary  growth  the  proportion  manufactured  at  the 
point  where  the  industry  first  began,  that  is,  in  the  so-called  cement  rock  section 
of  eastern  Pennsylvania  and  western  New  Jersey,  is  still  65%  as  compared  with 
the  total  production  by  the  wet  way  of  about  15%. 

It  is  probable  that  there  is  no  place  in  the  world  where  raw  materials  of  equal 
quality  are  found  in  such  abundance  as  they  are  in  this  great  Pennsylvania  cement 
section.  This  district  has  not  only  set  the  pace  in  manufacturing  for  the  entire 
country,  but  the  genius  of  its  manufacturers  has  developed  much  the  greater  part 
of  the  improvements  in  manufacturing.  The  rotary  kiln  was  developed  here,  as 
was  the  method  of  burning  by  powdered  coal,  with  all  the  successful  methods  of 
cooling,  storing  and  grinding  clinker.  These  are  the  features  which  have  de- 
veloped into  a  distinctive  American  practice  and  have  given  a  basis  on  which  to 
establish  a  successful  industry. 

With  expensive  labor  and  comparatively  cheap  power,  the  American  manu- 
facturer in  competing  with  the  European  product  has  been  compelled  to  follow 
the  same  lines  as  those  which  have  been  successful  in  the  American  iron  and  steel 
industry,  which  is  now  pre-eminent,  that  is,  the  substitution  of  mechanical  de- 


MECHANICAL  EQUIPMENT  OF  PORTLAND  CEMENT  PLANT. 


89 


vices  for  hand  labor  at  all  points  of  the  process.  Indeed,  this  feature  has  been 
more  important  in  establishing  an  American  Portland  cement  industry  than  it 
has  been  in  iron  and  steel,  for  the  reason  that  the  product  is  a  bulk  product,  sell- 
ing per  ton  at  from  one-half  to  one-third  the  price  of  pig  iron.  The  cement 
manufacturer  makes  but  one  product  and  his  profits,  if  any  are  earned,  must  come 
from  the  sale  of  this  product.  There  are  practically  no  by-products.  If  the 
cement  is  produced  at  satisfactory  cost  the  industry  is  profitable ;  if  not,  it  is  un- 
profitable. There  is  no  such  thing  as  recouping  losses  from  one  line  of  manu- 
facture by  profits  on  another. 

Quarrying. — In  producing  cement  by  the  dry  process  the  quarrying  of  the 
stone  is  much  the  largest  element  in  labor  cost,  and  in  most  instances  it  is  impos- 
sible to  reduce  the  labor  item  excepting  fractionally.    In  the  largest  plants  there 

L    K    S    ^  4  B 


«ife«u«i«bi^  m,  n 


^•±  -EM 
A  ^teder. 
S  Froot  Hoofltn^. 
C  Buck  Honsliig. 
D  Grip  Handle. 
E  Lock  Nut. 
F  Rotating  Cylinder  dp. 
O  Piston. 


H  Blow  Tube  Clamp. 
J  Chuck. 
K  Ratchet. 
L  Ratchet  Pawl. 
M  RotatliLE  Piston. 
N  Chuck  Bushinir. 
O  DriUBitKeyfoek 


P  DriUBitKej. 

Q  Drill  Bit  Lock  Spring. 

S  Ratchet  Spring. 

8  Ratchet  Hn. 

T  Blow  Tube  Clamp  Spring. 

U  Ratchet  Regulator. 

V  Wrench. 


Fig.  1. — Chicago  Rock  Drill. 
has  been  some  use  of  the  steam  shovel  for  loading  cars.  This  is  only  applicable, 
however,  to  certain  cases  and  to  the  larger  enterprises.  In  general  quarries  are 
fitted  up  with  air  drills,  employ  high  explosives,  and  use  for  the  first  reduction  of 
the  material  the  large  gyratory  crushers.  The  larger  the  opening  of  the  crusher 
the  less  sledging  and  quarry  work  required ;  and  as  the  sledging  is  very  generally 
the  largest  item  in  the  quarry  cost  the  size  of  the  crush^  is  of  importance.  Ee- 
cently  a  very  valuable  drill  for  block  holing  has  been  developed.  This  is  a  pneu- 
matic drill,  similar  in  tyipe  to  the  pneumatic  riveting  hammers.  It  will  drill 
holes  ten  or  twelve  inches  deep  at  the  rate  of  one  inch  per  minute.  When  the 
materials  are  hard  it  constitutes  one  of  the  most  valuable  additions  to  a  quarry 
outfit  that  has  been  developed  in  recent  years.    Fig.  1  illustrates  one  of  the  driUs. 


90  THB  MINERAL  INDUSTBT. 

These  drills  are  small,  readily  transported,  and  by  using  two  or  three  of  them,  all 
the  large  stone  can  be  broken  up  with  a  very  small  amount  of  sledging. 

A  considerable  variety  of  practice  has  developed  in  handling  the  stone  between 
the  quarry  and  the  mill.  With  pit  quarries  adjacent  to  the  mill  the  ordinary 
method  is  a  system  of  skips  running  on  overhead  rope  tramways.  These  have 
the  advantage  of  lifting  and  carrying  by  the  same  power.  A  number  of  these 
tramways  are  in  use  in  Pennsylvania  carrying  stone  quite  economically.  In  open 
face  quarries  various  types  of  side  and  end  dump  cars  are  used,  usually  of  3-5  ft. 
gauge  or  less,  a  narrow  gauge  being  desirable  for  dump  cars. 

In  many  cases  a  crusher  outfit  in  the  quarry  offers  advantages ;  where  practicable 
and  when  the  handling  of  the  mix  will  permit,  it  should  always  be  used.  The 
advantage  derived  from  crushing  material  at  once  arises  from  tHe  fact  that  it  is 
much  more  easily  handled  in  the  subsequent  processes.  In  some  cases,  however, 
as  in  a  number  of  plants  in  the  Lehigh  Valley,  this  become  impracticable  because 
the  required  limestone  is  purchased  from  quarries  at  a  distance,  and  is  delivered  by 
rail  in  standard  gauge  equipment.  Under  such  circumstances  it  is  generally 
necessary  to  handle  both  stones  in  bulk  at  the  plant.  When  both  raw  materials 
are  found  at  the  factory  site  the  advantage  of  crushing  them  at  once  and  handling 
them  through  a  system  of  bins  and  pockets  is  considerable.  It  is  even  a  question 
whether  it  would  not  be  economical  to  buy  crushed  stone  instead  of  lump  stone 
when  it  is  purchased  at  a  distance.  The  advantage  of  this  would  arise  from 
the  ease  and  accuracy  with  which  the  mix  could  be  made  and  sent  together  through 
the  subsequent  processes  of  reduction. 

The  size  of  the  quarry,  its  distance  from  the  mill,  its  elevation  above  or  below 
the  level  of  the  mill,  and  the  character  of  the  raw  materials,  all  must  be  con- 
sidered in  determining  the  methods  of  quarrying  to  be  used,  but  in  any  and  every 
case  the  largest  mechanical  installation  which  is  practicable  will  prove  to  be  the 
most  economical.  In  this  way  some  type  of  steam  shovel  will  prove  advantageous 
for  handling  large  quantities  of  material.  The  installation  of  air  compressors 
for  drilling  will  prove  more  economical  than  using  steam  direct,  the  loss  of  power 
from  the  condensation  of  steam  being  much  greater  than  the  loss  of  power  in  com- 
pressing the  air.  In  order  to  economize  still  more  when  using  air,  some  form  of 
reheater  for  heating  the  air  in  the  supply  pipes  at  the  quarry  adds  considerably  to 
the  eflBciency  of  pneumatic  power,  and  is  especially  advantageous  in  the  winter 
time.  Cold  air  in  cold  weather  causes  considerable  trouble  in  freezing  the  supply 
pipes  and  the  valves  on  drills.  A  simple  pipe  coil  installed  in  some  type  of  fur- 
nace will  reheat  the  air  satisfactorily. 

The  cost  of  quarrying  varies  considerably,  and  in  this  respect  the  Pennsylvania 
manufacturers  have  the  advantage  over  the  majority  of  plants  using  dry  raw 
materials.  The  Pennsylvania  cement  rock  is  a  soft  shale,  easily  blasted,  easily 
sledged,  easily  handled  by  the  steam  shovel,  and  readily  and  rapidly  broken  in 
crushing  machinery.  It  is  handled  under  favorable  conditions  in  Pennsylvania 
and  New  Jersey  at  a  cost  varying  from  18  to  30c.  per  ton  as  compared  with  the 
cost  of  handling  the  harder  limestones  varying  from  30  to  50c.  per  ton.  Off- 
setting this  advantage  in  some  measure,  however,  is  the  comparatively  high  cost 
of  limestone  required  to  bring  the  Pennsylvania  cement  rocks  to  a  normal  com- 


MECHANICAL  EQUIPMENT  OF  PORTLAND  CEMENT  PLANT         91 

position.  As  mentioned  above,  the  major  part  of  this  limestone  is  transported 
by  rail  from  a  distance  and  delivered  at  a  cost  of  from  $0-85  to  $1*25  per  ton.  In 
recent  years  large  plants  employing  limestone  and  shale  have  been  built  in  Vir- 
ginia, Indiana,  Missouri  and  in  West  Virginia.  Plants  employing  hard  lime- 
stone and  softer  clays  have  been  built  in  New  York,  Illinois  and  Michigan.  In 
the  majority  of  these  plants  the  two  raw  materials  are  found  in  close  proximity 
to  each  other  and  adjacent  to  the  factory,  and  the  high  cost  of  limestone  is  offset 
by  the  low  cost  of  shale,  as  compared  with  the  conditions  in  Pennsylvania.  The 
underlying  principle  in  this  matter  is  that  Pennsylvania  and  New  Jersey  deposits 
are  below  the  normal  in  lime  and  must  be  brought  up  in  the  mix  by  the  addition 
of  limestone,  while  in  the  cases  just  cited  the  limestone  is  the  major  ingredient 
and  must  be  brought  to  normal  figures  in  the  mix  by  the  addition  of  clay  rock. 
The  economy  in  Pennsylvania  plants  is  in  handling  the  cement  rock,  while 
the  expensive  feature  is  the  lime  rock.  In  the  other  districts  the  conditions  are 
reversed. 

Reduction  of  Raw  Materials. — The  S3'stem  of  gradual  reduction  has  been 
adopted  in  all  modem  plants.  The  first  reduction  as  in  quarr3ring  is  through  the 
crusher.  This  is  by  far  the  cheapest  part  of  the  reduction  process,  and  admits 
of  considerable  development.  The  type  of  crusher  imiversally  employed  for 
hard  materials  is  the  gyratory  crusher,  a  machine  developed  by  American  manu- 
facturers, possessing  considerable  advantages  in  output  and  in  the  character  of 
the  product  over  the  old  type  of  oscillating  toggle  joint  machines.  Probably  the 
most  complete  arrangement  where  both  the  materials  are  hard  is  to  crush  one  of 
them,  at  least,  in  the  quarry,  handling  it  through  a  system  of  bins  and  pockets 
over  scales.  The  cars  containing  the  larger  ingredient  in  lump  form  pass  imder 
these  pockets,  are  weighed  on  the  scales,  and  the  smaller  ingredient  is  added  by 
weight  to  form  the  mix.  These  cars  are  dumped  into  a  crusher  and  the  materials 
crushed  together,  the  smaller  ingredient  being  in  this  way  recrushed  and  thor- 
oughly mixed  with  the  larger.  This  crusher  discharges  onto  an  elevator  or  a 
belt,  as  may  prove  most  convenient,  which  carries  the  crushed  ingredients  to  a 
screen,  the  tailings  being  returned  to  the  crusher  or  to  an  auxiliary  crusher,  the 
latter  probably  being  preferable  since  it  can  be  of  smaller  size,  and  will  not  choke 
the  large  machine  with  too  much  small  material.  This  method  of  crushing  in- 
sures a  uniform  size  of  product  which  readily  passes  through  the  bins  and  chutes 
and  through  the  mill  feeds. 

In  Fig.  2  is  shown  a  very  complete  installation  for  crushing  and  separating 
as  described  above,  the  tailings  being  returned  to  a  smaller  machine.  The  ele- 
vator is  of  the  continuous  bucket  type  carried  on  a  rubber  belt.  This  constitutes 
the  most  satisfactory  type  of  elevator  for  raw  material,  especially  for  elevators 
handling  lump  material  to  considerable  heights.  A  system  of  belts  handling 
crushed  stone  from  a  crushing  installation  as  described  is  shown  in  Fig.  3. 
It  will  be  observed  that  the  belt  carries  the  crushed  stone  to  the  top  of  the  stone 
house  and  deposits  it  in  a  series  of  tanks.  These  tanks  discharge  at  the  bottom 
onto  belt  conveyors  passing  through  an  arch  in  the  foundation  and  again  carrying 
the  stone  forward  to  the  bins  or  to  the  dryers,  (Fig.  4).  The  complete  instal- 
lation mentioned  above  handles  stone  entirely  by  mechanical  means  from  the 


93 


THE  MIKEHAL  LNVUtiTMY. 


-m'«^ 


aiPB  KLKTATION 

Fig.  2. — Crushing  Plant  of  Lehigh  Portland  Cement  Co.,  Mitchell,  Ind. 


MBOHA^ICAL  EQUIFMENT  OF  PUliTLAJsJJ  CMMJi.IiT  'PLANT.  98 

n 


94 


THB  MINBRAL  INDV8TBT. 


time  it  leave  the  quarry  at  a  very  considerable  saving  of  labor  and  cost.    With 
such  a  plant  the  separation  of  the  stone  by  screening  after  it  leaves  the  crusher 
is  essential  because  large  flat  slabs  in  the  mass  of  the  material  will  always  make 
trouble  by  the  choking  of  bins  and  chutes. 
For  handling  the  stone^  or  indeed  for  handling  any  lumn  material^  a  belt  con- 


— ^Xotal  length  of 


Fig.  3. — Belt  Conveyors 

veyor  has  proved  to  be  by  far  the  most  satisfactory  mechanical  device.  Its  cost 
is  very  high,  but  it  has  great  eflBciency,  and  as  all  parts  are  visible  and  accessible 
at  all  times  it  is  easily  repaired,  seldom  getting  out  of  order  seriously  or  in  a 
way  which  cannot  be  overhauled  in  the  course  of  an  hour  or  two.  Properly  in- 
stalled the  best  types  of  belt  conveyors  will  handle  crushed  stone  up  inclines  as 
high  as  25°.  By  means  of  movable  trippers  the  material  may  be  deposited  at  any 
point  over  large  areas,  or  by  means  of  fixed  trippers  it  can  be  made  to  deposit  at 
any  one  of  a  series  of  points. 

For  cement  machinery  it  is  necessary  that  all  the  moving  parts  should  be 
thoroughly  well  constructed  and  of  heavy  type.  The  only  difficulty  which  has 
been  experienced  with  belt  conveyors  has  been  due  to  the  use  of  light  fixtures  such 
as  are  used  satisfactorily  in  handling  grain.  An  equipment  of  this  kind  is  poor 
economy.  First  class  belt  conveyors  installed  in  place  vary  in  cost  from  about 
$8  a  running  foot  for  narrow  conveyors  up  to  $25  or  $30  for  the  large  sizes,  the 
average  cost  for  a  14-in.  conveyor  being  about  $10  or  $11,  and  for  a  16-in.  con- 
veyor from  $12  to  $15  per  linear  foot  measured  between  centers  of  head  and  tail 
pulleys.  In  the  installation  shown  in  Fig.  3  the  overhead  belt  can  either  carry 
the  material  forward  directly  to  dryers  or  deliver  it  to  the  storage  tanks  as  shown 
on  the  drawing,  or  by  means  of  suitable  trippers  a  part  can  be  carried  forward  to 
the  dryers  and  the  remainder  discharged  into  storage  tanks. 

The  installation  of  belt  conveyors  for  handling  stone  in  many  cases  has  not 
been  well  considered.  A  belt  conveyor  necessarily  wears  much  faster  in  the  center 
than  at  the  sides;  hence  a  belt  that  is  unnecessarily  wide  costs  more  to  install. 


MECHANICAL  EQUIPMENT  OF  PORTLAND  CEMENT  PLANT. 


96 


is  too  narrow  receives  the  stone  badly  from  the  chutes  and  trippers,  or  requires 
such  small  chutes  that  they  are  liable  to  choke  up.  It  is  essential  in  every  case  to 
determine,  first  the  size  of  belt  absolutely  necessary  to  carry  the  required  quantity 
of  stone,  and  then  to  make  it  wide  enough  to  handle  material  of  the  size  which  is 
deliyered  to  it  without  choking  the  chutes  or  spilling  the  stone  at  the  point 


InstoUAtioaflBB'  ^ 


jLST>  Stone  House. 


where  it  is  received  on  the  belt.    A  12-in.  belt  will  carry  40  tons  of  stone  an  hour, 
a  14-in.  over  60  tons  and  a  16-in.  belt  will  carry  75  tons  or  more  an  hour,  and  the 


asctio^  through  stone  house. 
Fig.  4. — Cross  Section  (Enlarged)  of  Stone  House. 

larger  belts  proportionately  larger  tonnage.  A  16-in.  belt,  therefore,  is  large 
enough  to  carry  in  10  hours  the  stone  required  for  a  10-kiln  plant,  and  if  this 
stone  is  crushed  so  that  it  will  all  pass  a  3-in.  ring  it  will  be  handled  without 
and  is  worthless  as  soon  as  the  center  is  worn  out.    On  the  other  hand,  a  belt  which 


d6  TliB  MINERAL  mDU8TRT. 

difficulty  at  the  chutes.  On  the  other  hand  a  12-m.  belt  should  not  be  used  even 
for  a  small  plant,  unless  the  crushing  is  done  to  2  in.  or  2*5  in.  size.  The  proper 
speed  for  belts  carrying  stone  is  from  300  to  400  linear  feet  per  minute.  At 
this  speed,  with  properly  adjusted  chutes,  the  material  will  take  the  belt  quietly 
and  without  rolling  except  when  the  quantity  delivered  is  very  small.  The  best 
form  of  chute  is  the  wooden  box  made  up  of  baffle  plates  discharging  the  stone 
with  the  motion  of  the  belt.  In  all  cases  where  trippers  are  used  or  where  the 
material  is  discharged  from  one  belt  to  another  moving  at  right  aiiglee,  a  dif- 
ference in  height  of  6  or  7  ft.  should  be  provided  for  satisfactory  chutes.  Some 
excessively  wide  belts  up  to  24  and  30  in.  in  width  have  been  used,  but  the  neces- 
sity for  such  belts  is  not  apparent,  and  they  cannot  be  put  in  with  any  due  regard 
for  economy,  either  of  first  cost  or  of  operation. 

Grinding  Raw  Materials. — ^The  old  practice  in  grinding  raw  materials  was 
almost  entirely  by  the  use  of  mill  stones  similar  to  those  used  in  grinding  grain. 
These  stones  were  siliceous  stones,  largely  the  product  of  French  quarries,  and 
generally  known  hs  French  buhr  stones.  Usually  the  material  after  crushing  was 
still  further  reduced,  either  by  means  of  rolls  or  smaller  crushers.  After  pass- 
ing through  the  buhr  stones  some  system  of  separation  became  necessary,  and  a 
great  variety  of  devices  for  this  purpose  were  used.  Of  the  diflferent  types  of 
inclined  screens  some  were  simply  screens  set  at  an  angle,  others  had  a  swinging 
motion  imparted  mechanically,  others  were  revolving  screens.  A  great  variety 
of  air  separators  was  devised,  and  they  are  still  on  the  market.  It  is  an  open  ques- 
tion whether  separators  of  this  type  could  not  be  used  to  a  greater  extent  in 
modem  plants  than  they  now  are. 

The  method  of  grinding  by  buhr  stones  is  expensive  for  several  reasons.  The 
dressing  of  the  stones  requires  skilled  mechanics,  and  has  to  be  done  frequently. 
Mills  of  this  type  are  small  units,  yielding  small  output,  and  the  grinding  which 
is  done  by  them  is  not  as  fine  as  that  done  by  the  later  types  of  machines.  On 
the  whole,  however,  they  were  well  adapted  to  the  days  when  plants  were  small. 
Their  cost  was  not  great,  the  loss  of  one  mill  at  any  time  was  not  serious  since 
its  output  was  small.  It  is  evidently  better  with  a  small  plant  to  have  small 
units  than  to  have  large  ones.  The  loss  of  one  mill  out  of  a  dozen  makes  little 
diflFerence  in  output,  but  if  the  grinding  were  all  done  in  two  units,  the  loss  of 
one  for  repairs  would  cut  down  the  output  one-half. 

The  present  practice  in  America  runs  along  two  lines.  In  one  case  the  sys- 
tem of  grinding  by  ball  and  pebble  mills  is  adopted,  and  in  the  other  some  type 
of  centrifugal  mill  like  the  Huntington  or  Griffin  mills.  By  either  of  these  sys- 
tems the  entire  grinding  can  be  done  without  auxiliary  machinery ;  the  ball  mill 
will  take  quite  large  stone,  and  after  passing  the  ball  and  pebble  mills  it  will  be 
reduced  to  fineness  suitable  for  calcination.  Similarly,  mills  of  the  Griffin  type 
will  take  the  product  of  a  crusher  and  reduce  it  to  the  proper  fineness  without 
auxiliary  machinery.  Most  of  the  earlier  installations  of  these  mills  were  made 
in  this  way.  In  later  practice,  however,  considerable  advantage  has  been  de- 
rived by  a  system  of  gradual  reduction.  A  ball  mill  will  dispose  of  stone  of  any 
size  that  will  pass  the  feed  hopper.  But  it  will  grind  a  much  larger  output  if  the 
material  delivered  to  it  is  reduced  to  a  uniform  size  of  2-5  in.  or  less.    It  has 


MBCHANIOAL  EQUIPMENT  OF  PORTLAND  CEMENT  PLANT.         97 

been  found  that  the  Griffin  mill  practice  can  be  very  much  improved  by  passing 
material  through  a  roll  crusher  or  through  a  pair  of  crushers  in  tandem  with  the 
separator  between,  and  these  are  features  of  the  present  modem  practice.  It 
is  a  question  whether  considerable  advantage  could  not  be  obtained  by  a  separation 
at  each  stage  of  reduction,  that  is,  after  material  passes  the  roll  crusher  and  after 
it  passes  the  ball  or  Griffin  mills;  but  no  extensive  practice  of  this  kind  has  yet 
been  developed. 

The  first  step  in  the  reduction  of  raw  materials  is  to  dry  them.  The  old  buhr 
stone  practice  would  handle  damp  materials  or  even  wet  materials  satisfactorily. 
More  modem  mills  will  not  do  this,  and  it  is  necessary  to  dry  them  thoroughly 
in  the  stone  house.  The  type  of  dryer  which  is  almost  universally  employed  is 
a  revolving  drum  mounted  on  trunnions  set  at  an  inclination ;  the  drum  receives 
the  stone  at  one  end  and  discharges  it  at  the  other.  The  inclination  of  the  dryer 
varies  from  0-5  in.  to  1  ft.  to  1  in.  to  1  ft.,  and  a  speed  of  from  2  to  15  r.  p.  m. 
In  size  these  dryers  vary  from  4  ft.  in  diameter  by  40  ft.  long  up  to  6  ft.  by  60  ft. 
long.  Some  styles  of  patented  dryers  have  a  diameter  greater  than  6  ft.,  with 
comparatively  short  length.  Excluding  the  patented  machines,  the  ordinary 
dryer  is  simply  a  steel  cylinder  with  T  irons  riveted  longitudinally  at  intervals 
of  about  2  ft.  around  the  periphery.  These  T  irons  act.  as  buckets  to  carry  the 
material  up  to  the  top  of  the  dryers  and  discharge  it  through  the  hot  gases  com- 
ing from  the  furnace  at  the  lower  end.  A  later  type  of  dryer  is  divided  into  four 
compartments  by  steel  plates  crossing  through  the  center.  One  obvious  advantage 
of  this  dryer  is  the  fact  that  it  balances  better  and  requires  less  horse  power  to 
drive  it  than  the  other  type.  This  is  due  to  the  fact  that  the  material  is  dis- 
tributed through  four  compartments  instead  of  being  carried  largely  on  one  side 
of  the  drum.  Either  of  these  dryers  answers  the  purpose  very  well.  An  ordi- 
nary furnace  is  provided  at  the  lower  end  with  a  flue  bridge  permitting  the  dried 
stone  to  fall  out  either  at  the  back  or  at  one  side.  A  stack  for  taking  off  the 
spent  gases  is  set  at  the  upper  end  of  the  dryer.  In  the  patented  dryers  sold  by 
the  Cummer  Co.  and  Ruggles-Coles  Co.  the  furnace  is  located  at  the  upper  end 
and  the  gases  pass  under  the  shell  and  return  to  a  stack  at  the  front  end,  both 
these  dryers  having  induced  draft  by  means  of  fans.  With  a  dryer  of  sufficient 
size  and  length,  nmning  at  slow  speed,  the  ordinary  type  of  dryer  answers 
extremely  well.  The  4-ft.  dryer  40  ft.  long  will  easily  dry  enough  raw  material 
to  make  40  bbl.  of  cement  per  hour  and  a  5-ft.  diameter,  50-ft.  dryer  will  easily 
handle  the  material  for  60  bbl.     (Illustrations  of  dryers  are  given  on  page  115.) 

The  more  thorough  the  drying  of  material,  the  more  readily  it  grinds  in  the 
modem  type  of  mills.  In  either  the  Griffin  or  Huntington  mills  or  in  the 
ball  and  pebble  mills,  the  tendency  of  all  damp  or  wet  material  is  to  ball  up, 
choke  the  screens  and  greatly  impede  the  grinding.  The  difference  in  output 
between  thoroughly  dry  material  and  material  which  is  only  slightly  damp  is 
quite  considerable. 

The  ordinary  method  of  feeding  dryers  is  by  means  of  a  belt  conveyor  or  a 
continuous  bucket  elevator,  receiving  material  generally  from  a  crusher  charged 
by  manual  labor.  This  gives  more  or  less  intermittent  feed,  and  a  great  im- 
provement in  drying  and  capacity  is  attained  by  running  material  to  a  suitable 


98 


THB  MINBRAL  INDUSTRY. 


Bin  for 
material 


PL'?5J*?fi'Jt!ff^  ^ 


TakeupPoDe^ 

shcfold  be  adjustable 

horizontally  wltb 

rack  and  nlntpn^ 

or  screw 


Friction  Clutch  PaBey 
12''face 


Fig.  5. — Areanoement  of  Griffin  Mills. 


MEOHANIOAL  EQUIPMENT  OF  PORTLAND  CEMENT  PLANT. 


99 


tank  at  the  rear  of  the  dryer  and  feeding  it  by  some  form  of  mechanical  feed — 
either  a  percussion  type  ot  a  revolving  table  under  a  spout — or  by  any  simple 


Bin  for 
ungroimd 
material 


.gg^n:^ 


n  circninstances  will  permit  Oie  bottom  olmain  conveyor  to  be  6  8  belew  top  olmiU 
fonndaOon,  the  cross  conveyors  may  be  omitted.and  the  mills  discharc^S  dArectly  Into 
fhe  main  conveyor  by  Inclined  shates,  formed  in  the  foondafion,  as  shown  above. 

Fig.  6. — ^Details  op  Griffin  Mii*l. 


mechanical  means  that  can  supply  a  uniform  feed  which  can  be  varied  at  will.  It 
ordinarily  requires  from  4  to  5  lb.  of  coal  per  barrel  of  cement  to  dry  the  stone. 
Mill  Layout. — In  Figs.  5  and  6  is  shown  a  typical  GrifBn  mill  installation  in 
plan  and  elevation.  These  jBgures  show  the  30-in.  mill  driven  at  300  r.  p,  m., 
fed  from  a  suitable  bin  and  discharging  either  to  a  conveyor  directly  under  the 
mill  or  by  gravity  to  a  conveyor  running  in  front  of  the  entire  battery.  These 
mills  are  spaced  7  ft.  from  centers,  making  a  very  compact  arrangement.  The 
details  of  the  mill  itself  are  familiar  to  all  readers  of  cement  literature  and  need 
not  be  dwelt  on  here. 


100 


THE  MINERAL  INDUSTRY. 


A  new  type  of  ball  mill  introduced  two  years  ago  and  known  as  the  Kominuter 
is  illustrated  in  Fig.  7.  This  mill  differs  from  the  ordinary  type  of  ball  mill  in 
having  a  peripheral  discharge.  The  material  is  fed  to  it  just  as  it  is  to  a  ball 
mill  through  a  suitable  nave  adjacent  to  the  shaft  at  one  end  of  the  mill.  It 
can  only  get  out  of  the  mill,  however,  at  the  forward  end  through  a  series  of 
openings  in  the  periphery  of  the  shell.  This  makes  it  necessary  for  the  material 
to  pass  from  one  end  of  the  mill  to  the  other  before  it  can  reach  the  screens.     In 


FiQ.  7. — Kominuter  Ball  Mill. 


mnrtral.lnLtjntiijyn}..11  ^  ^ 


lIhwnajiidMil>y,yoL3a 


Fig.  «.— Tube  Mill. 


the  regular  type  of  ball  mill,  the  material  passes  to  the  screens  freely  at  all  points 
of  the  periphery  across  the  mill.  The  advantage  gained  by  the  Kominuter, 
due  to  this  difference,  is  that  with  the  same  output  the  material  will  necessarily 
be  finer  ground.  Passing  out  of  the  peripheral  tlischarge  of  the  Kominuter,  the 
ground  raw  material  falls  upon  an  inner  screen  set  at  an  angle  with  the  mill  and 
mus   return  over  this  screen  to  the  feed  end  of  the  mill,  passing  in  this  way  over 


MSCHANICAL  EQUIPMENT  OF  PORTLAND  CEMENT  PLANT       101 


Mineral  Indtutrr.  VoL  XI. 

Fig.  9.— Plan  and  Vertical  Section  of  a  50-Ton  Plant  for  Crushing  Raw 

Materials. 


102 


THB  MINERAL  INDU8TBT. 


the  entire  screen  before  the  coarser  particles  are  returned.  The  return  arms  are 
shown  in  Fig.  7.  By  means  of  these  arms  the  material  which  the  screens  reject 
is  returned  to  the  mill  at  the  same  point  where  the  original  feed  enters.  Ordi- 
narily the  Kominuter  is  equipped  with  double  screens  and  provided  with  three 


3 


HI 


3 


n 


1 


8^* 


^    "^^mf 


■^'JM- 


— Uijth 


7^ 


<-4'6« 


'«^ 


^2 


IV 


I 
1 


3 


XadiKtig^'VoL  Zt> 


Fig.  10. — Arrangement  of  Modern  Ball  and  Pebble  Mill. 


return  arms.  It  can  be  arranged  so  that  one  of  these  return  arms  takes  the 
tailings  from  the  inner  screens  and  two  of  them  take  the  tailings  from  the  outer 
screens,  or  vice  versa.  Or  the  inner  screens  can  be  entirely  omitted  and  all  three 
return  arms  used  to  return  the  tailings  from  the  outer  screens.    A  large  number 


MECHANICAL  EQUIPMENT  OF  PORTLAND  CEMENT  PLANT       108 

of  these  machines  have  been  sold  for  cement  plants  within  the  last  two  years.  As 
now  built  they  are  the  largest  mills  of  this  character  on  the  market^  carrying 
40  to  50%  more  balls  than  the  largest  type  of  regular  ball  mill. 

In  Fig.  8  is  shown  a  section  of  the  tube  mill  made  by  F.  L.  Smidth  ft  Co.,  the 
same  firm  that  manufactures  the  Eominuter.  This  particular  tube  mill  also  has 
a  peripheral  discharge.  The  principle  of  this  mill,  and,  in  fact,  all  of  them,  ia 
simply  the  grinding  of  material  by  means  of  attrition  with  a  large  body  of  flint 
pebbles,  reducing  the  material  between  the  pebbles  and  in  contact  with  the  lining. 


Kfl* 


in 


n 


t 

Feeder 

1 


fl 


^-«H»i— j»' 


^ijS 


17 


"i^4 


81«' 


-n'058 — • 


B 


B 


►-»^ 


VI 


IV 


i 


s 


-K««- 


n 


vn 


KiBMml  Indortfy,  YoL  XI 

Fig.  11. — Arrangement  of  Modern  Ball  and  Pebble  Mill. 


The  pebbles  are  the  well-known  Iceland  flint  pebbles,  and  the  lining  is  silex 
blocks  cemented  to  the  shell. 

For  simplicity  of  construction,  ease  of  repairs,  regularity  and  quality  of  out- 
put, the  pebble  mills  commend  themselves  especially  for  the  manufacture  of 
Portland  cement.  Outside  of  the  feed  devices  the  mechanical  parts  are  extremely 
few  and  a  lining  well  put  in  will  last  from  one  to  three  years.  It  takes  about 
80  H.  P.  to  drive  a  mill  of  this  type  which  will  yield  ordinarily  between  15  and 
20  bbl.  per  hour  either  of  raw  material  or  clinker. 


104 


THK  MINERAL  INDUSTRY. 


A  complete  installation  of  Kominuters  and  pebble  mills  with  their  feed  boxes 
and  the  main  conveyor  systems  to  carry  away  the  product  is  shown  in  Fig.  9. 
This  plan  shows  a  battery  of  six  Kominuters  making  first  reduction  of  material 
for  a  battery  of  six  tube  mills.  In  both  batteries  there  are  two  large  pulleys  on 
the  line  shaft  and  two  small  ones.  The  middle  and  the  long  drive  mills  are  driven 
direct  from  the  line  shaft,  while  the  short  drive  mill  is  driven  from  the  counter 
shaft  of  the  long  drive  mill.  All  the  pulleys  on  the  line  shaft  are  plain  pulleys. 
Each  mill  shaft  is  provided  with  a  clutch  cut-off  coupling  making  it  possible  to 
throw  out  any  mill  without  shutting  down  the  line  shaft  or  disturbing  operations 
in  any  of  the  other  mills. 

In  Figs.  10  to  13  are  shown  typical  layouts  of  ball  and  pebble  mills  as  used  in 
recent  modem  plants,  with  their  drives  from  the  line  shaft  of  the  mill.  The 
illustrations  do  not  require  any  detailed  explanation. 


I     I  U     U  MMtml  iBdortfy,  Vol  XI 

Fio.  12. — Arranoement  of  Modern  Ball  and  Pebble  Mill. 

In  all  grinding  of  dry  raw  material,  the  finer  the  grinding  the  better  the 
product.  This  is  axiomatic,  but  it  has  a  practical  bearing  from  the  fact  that  the 
finer  the  raw  material  is  ground,  the  smaller  the  clinker  and  the  easier  it  is  to 
grind.  There  is  a  practicable  limit  to  all  things,  however,  and  it  is  found  that 
a  fineness  of  80%  passing  through  a  200-mesh  sieve  will  give  an  entirely  satis- 
factory products  in  both  respects,  that  is,  the  cement  will  be  homogeneous,  and 
the  clinker  will  be  small  and  readily  ground. 

Kiln  Practice, — For  dry  materials  two  types  of  kilns  are  used.  One  the 
cylindrical  kiln  of  uniform  diameter,  the  other,  the  taper  kiln  reduced  in  diam- 
eter at  the  chimney  end.  The  general  arrangement  of  the  second  type  is  shown 
in  Figs.  14  and  15.  This  kiln  has  a  diameter  of  60  in.  at  the  chimney  end  and 
66  in.  at  the  discharge  end  and  a  length  of  60  ft.    It  is  supported  on  trunnions  on 


MECHAmCAL  EQUIPMENT  OF  PORTLAND  CEMENT  PLANT.       lOS 

two  points^  is  turned  by  a  train  of  gears,  uses  powdered  coal  and  cools  the  clinker 
by  an  air  blast  in  a  suitable  cooler.  The  inclination  of  the  kiln  is  075  in.  to  1  ft. 
It  may  be  regarded  as  a  standard  kiln  for  dry  raw  materials.  A  large  number  of 
kilns  having  the  same  general  arrangement  are  in  use  in  the  Lehigh  Valley  in 
Pennsylvania.  The  arrangement  in  plan  is  shown  in  Fig.  14,  which  illustrates 
a  group  of  four  kilns.  The  cylindrical  kiln,  which  has  met  with  most  favor,  is 
72  in.  outside  diameter,  60  ft.  long,  supported  at  two  points  on  trunnions  and  is 
revolved  by  a  train  of  gears.  This  kiln  is  more  readily  lined  than  the  other  kiln 
and  seems  to  give  about  as  satisfactory  results,  but  theoretically  the  taper  kiln 
should  give  greater  fuel  economy.  A  cylindrical  kiln  in  plan  and  elevation  is 
shown  in  Figs.  16  and  17. 

Kilns  both  longer  and  shorter  than  the  kilns  described  have  been  used.    Within 
recent  years  new  kilns  have  been  built  having  a  length  of  45*  ft.,  and  in  a  new 


PatureMUl    R3 


RO 


R8 


^i^ 


Rl 


■  Mifl 


R5 


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U 


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Fig.  13. — Arrangement  of  Modern  Ball  and  Pebble  Mill. 


plant  erected  in  New  Jersey,  kilns  10  ft.  in  diameter  by  130  ft.,  long  have  been 
put  up.  The  advantages  in  yield,  however,  are  not  apparent.  With  the  short 
kiln  the  economy  of  coal  must  be  lacking,  since  it  is  necessary  to  maintain  a 
very  high  heat  in  order  to  make  the  clinker  in  the  limited  length.  With  a  very 
large  unit  such  as  a  10-ft.  kiln  130  ft.  long,  mentioned  above,  the  length  is  un- 
necessarily great,  requiring  an  unnecessary  amount  of  power  to  drive  the  kiln 
and  the  unit  is  too  large  in  any  case  except,  perhaps,  in  a  plant  of  extraordinary 
size. 

In  the  standard  kilns  burning  powdered  coal  the  consumption  of  coal  per  barrel 
of  cement  is  variously  given  by  different  parties  from  80  lb.  of  coal  per  barrel 
of  cement  up  to  140  lb.,  a  fair  mean  performance  being  about  110  lb.  The  finer 
th^  coal  is  ground,  the  more  effective  it  is  in  the  kilns,  and  in  general  the  larger 


108 


THE  MINERAL  INDUSTBT. 


Figs.  16  and  17. — Cylindrical 


MECHANICAL  EQUIPMENT  OF  PORTLAND  CEMENT  PLANT.       109 


Kiln  (Plan  and  Elevation). 


110 


TEE  MINERAL  INDXraTRT, 


Oveijflow  Casting. 

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ooo  ler  is  erected, 
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this  one. 


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ELEVATION.  . 


mvM^^^^y:^-^  ://////////M/////M\ 


Fig.  18. — Clinkeb  Cooler, 


^.VlBKml  IiidMl«2,T«LZr^ 


MECHANICAL  EQUIPMENT  OF  PORTLAND  CEMENT  PLANT.       Ill 

the  output  the  smaller  the  coal  consumption.  A  6-ft.  kiln  will  yield  in  cement 
from  7  to  10  bbl.  of  clinker  per  hour,  8-5  bbl.  being  a  very  good  average  per- 
formance. 

The  most  diflScult  problem  in  rotary  kiln  practice  has  been  the  handling  of  the 
clinker.  A  great  variety  of  devices  have  been  experimented  with  for  this  pur- 
pose. In  nearly  all  plants  it  is  customary  now  to  wet  the  clinker  by  a  water 
spray  to  reduce  the  temperature,  and  to  complete  the  cooling  by  means  of  an  air 
blast  blown  through  the  clinker  in  a  suitably  constructed  tower.  In  Figs.  18  and 
19  is  shown  a  clinker  cooler  tower  of  this  type.  By  referring  to  Fig.  14  a  tower  of 
this  kind  will  be  seen  as  a  part  of  the  general  arrangement  of  the  kiln  building. 
A  bucket  elevator  carries  the  hot  clinker  to  the  top  of  the  clinker  cooler  tower.  In 
the  tower  the  height  of  the  clinker  is  maintained  up  to  or  above  the  top  of  the  air 


FSJLSL 

Fig.  19. — Clinker  Cooler. 

blast  pipe.  The  air  in  the  pipe  is  discharged  under  the  mantles  shown  in  Fig.  19> 
and  passes  freely  to  the  clinker  between  the  mantles  and  the  shell  of  the  tower. 
The  hot  clinker  deposited  at  the  top  of  the  tower  is  discharged  at  the  bottom,  and 
all  of  it  must  thus  pass  from  the  top  to  the  bottom  with  a  continuous  blast  of  air 
passing  through  it.  A  cooler  tower  such  as  is  shown  in  the  illustration  will 
readily  cool  500  bbl.  per  day  of  water-sprayed  clinker  to  97 °F.  or  below.  It  is 
probably  the  most  effective  and  most  satisfactory  device  which  has  been  used 
for  this  purpose.  The  tower  has  a  suitable  overflow  at  the  top  so  that  the  hot 
clinker  can  be  carried  to  some  suitable  point  in  case  the  cooler  is  overcharged. 
The  material  at  the  bottom  can  either  be  drawn  from  side  outlets  or  from  bottom 
outleis  discharging  on  a  belt  conveyor. 


lia  THE  MINERAL  INDUSTRY. 

A  tower  of  this  description  will  cool  the  clinker  so  that  it  can  be  readily  and 
safely  handled  and  ground.  The  fact  has  developed  incidentally,  however,  that 
clinker  which  has  been  thoroughly  cooled  during  a  period  of  fcom  1  to  10  days 
grinds  much  more  readily  than  the  clinker  discharged  from  a  cooler  at  97**F. 
within  6  or  8  hours  after  it  has  left  the  kilns.  This  fact  has  developed  by  reason 
of  the  occasional  necessity  for  accumulating  clinker  due  to  the  breakdowns  in 
clinker  mills,  or  for  any  reason  which  has  made  it  impracticable  to  grind  the 
clinker  at  once.  In  several  recent  plants,  therefore,  advantage  is  being  taken  of 
this  fact,  and,  instead  of  running  the  clinker  direct  from  the  coolers  to  the  mill, 
it  is  carried  first  to  a  suitable  building  where  it  can  be  stored  and  seasoned.  It 
is  found  that  clinker  treated  in  this  way  will  grind  from  20  to  50%  more  rapidly 
in  ball  and  pebble  mills  than  fresh  clinker.  If  this  claim  is  established,  it  will 
evidently  justify  large  expenditures  for  clinker  storage  facilities.  The  cost  of 
the  clinker  storage  building  might  be  even  greater  than  the  cost  of  the  mills 
required  to  grind  the  hard,  fresh  clinker,  but  as  it  would  take  very  little  power  to 
operate  a  clinker  storage  building  as  compared  with  a  large  amount  of  power  to 
operate  mills,  the  clinker  storage  system  more  than  justifies  itself.  Hard  burnt, 
fresh  clinker  will  often  scratch  glass,  and  is  extremely  hard  to  break  up.  Well 
sprayed  with  water  and  stored  for  some  days  it  breaks  up  very  readily,  and  has 
lost  a  good  deal  of  the  sharp  cutting  quality  of  fresh  clinker. 

Wet  Raw  Materials, — The  handling,  grinding  and  burning  of  wet  raw  ma- 
terials dififers  in  many  important  particulars  from  similar  operations  with  dry 
raw  materials.  After  passing  the  kilns,  however,  the  processes  are  essentially 
the  same  and  can  be  treated  under  one  heading.  For  this  reason  the  present 
article  deals  briefly  with  wet  raw  materials  under  the  present  heading  up  to  the 
time  they  are  clinkered. 

It  cannot  be  said  that  any  practice  has  been  established  in  the  handling  of  wet 
raw  materials.  The  reason  for  this  arises  from  the  great  diversity  in  the  charac- 
ter of  these  wet  raw  materials.  In  some  cases  the  lime  and  clay  rocks  are  both 
soft,  homogeneous  materials,  free  from  sand,  shells  or  any  hard  particles.  Such 
conditions  are,  however,  comparatively  rare  in  this  country,  the  majority  of  the 
wet  raw  materials  containing  either  shells,  sand  or  some  form  of  gritty  material 
which  must  be  reduced  as  well  as  mixed.  In  the  first  case  a  simple  mixture  is 
required  which  can  be  accomplished  in  some  form  of  wash  mill  or  tank  in  which 
the  two  materials  can  be  stirred  together  in  the  presence  of  a  proper  quantity  of 
water.  In  the  other  cases  it  is  necessary  to  do  more  or  less  wet  grinding.  Owing 
to  the  presence  of  the  water,  this  wet  grinding  is  difficult  to  accomplish.  An 
ordinary  pebble  mill  will  not  do  it  because  the  pebbles  lose  so  much  in  gravity 
by  being  immersed  in  water.  Steel  balls  have  been  substituted  for  pebbles  with 
a  satisfactory  result.  In  each  particular  case,  however,  the  problem  has  to  be 
solved  to  suit  the  materials.  The  aim  of  all  plants  manufacturing  Portland 
cement  from  wet  raw  materials  is  to  get  them  into  a  homogeneous  mixture,  finely 
ground,  and  with  a  minimum  of  water. 

XJndoubt-edly,  when  materials  can  be  brought  to  a  finely  divided  state,  and  to 
an  intimate  mixture  in  the  presence  of  water,  no  better  mix  of  Portland  cement 
could  be  desired.    But  the  practical  difficulties  of  doing  this,  with  a  very  large 


MECHANICAL  EQUIPMENT  OF  POBTLAND  CEMENT  PLANT,       113 

proportion  of  the  raw  materials  available,  are  considerable,  and  in  several  recent 
plants  the  effort  has  been  made  to  use  wet  materials  by  the  dry  way.  This,  of 
course,  makes  expensive  drying,  but  as  the  fuel  costs  in  the  kilns  is  greatly  re- 
duced, and  the  yield  considerably  increased  the  proposition  has  these  points  in 
its  favor.  A  wet  mix  will  ordinarily  contain  60  to  65%  of  water,  which  means 
that  1,500  to  1,600  lb.  of  material  must  be  introduced  into  the  kiln  to  yield  380  lb. 
of  clinker.  This  constitutes  the  great  disadvantage  of  the  wet  way  for  the  rotary 
kiln  practice.  Evidently  the  lower  the  percentage  of  water  the  less  the  fuel  con- 
sumed in  the  kilns  and  the  larger  the  kiln  output,  so  that  no  effort  has  been 
spared  to  devise  means  of  keeping  the  percentage  of  water  as  low  as  possible.  It 
is  claimed  that  it  haa  been  successfully  reduced  to  40%,  but  this  statement  does 
not  seem  to  be  well  established. 

Operating  entirely  by  the  wet  way  the  most  successful  recent  results  in  rotary 
kilns  have  been  obtained  by  increasing  the  length  of  the  kilns.  A  kiln  60 
ft.  long,  using  dry  raw  materials  will  readily  produce  200  bbl.  of  clinker  per 
day  with  a  fuel  consumption  of  120  lb.  per  barrel.  Operating  on  wet  raw  ma- 
terials perhaps  100  bbl.  per  day  with  a  fuel  consumption  exceeding  200  lb.  of 
coal  per  bbl.  In  later  construction,  however,  kilns  using  wet  materials  have 
been  extended  to  100  and  even  to  110  ft.  in  length  with  excellent  results. 
It  is  claimed  that  the  output  has  been  increased  to  150  bbl.  per  day  for  a  6-ft. 
kiln  and  sometimes  more,  and  the  fuel  consumption  has  been  reduced  33%. 
In  the  rotary  kiln  installations  in  Germany  in  recent  years,  the  practice  has  all 
followed  these  lines.  The  kilns  have  been  24  to  32  m.  in  length  with  a  diameter 
of  2  m.    The  resultant  economy  claimed  is  very  considerable. 

Orinding  Clinker, — Clinker  grinding  in  American  practice  follows  the  same 
lines  as  the  grinding  of  raw  materials.  The  reduction  is  performed  either  by 
some  form  of  centrifugal  mill  with  auxiliary  crushing  machinery  ahead  of  it  or 
by  ball  and  pebble  mills  in  battery.  In  either  case  the  output  per  grinding  unit 
is  about  the  same  as  on  raw  materials,  but  the  wear  and  tear  on  machinery  is 
much  greater.  The  attrition  of  fresh  burnt  clinker  on  either  wearing  or  bearing 
.surfaces  is  almost  equal  to  emery.  Girder  plates  of  ball  mills,  linings  of  pebble 
mills,  gudgeons  of  conveyors  and  other  wearing  parts  last  only  from  one-third  to 
one-half  as  long  as  similar  parts  in  raw  material  mills.  Hence  for  repairs  and 
renewals  it  is  necessary  to  have  more  spare  mills  and  more  repair  parts  in  stock. 
As  indicated  above  in  discussing  kiln  practice,  these  conditions,  however,  are  con- 
siderably ameliorated  when  seasoned  clinker  can  be  used.  Portland  cement, 
whether  in  powder  or  in  clinker,  is  a  sensitive  chemical  compound,  reacting  with 
moisture  or  water  to  form  new  and  more  stable  compounds.  The  effect  of  water 
on  clinker  is  necessarily  much  less  than  on  cement  in  powder  as  it  is  superficial. 
But  as  the  clinker  is  porous  and  spongy,  the  water  and  moisture  do  attack  surfaces 
throughout  the  mass,  and  in  the  course  of  a  week  or  more  the  clinker  becomes 
brittle  and  friable  and  loses  much  of  its  sharp  cutting  qualities.  The  result  of 
such  treatment  is  therefore  much  to  the  advantage  of  clinker  mills  both  in  output 
and  repairs.  Under  any  conditions  clinker  grinding  is  diflRcult  and  expensive, 
perhaps  the  most  difficult  and  the  most  expensive  reduction  required  in  any  manu- 
facturing process.    The  tendency  of  recent  specifications  has  been  to  increase 


114  THE  MINERAL  INDUSTBT. 

steadily  the  expense  of  this  feature  of  cement  manufacturing.  Tlie  standard 
fineness  for  Portland  cement  was  formerly  95%  passing  a  50-mesh  sieve  or  85% 
passing  a  lOO-nies^h  sieve.  Tliis  represents  good  practice  abroad  to-day.  But 
in  American  specifications  the  tendency  has  been  to  push  these  requirements  for 
lineness  up  to  1)0%,  92%,  and  even  in  a  few  instances  to  95%  passing  a  100- 
mesh  sieve.  Tie  practical  advantages  of  this  excessive  fineness  are  not  apparent, 
while  the  increased  cost  of  manufacturing  both  in  power,  equipment  required 
and  repairs  are  considerable.  It  is  true  that  the  material  rejected  by  a  50-mesh 
screen  is  probably  inert,  and  so  is  a  part  of  that  rejected  by  the  lOO-mesh.  But 
as  it  has  been  repeatedly  demonstrated  that  35%  or  40%  of  absolutely  inert 
material  such  as  sand,  ragstone,  cinders  or  limestone  can  be  ground  with  cement 
with  comparatively  small  effect  to  its  strength  or  its  capacity  to  carry  sand  in 
mortars,  the  argument  for  excessive  fineness  is  weak.  In  speed  it  is  the  last  knot, 
or  the  last  mile  per  hour  which  costs  in  power,  and  a  limit  may  be  reached  which 
can  only  be  surpassed  at  a  cost  which  is  prohibitive.  Precisely  the  same  thing 
occurs  in  grinding.  The  difference  in  output  between  a  mill  grinding  88%  fine, 
and  one  grinding  95%  fine  is  often  100%.  And  for  any  specification  requiring 
over  90%  fine  it  becomes  necessary  for  the  manufacturer  to  consider  carefully 
ways  and  means  of  accomplishing  the  result.  The  readiest  expedient  is  to  raise 
the  percentage  of  lime  in  the  cement.  The  higher  the  content  of  lime  in  a 
cement  mix  the  more  refractory  it  is  in  the  kiln.  A  high  lime  clinker  is,  there- 
fore, softer,  less  vitrified,  less  "clinkered,"  in  fact,  than  a  lower  lime  clinker, 
and  it  is  in  consequence  more  readily  ground.  Within  limits  such  clinker  pro- 
duces satisfactory  cement  for  most  purposes.  Yet  while  each  increase  in  the  con- 
tent of  lime  renders  the  clinker  so  much  easier  to  grind,  it  must  be  borne  in  mind 
that  the  cement  is  so  much  higher  in  tensile  strength,  so  much  slower  in  set,  so 
much  nearer  the  limit  where  unsoundness  may  be  manifested  sooner  or  later. 

Mechanical  separation,  either  by  screens  or  by  air,  suggests  itself  as  a  remedy, 
but  it  seems  to  be  a  fact  that  rotary  kiln  clinker  does  not  lend  itself  readily  to  such 
treatment.  At  all  events  no  considerable  practice  has  developed  along  these  lines, 
and  cement  grinding  is  for  the  most  part  simple  mechanical  reduction,  as  here 
indicated. 

Coal  Orinding, — Coal  for  cement  kilns  must  be  gas  coal  having  over  30% 
volatile  matter.  The  high  grade  steam  coals  with  low  volatile  matter  and  hi^ 
percentage  of  fixed  carbon  do  not  ignite  readily  enough  and  burn  too  far  back 
in  the  kiln.  It  is  claimed  that  a  homogeneous  mixture  of  gas  coal  and  steam  coal 
will  give  good  results,  and  this  is  quite  possible.  The  portion  of  gas  coal  igniting 
freely  should  bum  the  steam  coal  with  it,  and  perhaps  even  with  advantage  over 
gas  coal  alone.  The  point  is,  however,  that  the  presence  of  high-grade  gas  coal 
is  always  dangerous,  as  it  is  subject  to  spontaneous  combustion.  By  slow  oxida- 
tion it  gradually  becomes  heated  until  it  smoulders  or  bursts  into  flames.  In  a 
finely  powdered  condition  this  tendency  is  much  more  marked  than  in  the  lump 
coal.  Spontaneous  combustion  results  very  readily,  and  more  or  less  fire  in  the 
coal  mill  and  storage  tanks  is  to  be  expected,  must  be  provided  for  and  the  neces- 
sary precautions  must  always  be  in  evidence  to  handle  the  coal  without  dan- 
ger.    These  precautions  are  based  on  one  important  fact,  namely,  that  while 


MECHANICAL  EQUIPMENT  OF  PORTLAND  CEMENT  PLANT       115 

combustion  is  readily  started  in  powdered  coal,  flame  or  explosion  requires  free 
access  of  air.  When  suspended  as  dust  in  air  either  in  a  building  or  in  a  tank, 
powdered  coal  can  explode  with  results  similar  to  dynamite.  When  in  a  stream 
blown  into  the  air,  a  spark  will  cause  it  to  burst  into  flame,  or  if  air  is  blown  into 
the  smouldering  mass,  flame  will  quickly  result  and  perhaps  explosion.  Without 
free  access  of  air  powdered  coal  only  smoulders,  and  is  not  an  object  of  danger. 

The  necessary  precautions  to  be  taken  in  handling  powdered  coal  may  be 
stated  as  follows:  1.  No  torch,  lantern,  arc  light  or  electric  motor  should  ever 
be  allowed  in  the  coal  mill  when  in  operation.  2.  From  the  time  grinding  begins 
imtil  the  powdered  coal  is  fed  to  the  kilns  it  should  always  be  kept  from  free 
access  of  air.  Elevator  legs,  conveyors  and  tanks  should  be  closed  in  metal  boxes. 
3.  In  feeding  the  kilns  the  minimum  quantity  of  air  required  to  carry  the  coal 
should  be  used,  and  the  blast  device  should  put  no  back  pressure  of  air  upon 
storage  tanks.  With  these  precautions  flame  or  explosion  should  be  impossible, 
and  the  smouldering  fires  which  will  occur  can  be  readily  subdued. 

As  in  handling  raw  materials,  coal  must  first  be  dried,  and  for  this  purpose 


Fig.  20. — Cummer  Dryeb. 

a  special  dryer  is  required.  The  patented  Cummer  dryer  shown  in  Fig.  20, 
answers  very  well.  A  type  of  drj'er  which  has  been  much  used  is  shown  in  Fig. 
21.  This  dryer  is  a  revolving  steel  shell,  and  the  products  of  combustion  from 
the  furnace  pass  under  the  shell  and  return  around  it.  The  discharge  end  of  the 
dryer  is  either  left  open  or  can  be  hooded.  Owing  to  the  inflammable  nature  of 
the  material  in  the  dryer,  it  is  desirable  to  have  at  hand  a  bag  of  common  salt  and 
several  packages  of  sodium  carbonate.  These  compounds  thrown  on  the  fire  will 
generate  gases  which  will  smother  flames. 

The  first  step  in  grinding  is  usually  to  break  the  lumps  by  a  toothed  roll 
cracker,  then  reduce  it  further  by  roll  crusher,  and  finish  in  Griflfin  or  pebble 
mills.  A  ball  mill  with  coarse  screens  or  with  outer  screens  omitted  can  be  used 
in  place  of  a  roll  crusher,  and  has  large  capacity.  A  general  plan  of  the  machinery 
used  in  the  coal  grinding  building  is  shown  in  Fig.  22. 

It  follows  from  what  has  been  said  concerning  the  inflammability  of  coal,  that 
no  method  of  wind  separation  should  be  used.  It  provides  exactly  the  conditions 
most  favorable  to  explosion.    A  disastrous  explosion  of  this  kind  occurred  in 


116 


THB  MINERAL  INDUSTBT. 


MECHANICAL  EQUIPMENT  OF  PORTLAND  CEMENT  PLANT.       117 


118 


THE  MINERAL  INDUSTRY, 


1903  at  a  plant  in  New  Jersey  where  a  system  of  air  separation  had  been  in- 
stalled. 

Packing  and  Shipping. — ^When  ground  from  clinker  which  is  entirely  cold, 
cement  powder  on  leaving  the  mills  has  a  temperature  between  125°  and  160°F. 
The  increase  above  normal  atmospheric  temperature  is  due  entirely  to  the  fric- 
tion of  the  grinding  process.  If  the  clinker  is  not  cold,  the  cement  powder  leaves 
the  mills  at  still  higher  temperatures.  The  problem  of  storing  cement  in  bulk 
so  as  to  remove  this  heat  has  received  a  great  deal  of  attention  with  very  small 
results.  If  it  could  be  accomplished  a  considerable  advantage  to  the  product 
would  result.  Cement  in  bulk  undoubtedlv  does  season  and  cool  somewhat,  but 
in  masses  of  1^000  bbl.  and  upward  the  process  is  slow.    The  best  opinion^  there- 


j^ 


FLAN. 

Fig.  21. — Coal  Dryer. 


Mtnmi  lndB<tiy,  VoLP 


fore,  favors  seasoning  the  clinker,  rather  than  the  cement,  and  this  feature  is  re- 
ceiving the  most  attention. 

The  heat  of  the  cement,  its  avidity  for  water  and  its  weight  prove  destructive 
to  barrels,  and  no  material  is  harder  on  this  kind  of  package.  The  present  stand- 
ard cement  barrel  has  28  5  in.  cylinder,  sawed  staves  0*4375  (■^)  in.  thick 
sawed  with  0-625  (f )  in.  bilge.  The  head  is  16  in.  in  diameter  and  05  in.  thick. 
Eight  elm  hoops  are  usually  used,  though  for  heavy  service  two  more  hoops  are 
added  of  metal  or  elm.     Such  a  barrel  weighs  from  20  to  24  lb. 

The  ordinary  cement  stock  house  is  a  hot  and  dusty  place.  Barrel  packing  is 
done  mechanically  by  a  variety  of  machines,  all  on  the  principle  of  a  revolving 
nave  pressing  the  cement  into  place  as  it  issues  from  the  bin.    Bag  packing,  which 


MEOHANICAL  BqUIPMENT  OF  PORTLAND  CEMENT  PLANT.       119 

is  by  far  the  largest  in  amount,  is  done  by  a  spout  from  a  bin.  The  spout  is 
equipped  with  a  suitable  slide,  and  the  bags  set  on  a  pair  of  sculls. 

A  variety  of  automatic  bag  packing  machines  are  on  the  market.  Their  value 
is  not  yet  proven  nor  have  mechanical  means  for  handling  the  cement  in  bins 
found  mudi  favor.  DiflFerent  types  of  timnels,  cross  conveyors,  self-emptying 
tanks,  etc.,  have  been  worked  out  on  paper,  but  the  cement  stock  house  to-day  is 
almost  everywhere  a  cellular  system  of  bins,  each  holding  from  1,000  to  2,000  bbl. 
of  cement.  Packing  rooms  are  located  at  the  center,  at  the  ends  or  at  both  points 
and  conveyors  in  the  floor  of  passages  or  aisles  along  the  front  of  the  bins  carry 
the  cement  from  bins  to  packing  rooms.  Shovels,  hoes  and  wheelbarrows  are  the 
implements  used  to  get  the  cement  from  the  bins  into  the  conveyors.  The  rea- 
son that  cement  is  not  handled  here  mechanically  is  that  the  increased  cost  of  a 
stock  house  thus  equipped  is  not  justified  by  the  saving  eflFected  in  handling. 
The  first  cost  of  extensive  conveyor  systems  with  tunnels,  etc.,  is  great,  and  the 
repairs  and  renewals  are  a  serious  item. 

In  conclusion  it  may  be  said  that  American  practice  has  dealt  fairly  well  with 
tiie  problems  encountered  between  the  quarries  and  the  stock  house.  Between  the 
point  of  origin  and  the  point  of  shipment,  large  output  and  a  minimum  of  labor 
are  the  rule,  which  features  are  the  essential  ones  for  success  in  any  manufacture 
under  American  conditions.  It  is  possible  that  quarry  and  stock  house  work 
may  later  be  successfully  developed  along  the  same  lines.  In  the  meantime  it 
may  be  conceded  that  no  industry  could  grow  twenty  fold  in  eight  years  without  a 
correct  method,  nor  could  an  industry  advance  in  this  short  time  from  compara- 
tive insignificance  to  the  first  place  among  the  nations  of  the  world  without  genius 
to  guide  its  development. 


CHROMIUM  AND  CHROME  ORE. 
Bt  Joseph  Stbuthsbs  and  Henry  Fisher. 

The  output  of  domestic  chrome  ore  in  the  United  States  is  but  a  small  frac- 
tion of  the  total  consumption,  the  great  bulk  of  which  is  supplied  from  Turkey. 
While  chromite  occurs  in  California  and  North  Carolina,  the  combined  cost  of 
mining,  treatment  and  transportation  to  Eastern  chemical  works  is  greater  than 
the  cost  of  the  ore  abroad  plus  the  ocean  freight  to  the  seaboard  works,  and  as 
tfiere  is  no  duty  on  the  ore,  the  development  of  the  mines  in  the  United  States 
is  necessarily  hindered.  During  1902  the  chrome  ore  mines  in  California  con- 
tributed the  entire  domestic  output  of  315  long  tons,  valued  at  $4,725,  as  com- 
pared with  498  long  tons,  valued  at  $7,740  in  1901.  The  value  of  chrome  ore 
varies  with  the  content  of  CrjOg  and  silica.  The  standard  ore  is  50%  CrjO,, 
and  the  price  is  increased  from  75c.  to  $1  per  long  ton  for  every  unit  of  Cr,Oj 
above  50.  While  no  fixed  premium  or  penalty  is  given  for  the  silica  content, 
ores  contAining  small  quantities  of  this  component  command  higher  prices.  The 
average  price  of  the  domestic  chrome  ore  sold  during  1902  averaged  $15  per 
long  ton.  The  imports  of  chrome  ore  during  1902  amounted  to  39,570  long  tons, 
valued  at  $582,597,  as  compared  with  20,112  long  tons,  valued  at  $363,108  in 
1901. 

Despite  the  increased  use  of  ferrotitanium  and  ferrotungsten  for  purposes 
previously  filled  by  ferrochromium,  the  production  of  the  last-named  alloy 
showed  no  decrease  during  1902  as  compared  with  1901,  the  Willson  Aluminum 
Co.,  with  mills  at  Kanawha  Falls,  W.  Va.,  and  Holcombs  Rock,  Va.,  reporting  an 
output  of  1,200  long  tons  of  ferrochromium  for  each  year.  There  has  been  no 
radical  change  in  the  technology  of  dirome  ore  and  chromium  compounds  during 
the  past  year  (details  of  which  are  given  in  The  Minebal  Industry,  Vols.  IX. 
and  X.),  although  the  use  of  chrome-steel  rails  is  noteworthy.  The  Penn- 
sylvania Railroad  is  experimenting  with  chrome-steel  rails  at  a  portion  of  the 
road  subjected  to  the  extreme  service  of  heavy  trains  and  sharp  curves.  The 
alloy  used  in  the  manufacture  of  the  rails  consists  of  Cr  50%  and  Ti  7%,  and 
the  percentage  of  chromium  in  the  finished  rail  is  said  to  be  within  the  limits 
of  0-75%  and  1%.  The  Baltimore  Chrome  Works  has  been  reported  sold  for 
$1,000,000  to  the  Kalion  Chemical  Co.,  of  Philadelphia.    This  company  supplies* 


CHROMIUM  AND  CHROME  ORE. 


121 


the  greater  part  of  the  potassium  chromate  and  bichromate  salts  used  in  tanning 
and  dyeing  in  the  United  States,  its  output  being  manufactured  from  ore  im- 
ported from  Turkey. 

PRODUCTION,  IMPORTS  AND  CONSUMPTION  OF  CHROME  ORE  IN  THE  UNITED  STATES. 


Production. 

Imports. 

Consumption. 

TCAT. 

Quantity. 
Lonic  Tons. 

Value 
P©pTon. 

Value. 

Quantity. 
Long  Tons. 

Value 
Pep  Ton. 

Value. 

Quantity. 
Long  Tons. 

Value. 

1808 

100 
100 

498 
815 

$10-00 
1000 
NU. 
16-54 
16-00 

$1,000 
1.000 
NU. 
7,740 
4,7» 

16,804 
16,798 
17,648 
90,118 
89,670 

$16-70 
18-08 
17-89 
18-06 
14-78 

$878,284 
884,885 
806,001 
888,108 
688,697 

16,404 
16,806 
17,548 
90,480 
89,886 

$878,884 

%,886 

806,001 

868,898 

687,88;} 

1808 

1900. 

1901 

1908 

California. — ^The  production  of  chrome  ore  in  California  during  1902  was 
315  long  tons,  valued  at  the  mine  at  $4,725,  as  Compared  with  498  long  tons 
($7,740)  in  1901.  In  both  years  the  material  was  sold  in  the  crude  condition. 
The  entire  output  during  1902  was  derived  from  the  Shotgun  Creek  mine  at 
Sims,  Shasta  County.  Other  chrome  ore  mines  are :  Evans  &  Dougherty,  Duns- 
muir,  Siskiyou  County ;  Black  Diamond,  Glenn  County ;  San  Luis  Chrome  Con- 
centrating Works,  San  Luis  Obispo  County;  Tehama  Consolidated  Chrome  Co., 
Tehama  County;  Mendenhall,  Alameda  County;  and  the  San  Francisco  and 
San  Joaquin  Coal  Co.  The  Shotgun  Creek  is  favorably  located  adjacent  to  the 
railroad ;  the  other  mines  were  inoperative  during  1902  as  the  additional  cost  of 
haulage  to  the  railroads  did  not  admit  of  profitable  working. 


THE  world's  PBfODUOTION  OF  CHROME 

ORE.  (a)   (in 

METRIC 

TONS.) 

Tear. 

Bosnia. 

Canada. 

Oraeoe. 

New    . 
Caledonia 

(6) 

New- 
found- 
land. 

New  • 
South 
Wales. 

Norway. 

Russia. 

Turkey. 
(6) 

United 
States. 

1897 

1888 

1880 

1900 

1901 

806 
466 
900 

100 
(c) 

8,808 
1.888 
1,796 
8118 
1,189 

668 

1,867 
4,886 
6,600 
4,580 

9,064 
14,800 
12,480 
10,474 
17,451 

667 
717 
NO, 
Nil. 

8.488 
8,146 
6,887 
8,888 
8,088 

Nil. 
NU. 

41 
166 

(c) 

18,488 
16,467 

11,561 

e  9,749 
/  40,978 

168 
108 
108 
Nil. 
506 

(a)  From  the  official  statistics  of  the  respect! to  countries,  except  for  the  United  States,  which  are  our  own 
(b)  Exports.  <c)  Statistics  not  yet  published,  (d)  Exports  from  Salonioa  and  Smyrna,  (e)  Esroorts  from 
Balonica  and  KossoTa    (/)  Exports  from  European  and  Asiatic  provinces. 

Canada. — The  production  of  chrome  ore  during  1902 — ^reported  as  exports 
during  that  year — amounted  to  816  metric  tons,  valued  at  $12,400,  as  compared 
with  1,159  metric  tons,  valued  at  $16,744  during  1901.  The  deposits  of  chrome 
ore  in  Coleraine,  Province  of  Quebec,  continue  to'  furnish  most  of  the  product, 
one  small  mine  being  worked  for  crude  ore,  and  another  for  supplying  a  concen- 
trating mill.  According  to  Mr.  J.  Obalski,  900  long  tons  of  high-grade  ma- 
terial, valued  at  $13,500,  were  shipped,  of  which  550  tons  were  in  lumps  and 
350  tons  in  concentrated  form.  A  reorganization  of  the  two  companies  owning 
concentrating  mills  has  taken  place.  The  success  of  the  Wilfley  table  has  led 
to  its  adoption  in  preference  to  jigs.  The  usual  jigging  or  other  gravity  method 
of  separation  has  been  combined  with  magnetic  concentration  which  has  resulted 
in  raising  the  quantity  of  chromium  oxide  in  the  concentrates  several  per  cent, 
above  the  results  obtained  from  either  process  alone,  and  as  50%  Cr^Oa  is  in  most 


122  THE  MINERAL  INDUSTRY, 

cases  the  critical  commercial  point,  the  extra  expense  of  the  combined  method 
of  treatment  will  doubtless  be  more  than  offset  by  the  increased  values  obtained. 
There  was  no  production  of  chronie  ore  in  Newfoundland  during  1901.  A 
quantity  of  83  tons  of  ferrochromium  was  shipped  from  Buckingham,  where 
this  product  is  manufactured. 

Greece. — The  production  of  chrome  ore  in  Greece  in  1902  amounted  to  11,680 
metric  tons,  valued  at  $140,160,  as  compared  with  4,580  metric  ton»,  valued  at 
$47,770  in  1901.  The  chrome  ore  exported  from  the  magnesia  district  in  1902 
amounted  to  10,750  tons,  valued  at  $40,310,  as  compared  with  4,750  tons,  valued 
at  $16,310  in  1901. 

New  Caledonia. — The  production  of  chrome  ore  in  1902  was  10,281  metric 
tons  (value  not  stated),  as  compared  with  17,451  metric  tons,  valued  at 
$189,200  in  1901.  At  Baige  N'go  where  the  greater  bulk  of  the  New  Caledonian 
chrome  ore  has  been  mined  of  late  years,  some  of  the  mines  have  been  closed  on 
account  of  the  poorness  of  the  ore,  and  the  production  of  the  remaining  mines 
has  been  considerably  reduced.  One  or  two  mines  have  been  opened  recently  at 
Nehoue  in  the  Qomen  district  on  the  northwest  coast,  from  which  good  results 
are  expected.  A  combination  of  chrome  interests  among  important  chrome  mine 
owners  is  projected,  and  should  it  take  place  an  increased  output  of  this  ore  may 
be  expected  in  the  near  future.  The  mines  in  question  are  far  in  the  interior, 
and  the  cost  of  transportation  is  large.  Two  French  mining  companies  owning 
about  40,000  hectares  (1  hectare=2-471  acres)  have  combined  to  form  the 
Soci6t6  de  Chrome,  capitalized  at  3,800,000  fr.  The  company  is  developing 
three  mines,  one  in  the  South  Bay,  the  second  in  Plum,  and  the  third  on  Mt. 
Thi6baghi.  The  ores  contain  from  50  to  56%  Cr^Os.  The  deposit  at  Thi6- 
baghi  is  leased  to  another  company,  which  contracts  to  mine  a  minimum  of 
10,000  tons,  and  to  pay  a  royalty  of  15  fr.  per  ton.  The  mines  on  the  South 
Bay  are  said  to  be  especially  rich.  A  railroad  is  projected  to  connect  the  South 
Bay  with  the  best  port  of  New  Caledonia.  A  large  quantity  of  ore  has  already 
been  obtained  from  the  Plum  mine,  and  when  the  necessary  arrangements  have 
been  made,  it  will  undoubtedly  continue  to  yield  a  large  output.  Unsorted 
chrome  ore  is  worth  from  45  to  50  f r.  per  ton  at  the  mine,  and  from  54  to  56  fr. 
at  the  port  of  Noumea.  A  premium  of  2-5  fr.  per  ton  is  allowed  for  each  unit 
of  CrjOg  above  50%. 

New  South  Wales. — The  exports  of  chrome  ore  from  New  South  Wales  during 
1902  were  valued  at  £1,740,  a  large  decrease  when  compared  with  2,483  long  tons, 
valued  at  £7,774  in  1901 ;  almost  the  entire  output  was  mined  at  Qobarralong. 
At  the  chromite  deposit  at  Bowling  Alley  Point  in  the  Nundle  division,  the 
ore  occurs  in  pockets  in  serpentine  and  is  similar  in  characteristics  to  the  Qun- 
dagai  ore.  A  few  tons  which  were  assayed  at  Sydney  were  reported  to  contain 
47%  CrjOg.  The  great  distance  of  the  deposit  from  the  railway  rendered  the 
profitable  treatment  of  the  ore  ver}'  uncertain,  although  if  a  proper  method  of 
ore  concentration  were  installed  the  deposit  might  be  operated  successfully. 

New  Zealand. — The  exports  of  chrome  ore  produced  by  the  miners  near  Croix- 
elles  Harbor,  during  1900  amounted  to  28  tons,  valued  at  $550;  there  was  no 
production  in  1901. 


CHROMIUM  AND  CHROME  ORE, 


123 


Norway. — The  most  important  deposits  of  chromium  ore  are  at  Boros,  but 
during  1901  the  mines  suffered  from  a  strike  which  lasted  from  March  until 
the  close  of  the  year. 

Turkey. — The  exports  of  chrome  ore  from  Turkey  from  March  14,  1901,  to 
March  13,  1902  (Turkish  year  1317),  were  38,752  tons,  as  compared  with 
40,972  tons  for  the  previous  year.  Of  this  total  the  European  provinces 
Salonica,  Kossovo,  and  Monastir  produced  11,650  tons,  and  the  Asia  Minor 
provinces  Aidin,  Konia,  Adana,  Angora,  Broussa,  and  Daghardi  produced  27,102 
tons.  The  principal  ore  deposits  are  near  Salonica,  Broussa  and  Maori.  A  rich 
deposit  which  has  not  been  exploited  exists  at  Denislie,  the  ore  assaying  56% 
CrgOg.  The  Broussa  mines  have  been  developed  recently,  most  of  the  output 
being  shipped  to  the  United  States.  The  Daghardi  mine,  which  has  a  yearly  out- 
put of  from  12,000  to  15,000  tons  of  from  51  to  55%  chrome  ore,  exports  about 
two-thirds  of  its  output  to  the  United  Kingdom,  the  balance  being  divided  about 
equally  between  America  and  Germany.  The  entire  output  of  the  Cozbelen  mine 
is  exported  to  the  United  Kingdom.  There  are  three  chrome  mines  in  the 
Province  of  Broussa,  the  Anteram,  Cozlondja,  and  Miran,  which  together  produce 
from  6,000  to  7,000  tons  of  ore  annually.  The  concessions  from  these  three 
mines,  as  well  as  the  Cozbelen  and  Bozbelen  mine,  are  held  by  the  English  firm 
of  Paterson  &  Co.,  at  Smyrna.  The  Bozbelen  mine  exports  about  1,500  tons  of 
ore  yearly.  The  Turkish  Government  taxes  chrome  ore  20%  and  imposes  a 
customs  charge  of  1%.  The  total  cost  at  the  coast  is  $8-75  for  Macri  ore,  and 
$11*74  for  Broussa  ore.  For  the  past  two  ^-ears  the  Government  has  granted  no 
new  mining  concessions,  and  permits  the  shipment  of  only  2,000  tons  of  ore  from 
a  new  mine ;  when  this  quantity  of  ore  has  been  mined  a  new  permit  to  continue 
working  must  be  obtained. 

Technology. 

For  notes  on  methods  of  analysis  and  former  German  practice  in  the  manu- 
facture of  ferrochromium  and  chrome  steel,  and  alloys  of  chromium  with  iron 
and  steel,  reference  should  be  made  to  The  Mineral  Industry,  Vols  VIII., 
IX.,  and  X. 

Composition  of  Metallic  Chromium. — The  specimens  of  chromium  prepared 
by  the  alumino-thermic  method  when  examined  by  T.  Doring*  gave,  the  follow- 
ing analyses : — 


Cbromlum. 

Iron. 

Aluminum. 

Silicon. 

97^41 
97-96 
98*97 

100 
1-90 

016 
012 
0-21 

% 

0-78 
0-69 
0-86 

These  samples,  containing  also  varying  quantities  of  Mn,  S,  As,  P,  and  CrjO,, 
were  soluble  in  concentrated  HCl  with  evolution  of  hydrogen,  also  in  dilute 
acid  when  the  solution  was  heated,  the  action  being  most  rapid  with  the  sample 
containing  the  largest  quantity  of  impurities.  The  CrClg  first  produced  was 
changed  to  CrCl.,,  the  reaction  being  complete  when  the  temperature  of  the 

>  Journal  fver  prnkttMche  Chemie,  66,  14  and  15, 1902. 


124  TBE  MINERAL  tNLUSTRT. 

solution  reached  20°C.,  but  was  incomplete  at  100° C.  This  change  is  due  to 
the  catalytic  action  of  SiOj,  produced  by  the  solution  of  the  silicon  contained  in 
the  chromium,  in  the  presence  of  HCl,  and  does  not  take  place  when  the  acid 
is  absent. 

Duty  on  Ferrochrome. — ^According  to  a  decision  of  the  Board  of  General  Ap- 
praisers ferrochromium  is  dutiable  at  the  rate  of  $4  per  ton  by  its  similitude  to 
ferromanganese,  and  is  not  dutiable  as  a  metal  unwrought. 

Chrome  Solutions  for  Tanning  Leather. — Chromium  compounds*  for  tanning 
leather  were  used  as  early  as  1856,  but  early  experiments  were  not  successful 
as  the  tannage  was  not  permanent.  The  discovery  of  sodium  thiosulphate  to 
make  the  tanning  permanent  was  due  to  W.  Zahn  who  patented  his  process  in  the 
United  States  on  June  28,  1888.  The  process  consists  in  dipping  the  skin  in  a 
solution  of  a  chromium  salt,  acidified  with  HCl,  and  then  into  a  solution  of 
NajSjOg  or  NaHSOa  acidified  with  HCl  or  H^SO^.  For  tanning  100  lb.  of 
ekin,  4  to  6  lb.  K^Crfi^,  2-5  to  4-5  lb.  HCl,  8  to  10  lb.  NajS^O,  and  0  to  15  lb. 
H2SO4  are  required.  A  number  of  electric  proceases  for  tanning  skins  with 
chromium  salts  have  been  patented  in  the  United  States. 

The  Use  of  Hydrazine  Sulphate  in  Analytical  Methods. — ^W.  Herz*  recom- 
mends the  Upse  of  hydrazine  sulphate  in  the  estimation  of  chromates.  On  adding 
an  excess  of  solid  hydrazine  sulphate  and  gently  warming,  the  chromate  is  re- 
duced in  a  few  minutes,  and  on  the  addition  of  ammonia  the  chromium  is  pre- 
cipitated as  chromium  hydrate. 

The  Allgemeine  Therm  itgesellschaft  at  Essen,  using  the  Qoldschmidt  process, 
manufactures  carbon-free  chromium  containing  from  98  to  99%  Cr,  which  i? 
utilized  in  steel  works  to  make  hardened  tool  steel,  of  a  chromium  content  amount- 
ing to  from  5  to  7% ;  occasionally  tungsten  also  is  added.  Carbon-free  chro- 
mium is  extensively  used  also  for  making  chrome  steel  of  a  smaller  chromium  con- 
tent to  be  utilized  chiefly  in  the  manufacture  of  cannon,  locomotive  bolts  and 
rivets. 

*  Twelfth  Census  of  the  United  States,  1900,  Vol  X.,  Fart  IV.,  p.  68a 

•  Berii^U,  as,  4, 940. 


CLAY. 


The  production  of  clay  products  in  the  United  States  during  1901  increased 
considerably  over  the  output  of  the  preceding  year,  the  aggregate  value  being 
$87,747,727,  as  compared  with  $78,704,678  in  1900.  The  value  of  the  output  in 
1902  probably  showed  little,  if  any,  gain,  although  complete  statistics  are  not 
available  at  this  time.  The  chief  cause  of  the  increased  output  in  1901  was  the 
great  prosperity  in  the  building  trades,  which  was  reflected  in  the  very  large  in- 
crease in  the  production  of  building  brick.  The  drain  tile  trade,  however,  suffered 
materially  from  the  drought  in  the  central  West.  At  the  beginning  of  the  season 
the  demand  was  so  great  that  almost  a  brick  famine  resulted  in  many  places, 
manufacturers  frequently  being  compelled  to  refuse  further  orders.  Despite  the 
increased  demand  for  bricks  lower  prices  ruled,  which  resulted  ultimately  to  the 
benefit  of  the  trade,  as  thereby  considerable  competition  was  prevented,  both  for 
the  present  and  for  the  future.  The  number  of  firms  reporting  brick  and  tile 
products  during  1901  was  6,887. 

The  production  of  clay  and  clay  materials  in  the  United  States  is  summarized 
in  the  following  table,  which  is  compiled  from  statistics  collected  by  the  United 
States  (jeological  Survey : — 

PBODUOTIOiT  OP  BRICK  AND  CLAY  WARES  IN  1900  AND  1901. 


Kilid 


Oonunon  britA  ...••■.. 

Front  brick 

Fire  brick  (a) 

PaTingAiulyltrffled  brick 

Other  day  btiJklioK  material  (b). . 
Sewer  pipe  and  drain  tile. 


Crude  day,  stoneware  and  misc.  manTres  (c) 


Totals. 


1900. 


No.  of  M.       Value.      Per  M. 


7,600,868 
465,771 
878,886 
784,870 


$89,195,918 
4.601,686 
6,888,868 
6,608,448 
5,680,869 
6  8,560,000 
6  8,600,000 


178,704,078 


% 


0-00 
16-64 
8-97 


190t 


No.ofM.       Value.      PsrM. 


8,088,979 
415,448 


(/) 


145,506,066 
4,790,787 
9,870,481 
5,494,184 


6«786,909 
15,448,890 


187,747,787 


(a)  Not  including  silica  brick,  (b)  Including  terra  ootta  lumber,  hollow  building  tOe  or  blocks,  roofing  tile, 
floor  tDe  and  all  oCImt  clay  building  material,  (c)  Including  the  Taiue  of  common  stoneware  and  Tarious  mls- 
oeUaneoas  day  manufactures  and  crude  clay  used  in  pottery,  for  laying  fire  brick,  in  paper  making,  as  burnt 
day  raflway  ballast,  for  the  manufacture  of  gas  retorts,  glass  pots,  sine  retorts,  etc.  (e)  Estimated.  (/)  In- 
dnded  under  crude  day,  etc. 

The  collection  of  these  statistics  is  attended  vnth  many  difficulties.  In  no 
other  branch  of  the  mineral  industry  except  that  of  stone  is  the  number  of  pro- 
ducers so  large  and  so  widely  distributed.  Most  of  them  operate  on  a  small 
scale,  and  as  but  little  outlay  of  time  and  capital  is  required  to  open  a  brickyard. 


1^6 


THE  MINERAL  INDUSTRY. 


PRODUCTION  OF  BRICK  AND  CLAY  BUILDING  MATERIAL  IN  THE  UNITED  STATES  IN 

1900.       (in   THOUSANDS.) 


States. 


Quantity.      Value. 


Arizona  (e>... 
Arkansas.... 
Cailfomia(e) 

Colorado 

Conneotknit . 

Delaware  ... 

Diat.  of  Columbia 

Florida. 

Georgia 

Idaho... 

UUnols. 

Indiana. 

Indliuk  Territory.. 

Iowa 

Kansas  (e) 
Kentucky 
Louisiana 
Maine .... 
Maryland. 


Building  Brick. 
Common. 


Michigan... 
Minnesota. . 
Mississippi. 
Missouri.... 


Montana. 

Nebraska. 

New  Hampshire. 

New  Jersey 

New  Mexico 

New  York 

North  OaroUna.. 
North  Dakota... 

Ohio 

Oklahoma 

Oregon 

Pennsylvania. . . . 
Rhode  UlandCe).. 
South  Carolina. . 
South  Dakota... 

Tennessee 

Texas 

Utah 

Vermont 

Virginia 

Washington 

West  Virginia. . . 

Wisconsin 

Wyoming 


Totals. 


60,700 

10,000 

46,000 

180,000 

48,680 

141,881 

18,060 

90,000 

86,180 

109,048 

18,107 

476,860 

898,820 

4,000 

844,804 

60,000 

188,041 

1144M 

116,000 

888,517 

a0^416 

804,061 

811,r" 

48,104 

886,000 

48,018 

108,618 

68,484 

866,047 

8,000 

1,180,000 

108,060 

48,106 

688,949 

18,681 

14,788 

797,681 

40,000 

148,887 

16,886 

186,768 

141,840 

40,906 

48,867 

77,898 

61,884 

88,018 

188,727 

eSOO 


Quantity.    Value. 


7,&00.868 


9894,060 
70,000 
881,860 
660,000 
816,080 
709,408 
87,019 
760,000 
810,000 
977,960 
189,804 

8,681,817 

8,186,874 
80,000 

1,494,808 
800,000 
666,466 
888,916 
618,700 

1,461,479 

1,678,478 
960,864 

1,074,716 
868,110 
867,600 
840,444 
648,887 
886,878 

1,486,088 
14,000 

4,849,600 
616,687 
867,560 

8,062,783 
84,879 
104,68U 

6,846.837 
810.000 
668,781 
181,671 
660,968 


Building  Brick. 
Front 


186 
s  6,000 
8,000 
81,896 
7,000 
8,686 
8,160 


4,674 


887,646 
194,6^ 
480,017 
471,688 
116,417 
765,794 
8,700 


$89,196,918 


17,006 

16,188 
600 

11,409 
8,000 
6,600 
9,600 
8,8» 
9,614 

76,860 

8,868 

9,884 

718 

80,000 

T8 

8,810 

6,490 

86,000 
1,800 

80,000 

806 

U 

66,869 


188 

61,008 

1,600 

904 

IK 

8,048 

6,799 

6,607 

14,671 

1,890 

8,400 

1,760 

4,460 


$1,750 
66,000 
60,000 
888,818 
68.000 
86,860 
66,400 


66,469 


Fire  Brick. 
Alumina. 


QoanUty.    Value.    Quantity.    Value. 


e  6,760 


8,098 


6  8,800 


87,860 

188,861 
6,000 

101,887 
60,000 
89,000 
76,800 
18,800 

804,791 

918,700 

86,768 

98,586 

6,486 

18^000 

1,168 

80,476 

67,850 

600,000 
10,400 

840,000 
8,067 
11,875 

189,896 


9,619 
8,768 


455,771 


6,888 
668,946 
18,600 
9,C47 
6,148 
80,479 
63,148 
60,687 
66,5n 
15,888 
66,000 
81,000 
88,680 


14,601,686 


806 

700 

88,000 


6,496 
6,000 


114 


14,504 
8,000 


1,180 

80,000 

860 

S  80,000 

57 

860 

106,779 


Paving  Brick. 


$141,960 


36,668 


80,400 


8i,or8 

87,688 


8,861 

6,300 

890,000 


101,888 
96,000 


8,886 


179,607 
60,000 


6 

100,774 


eOOO 


48 
600 


e400 


878,886 


88,600 

600,000 

8.600 

400,000 

1,143 

6.800 

8,114,688 


4,861 


190,166 
66,981 


30,008 

80,000 

8,000 

6,000 

160 

144 


4,000 


$18,381 


17,048 


Other 

Clay 

Building 

Materia. 


Value. 


e  $1,000 


754 
66,000 


6  66,000 


1,689,191       784,748 
608,881     6  860,000 


880,466 

840,000 

18,000 

80,000 

1,800 

1,899 


86.000 


5.176 

84,781 

860 

6.714 

944 

300 


84 
1,606,818 


6,000 


481 
7,500 


4,800 


86,000 

100 

1,500 

6  800,000 


68,887 

6,000 

500 

160 

6  18,000 

8,767 


1,846 

850 

6  85,000 


16,688,866       784,870 


ai,069 

197,906 

U,000 

49,684 

8,496 

8,000 


480,000 

800 

86,000 

1,800,000 


689,881 

46,000 

8,600 

1,600 

170,000 

84,800 


60,686 


180,000 
6,000 


60,000 
76,000 
6  8,000 
81,644 


6  800,000 


6  8,000,000 


660,000 

1.600 

800 

6  876,000 


6  600,000 
16,000 


18,789 

6,800 

820,000 


96,608,448 


6  8,000 


6  46,000 


6  6,000 


$6,680,800 


its  abandonment  is  of  no  serious  consideration.  The  list  of  producers  conse- 
quently is  subject  to  continuous  revision.  A  further  difficulty  arises  from  the 
fact  that  some  concerns  do  not  keep  any  records  of  their  work,  and  are  therefore 
not  in  position  to  furnish  accurate  reports. 

The  production  of  brick  and  clay  building  material  by  States  in  1900  and  1901 
is  presented  in  the  above  tables,  in  which  the  columns  "common  brick" 
include  only  the  ordinary  red  brick  that  is  used  generally  in  building.  Under 
"front  brick"  we  have  grouped  pressed  brick  of  all  colors.  Under  "fire  brick," 
however,  only  what  is  properly  termed  alumina  brick  is  included.  Such  silica 
brick  as  Dinas  brick,  which  is  also  properly  called  ^fire  brick"  or  "refractory 
brick,"  being  omitted,  because  it  is  not  a  clay  product.  "Other  clay  material" 
includes  fancy  or  ornamental  and  enameled  brick,  roofing  tile,  t«rra  cotta,  terra 
cotta  lumber,  floor  tile,  hollow  building  blocks,  etc.     All  the  clay  material  other 


CLAY, 


127 


production  op  brick  and  clay  building  material  in  the  united  states  in 

1901.     (in  thousands.) 


States. 


QujiBtity-      V»li4fi, 


4rixona,.. ...... 

irk  oojiiis .......  i 

Calif oroia. 

Cdlomdo 

Connecrticut    &ai 
Rhode  I«lMid. , 
lielaware.  ,,*,.*, 
1JU»L  of  CoLumbU 
Florida.......... 

Geongl*..., ...... 

Idaho 

imoola.......„.. 

tDdlooa.... 

[Ddiao  Territory, 
lijwa. ....... 


Louisiana. 
Maine.,... 
Maryland* 


Jfkli^ali. 


Hisifflippi 

Minsoiifi......... 

MuQtana. ........ 

Nebnaska ,.. 

Nevada... 

fCevr  HompflMre. 
New  J«fver.  *  -  - 
]Cewlfexk»..... 

New  York ....... 

Nopth  Oarolioa. . 
Nortb  Dakota,.. 
Ohio 


Oraffni(fr>. 


fiontii  G«f9ttiia. 
South  Dakota... 


Utah 

Vermont.....,.,. 

Tinnnia. 

Wafthlbffton . 

WestVlrBlDia... 

W|«oii«dn 

WjFomini;  ......* 

Olb«r  State«  (<fj. 


Total 

P«r  0i?nt.  of  brick 

and  t4}«!  products 
f^r  cetjt.  of  t^jtal 

of  c\aj  products. 


Buildloi?  Brick. 
Common, 


TbouM. 

1S,533 

140,832 
110.100 

\    lflO,eK» 

15,9 

^\^\ 

9l.t,806 

17,eiW 

loe.Bim 

n5,t77 
1M,9SL 

118,^57 
im460 
«lS,83e 
15T,TS7 
TB^7ie 

B1,T3» 
]0»,DOO 

114,S33 
l,0ie.g87 

ia3.e9& 

488.275 

i3>42S 

l-i4.(»l 
7.S335 


in,(©4 
I8*.i7a 

X,960 


e,€a8,57ia 


1742,^1 
fl4,1,250 

l!a&.093 
1794H4 

imjee 

14«^M>3 
],6n,(M0 

6ei,7« 

500,S7& 
407,851 

6;fl.Tce 

1,€«0,409 
1.096.264 

44at9at» 

1.5QO,OS1 

068,803 

16,435 

741,589 

],«75,74fl 

nm^ 

4,947,fiQlJ 
6(!ja,4B0 
6ft.50M 

8,735.513 
lSfi,7K 
173,C35H 

546.f]SiJ 

W,«r55 

«10,0QN 

ei3iH 

i77.9fl0 

S4A,4fi£ 

l.iriUftSP 


BuUdluir  Brick. 
Front. 


QuanUtj.    Value 


TboiLS. 
7B6 


8,^t7 

le.saa 

m 

tU,241 

(a) 
8,78S 
5,490 
S,iSQ 

3^530 
5,772 
0^060 
0^4711 
5.506 
eS50 
90.^1 
1.24^ 

(a) 

avt,satt 
]8.:2i 

(n) 

ou,4iiri 

875 
7D,S0T 

10438 
17,490 


n,«50 

fi.527 

{el 

7,S!9? 


1-45.603,07(1 
41'eti  . 


4l5,3t.'} 


10,990 


11.571* 
8ti,4aa 

igc,u 

(ai 
(q> 
(a> 

65,7011 

in  \ 

S04,9e«n 

3!H,775 

in) 

Be,  104 

16.586 

g2,35fJ 

i8.iM^ 
04,{J31 
W,D16 

0,455 

2S8a5H 

18,4,^ 

K5,aW) 

(«) 

(a\ 

ift\ 
s54.eiMi 

(rti 

ais,7m 

ti4+S^ 
m4.iiH^ 

l,l«l 

S,.S50 
Si5,4(e 
l»»,5a^l 


»57,03S 
147,881 

54,374 

85,7W 


5?tT 


Fire 

Brick. 

Alumina. 


YftlUB. 


$132,783 


]»,5B0 

87.065 

29$2,M<W 


So,  (MM 


3tlS,510 
6l.5i3ri 

im 
i,gin 

Sr7,741 


»42,«^ 
57,tM5 


(cil 


€20,11(1 
lfcJ,0CO 


;^&44 

i,a«7,05y 

("1 
%U 

4,7nij«ii 

14,Q;f6 
io)  ' 
87JO0 
aa.:ia7 
5.11 


8,1*71 

ItTcJ.aiW 

to) 


1^4,*  J  J 


9,870,421 
11-2,- 


Paring 
Brick. 


Value. 


{a) 


ta. 


(tt> 


fHiW,4&l 

8SU,£^] 


£41, 10^ 
312,1*IM 


(a) 


(a) 


84H,343 


1,445,53; 


070,081 


07,JBy 
(a) 


imnw 

5ri5.H«^ 

<'0 


3iii,:iyr 


|5.4HJ,13-i 
0'1^> 

4'{M 


Sfiwer 


Valua. 


tS85.69Q 


05,a(X> 
151,600 


34^,710 
20a,«2fl 


MSm 
10(*,71I5 


7W.513 


(a) 


»H,77t> 


a.736,?iS 


la) 

4a«,^iw 


(a) 


nH.El84 


l,sjfe*,- 


on 


Oth*r 

Clay 

BuddJDdT 

MAtersal. 


Value,  U) 


fthfm 


fwa 

/]70,iW5 

/  109,600 

(/) 

/  134,P53 

3,tH6 

/»6.4fiO 

/  2,040.861  < 
J, 400,404 


/  4:1.300, 
/2*.4^l8i 
/^,230 
3,8a0 
«2,811 
11,^111 
/101,*PW 
/4.*.0«U| 

W1H.701 

/  tjm 

31,700 


/'• 


/i,m88e 

/  JO.tUg 


/  2,TO0,«1O| 

if} 

/UlTTJ 
1,4^,315 

/aso 


/  15.W1 
/ 11, ATI 
/1,8^ 

24.407 
/S.343 

4,^M>lJ 


ft  5.443,3^0 


Total 
Value. 


|Q£e.429 
9«,9He 

l,73h,T21 

i.MkJ.ie7 
],oa9,7ua 

131, 1«4 

811.1*09 

]U0.tS74 

1,527.M:j3 

08,328 

8,9ti<i.fiJl 

8,ttHr>,(iH3 

1 17.234 

2.7n.H05 

UHl,fi30 

1.374,H4d 

013  M'5 

7^14.«78 

1,272,175 

l,B8n,4(S0 

1.407,1(Vn 

l,2S<i,r:,2 

451,eP4 

4,4<  y,ro6 

5:*I,1H1 

17,1'^ 

7lV>,ttJ4 

5,7WM<i5 

7.^14,868 

751,801 

76.7(S 

13,fi3fi,421 

aL'j.OUO 

2fi3.HWl 

la,a56,T30 

5(i2t,S46 

5t»,34]5 

l,li»2,189 

21^1,189 

77,f^*4 

1.4.H:5.3ftl 

te7.9ll8 

l.i^7,«i8 

l,iSl4J44 

:&<.UjO 


$87,747,727 
10000 


(a)  Included  in  "  Other  States/'  (b)  Includes  Hawaii,  (c)  Vidue  of  front  brick  for  Wyoming  included  in 
other  clay  building  material,  (d)  Includes  all  products  made  bv  less  than  three  proiiucers  in  one  State,  in  order 
that  the  operations  of  indiridual  establishments  may  not  be  disclosed,  (e)  Fancy  and  ornamental  brick,  stove 
linings,  drain  tile,  ornamental  terra  cotta,  flreproofing,  ordinary  tile,  including  adobes,  assayers'  sup- 
plies, boiler  and  locomotive  tile  and  tank  blocks,  building  blocks,  burnt  clay  ballast,  chemical  brick,  patent 
chimney  brick,  c^mney  pipe  and  tops,'  clav  furnaces  and  retorts,  conduit  for  underground  wire«,  crucibles, 
eapola  nick,  fence  poets  and  stubs,  fire  clay  mortar,  flue  liningR,  frost-proof  cellar  brick,  furnace  mantels, 
gas  logs  and  settings,  gUws-melting  pots  and  glass-house  furnace  blocks,  grave  markers,  hnllow  bricks,  muffles, 
snppOTts  aod  slides,  porous  cups,  runner  brick,  sidewalk  tile,  souvenirs,  stone  pumps,  terrarcotta  vases,  vitri- 
fled  lewer  brick,  wall  coping,  water  pipe,  and  well  brick  and  tile.    (/)  Partly  included  in  ''Other  Statea'' 

than  brick,  which  is  now  used  so  extensively  in  the  construction  of  fireproof 
buildings  is  included  under  this  classification.  A  slightly  diflPorent  classification 
has  been  adopted  for  1901,  which  is  fully  explained  in  the  individual  headings. 
of  the  columns  and  in  the  appended  foot  notes. 


128 


TUB  MINERAL  INDUSTRY. 


VALUE  OF  THE  PRODUCTS  OF  CLAY  IN  THE  UNITED  STATES  IN  1900  AND  1901. 


State. 


Arizona 

Arkansas 

California 

Colorado 

Connecticut  and  Khode  Island ., 

Delaware 

District  of  Columbia 

Florida 

Georgia 

Hawaii 

Idaho  

Illinois 

Indiana 

Indian  Territory 

Iowa 

Kansas 

Kentucky 

Louisiana 

Maine 

Maryland 

MassacfauBetts 

Michigan — 

Minnesota 

Mississippi 

Missouri 

Montana 

Nebraska 

Nevada  

New  Hampshire 

New  Jersey 

New  Mexico 

New  York 

North  Carolina 

North  Dakota 

Ohio 

Oklahoma 

Oregon 

Pennsylvania. 

Rhode  Island , 

South  Carolina. 

South  Dakota. 

Tennessee 

Texas 

Utah 

Vermont , 

Virginia 

Washington 

West  Virginia 

Wisconsin 

Wyoming 

Other  States 


1900. 


Brick  and     -n^fi^.,. 
Tile.  Pottery. 


$098,481 

112,727 

864,782 

1,351,611 

1.182,675 

1,088.728 

166,274 

878,000 

140,604 

1,108,886 


49,882 
6,932,086 
8,582,460 
80,288 
2,254,662 
1,002,689 
1,849,827 

608,894 

784,984 
1,275,299 
1,6M,877 
1,147,878 
1,108.802 

558,916 
8,665,098 

850,489 

683,958 
9,580 

486,018 

6,664,77^ 

41,898 

6,495,281 

797,112 

92,899 

9,781,805 

164,467 

264,096 
18,000,875 

(0 

098,708 
48,440 

866,928 
1,068,568 

227,621 

121,(M1 
1,802,085 

616,029 
1,881,9^ 
1,072,179 

31,500 


$20,296 


26,280 

24,387 

al7,»44 

61,250 


10,878 
(&) 
5  24,888 


(a) 

776,778 

c  825,900 


86,589 

14,001 

181,497 

4,800 

id) 

486,617 

d  288,724 

84.8r 

0  298,895 

14,452 

71,474 

(a) 


/Vfe8,«61 


g  1,165,885 
18,868 


A  8,578,823 

i7;296 

1,890,878 


17,« 


49,655 
87,464 
6,600 


8,110 

9,480 

681,841 


Total $76,418,775    $19,798,570    $96,818,845    $87,747,727    $22,468,880  $110,811,680 

Per  cent,  of  total , T^i^i  2058  100*00  79-68  20-88  100-0? 


Total 


$712,7»r 

112,787 

881,018 

1.875,996 

1,800,519 

1,099,978 

166,874 

288,983 

140,604 

1,198,818 


49.888 

7,708,869 

8,858,880 

80,288 

2,291,851 

1,016,750 

1,481,824 

607,694 

724,984 

1,711,856 

1,883,101 

1,181,606 

1,896,697 

678,868 

8,736,667 

850.489 

683.958 

9,580 

485,013 

10,988,483 

41,898 

7,660,606 

815,976 

92,899 

18,804,628 

164,467 

881,886 

18,891,748 


ni,886 
48,440 

915,678 
l,in,017 

284,881 

121,041 
1,805,196 

625,459 

2,016.765 

1,072,179 

81,600 


1901. 


Brick  and     p-vH»rir 
Tile.         «>«ary. 


$988,4S9 

98,966 

806,888 

1,786,721 

1.668,107 

1,089,709 

181,164 

811,129 

190,674 

1,627,853 

% 

8,960,041 

8,986,068 

117,884 

8,711,805 

981,020 

1,874,846 

612,606 

784.678 

1,272,175 

1,580,469 

1,497,109 

1,256,668 

451,694 

4,409,906 

6894281 

806,478 

17,685 

766,964 

5,781,805 

81,846 

7,814,858 

751,801 

78,706 

11,686,424 

8(«,060 

n  268,891 

18,656,780 

6^,840 

60.866 

880,874 

1,688,189 

891,180 

77,554 

1,485,800 

927,898 

1,087,888 

1,884,144 

28,960 


$18,868 


11,406 

88,484 

86.700 

ib  91,200 


18,870 
(6) 
17,880 


688,440 
681,871 


86,520 
(m) 

180.097 
8,108 
(m) 
888,480 
881,868 

44,865 

808.096 

4,T70 

64,647 
(m) 


S,W0;078 


l,0r7,860 
80,087 


10,048,661 


(m) 
1,666,018 


11,872 


64,008 

01,186 

(m) 


4,047 

17,600 

866,648 

18,400 


o  76,488 


TotaL 


$046,701 

08,066 

407,868 

1,7«0,1&6 

1,604.867 

1,180,000 

131.164 

884,008 

100,674 

1,545,063 

(5 


0,648,490 

4,466,454 

117,224 

8,787,825 

081,020 

1,514,648 

615,708 

784,678 

1,006,666 

1,87X1,837 

1,642,064 

1,548,647 

466,478 

4,474,658 

680,221 

806,478 

17,625 

766,0C4 

11,681,878 

81,846 

8,801,718 

771,838 

76,708 

81,674,986 

806,060 

n  868,891 

16,881,748 

675,818 

60,866 

898,067 

1,728,875 

801,180 

77,654 

1,489,847 

M4,708 

1,M6,480 

1,847,644 

88,060 

0  76,488 


(a)  Value  of  the  pottery  products  of  Idaho  and  Montana  is  included  with  that  of  Colorado,  (b)  Value  of 
the  pottery  products  of  Florida  is  included  with  that  of  Georgia  (c)  Porcelain  electrical  supplies  for  Indiana 
included  in  New  York,  (d)  Value  of  the  pottery  products  of  Maine  is  included  with  that  of  Massachusetts. 
{e)  Value  of  the  pottery  products  of  Wisconsin  is  included  with  that  of  Minnesota.  (/)Value  of  pottery 
products  of  New  Hamixihlre  Is  included  with  that  of  New  Jersey,  (a)  Includes  porcelain  electrical  supplies 
for  Indiana  and  china  for  Ohio.  (A)  Cliina  for  Ohio  included  in  New  York,  (t)  Included  with  Connectfentk 
(fc)  Produced  by  Connecticut  alone,  (i)  Included  in  Oregon,  (m)  Included  in  '*  Other  States."  (»)  Includes 
Hawaii,  (o)  CompriRing  pottery  totals  for  the  following  States:  Florida,  K-insas,  Maine,  Montana,  New  Hamp> 
shire,  Oregon  and  Utah.  This  total  could  not  be  distributed  among  the  States  to  which  it  belongs  without 
discloahig  tlie  operations  of  individual  establishments. 

As  an  exponent  of  the  increasing  use  of  burned  clay  products  as  a  building 
material  may  be  cited  the  number  of  building  permits  issued,  together  with  the 
buildings  erected  under  these  permits  in  42  of  the  principal  cities  of  the  United 
States  for  the  past  two  years.  In  1900  there  were  68,417  permits  affecting 
buildings  valued  at  $241,516,585,  as  compared  with  85,571  permits  affecting 
buildings  valued  at  $372,l'y3,631  in  1901,  an  increase  in  mimber  of  26%.  and  of 
over  50%  in  value. 


LITERATURB  OF  CLAT8  AND  CLAY  PRODUCTS,  129 

Review  of  the  Literature  of  Clays  and  Clay  Products  in  1902. 

Bt  Heikrich  Ries. 

Clay  Deposits. — Glass-pot  clays  have  been  obtained  in  the  United  States  from 
St.  Louis,  Mo.,  and  to  a  small  extent  in  Pennsylvania,  and  have  partially  re- 
placed foreign  glass-pot  clays.  Their  cheinical  composition  and  physical  proper- 
ties, as  well  as  similar  properties  of  foreign  clays  have  been  described  by 
H.  Ries.* 

Colorado. — The  jnannfacture  of  brick  from  both  shale  and  clay  has  attained 
to  considerable  importance  in  the  vicinity  of  Boulder.* 

Missouri. — The  well-known  St.  Louis  glass-pot  clays  have  been  made  the  sub- 
ject of  an  exhaustive  physical  and  chemical  study  by  0.  Muhlhauser.' 

North  Carolina, — A  recent  development  of  kaolin  near  Bryson  City,  Swayne 
County,  is  described  by  C.  A.  Crane.*  The  composition  of  the  kaolin  is  as  fol- 
lows :  SiOj,  46-47%  ;  Al^^O,,  35  87%  ;  Fe^O^,  1-27%  ;  CaO,  175% ;  MgO,  0*79%  ; 
SO3,  0  19%  ;  H,0,  2-72% ;  combined  H^O,  10  95%. 

Washington. — Plastic  materials  occur  at  several  localities  in  this  State.*  They 
are  used  for  the  manufacture  of  brick,  drain  tile,  sewer  pipe,  terra  cotta,  etc. 
The  different  types  recognized  are  glacial  clays,  residual  clays  and  clay  shales. 
Of  these,  the  first  mentioned  are  irregular  in  their  occurrence,  while  the  second 
are  found  only  in  non-glaciated  regions. 

Austria. — ^KsDDlins  are  found  in  Carboniferous  rocks  near  Pilsen,  Bohemia, 
and,  according  to  C.  V.  Purkyne,*  have  resulted  from  the  decomposition  of  an 
arkose,  yielding  a  product  whose  composition  is  SiOj,  8560% ;  AI2O3,  885% ; 
FcjOj,  0-70%;  CaO,  078%;  MgO,  019%;  alkalies,  0-62%;  loss  on  ignition, 
358%. 

Canada. — ^An  occurrence  of  brick  clay  has  been  described^  from  near  Sault 
Sainte  Marie,  Ontario.  The  clay  has  the  following  composition :  SiOj,  60-28% ; 
AlA,  15  73%;  FeA,  4-76%;  CaO,  5%;  MgO,  4-59%;  loss,  717%. 

France. — In  the  vicinity  of  Rouen,  the  clay  working  industry  includes  the 
manufacture  of  bricks,  roofing  tiles,  porcelain  and  fayence.® 

Oermany. — F.  Kovar  and  A.  Haskoveck®  describe  the  occurrence  of  beds  of 
fire  clay  in  the  Quader  sandstone  at  Vranova,  near  Kunstadt.  Two  varieties 
are  found,  a  white  and  dark  clay — ^the  former  analyzing:  SiOj,  62-42%;  TiOj, 
trace;  AlA.  33-56%;  FeA,  117%;  CaO,  0-77%;  MgO,  0-77%;  alkalies, 
1  21% ;  loss  on  ignition,  10-84'%. 

Russia. — A  series  of  kaolins  and  pottery  clays  from  the  department  of  Kiew 
have  been  described  by  C.  Zemiatschensky,*®  and  a  number  of  chemical  analyses 
given.     Pottery**  is  manufactured  at  many  localities  in  Bussia,  but,  owing  to 

1  Mineral  Resource*^  United  StAtos  Geological  Qarvey^  1901  (published  as  a  separate  pampUetX 

s  Clayworher,  Vol.  XXXVlll.,  p.  226, 1908. 

s  ZeiUdirift  fuer  angeuMtndte  Chemie,  1908,  Vol.  Vn. 

4  Clayworker,  Vol.  XXXVH.,  p.  488, 1908. 

•  Annual  Report,  Washing^ton  Geological  Surnqy,  Vol.  I.,  p.  178, 1908. 

•  CScMopit  pro  prunyal  cagmicky,  1901. 

»  Report  of  the  Bureau  of  Mine»,  Ontario,  1908,  p.  96. 

•  United  States  ConmUar  Report,  June,  1908,  p.  866. 

•  Journal  of  the  Society  of  Chemical  Induetry,  Vol.  LXXXH.,  p.  81. 

>•  Beridvte  und  Forediunffen  tur  heramieche  Industrie  in  Rueeland,  VI.,  pp.  808-488. 
"  rhaninduetrie  Zeitung,  Vol.  XXVI.,  p.  1998, 1908. 


130  THE  MINERAL  INDUSTRT. 

poor  transportation  facilities,  the  market  is  very  limited,  and  at  most  localities 
pottery  is  made  only  in  a  small  way  for  local  or  domestic  use.  The  region  around 
Nizhni  Novgorod  is  an  important  one.  In  some  districts  lack  of  clay  and  fuel 
gives  serious  trouble. 

Properties  of  Clays. — Softening  Temperature. — B.  Cramer"  discusses  his 
method  of  testing  the  softening  temperature  of  fire  clays  by  making  small  bars 
and  noting  the  temperature  at  which  these  bend  when  supported  at  two  points. 
He  finds  that  the  clays  which  bum  to  a  dense  body  at  comparatively  low  tem- 
peratures are  not  necessarily  those  which  soften  first ;  that,  in  fact,  porous  kaolins 
may. soften  at  an  earlier  point  than  the  dense-burning  clays.  Experiments  to 
determine  the  effect  of  adding  finely  powdered  sand  to  the  bars  showed  that  it 
did  not  affect  all  clays  alike,  tending  to  soften  some  and  to  stiffen  others  when 
burned  to  the  same  temperature. 

Dehydration. — In  experiments  to  determine  the  temperature  of  dehydration 
of  calcareous  clays  and  kaolin,  W.  M.  Kennedy"  finds  that  the  water  of  hydration 
of  the  kaolin  passes  off  between  460**  and  600  **C.,  and  in  a  mixture  of  70  parts 
of  Florida  kaolin  and  30  parts  of  whiting  he  found  that  the  loss  which  occurred 
bettveen  the  two  temperature  points  above  mentioned  agreed  with  kaolin,  and 
represented  the  period  of  dehydration.  On  further  heating  from  600**  to  725 **C. 
the  expulsion  of  volatile  matter  was  almost  as  rapid  as  that  of  the  water.  An- 
other rapid  loss  occurred  between  850**  and  900  °C.  Holding  the  clay  at  a  tem- 
perature of  725  **C.  did  not  seem  to  hasten  the  dehydration. 

Plasticity. — A  rather  unique  explanation  of  this  peculiar  property  is  given 
by  E.  Linder.^*  He  explains  it  partly  by  supposing  that  the  particles  are  of 
extreme  fineness,  and  further  considers  that  weathering  produces  very  long  or 
round  particles,  the  former  giving  greater  contact  surface,  and  thereby  increas- 
ing the  surface  tension  and  the  plasticity.  He  believes  that  if  clays  have  rounded 
particles  they  will  bum  dense  only  at  high  temperatures,  while  in  those  clays 
whose  particles  are  elongated  the  reverse  occurs. 

Permeability. — An  interesting  series  of  experiments  has  been  made  by  W. 
Spring,^*  who  finds  that  clay  when  under  pressure  and  confined  so  that  it  cannot 
expand  on  wetting  is  nearly  impervious  to  water;  under  such  conditions  it  will 
only  soak  up  enough  water  to  fill  the  pores.  The  percentage  of  water  thus 
absorbed  may  range  from  as  low  jas  3-37%  in  glass-pot  clays,  to  24-56%  in 
some  loams.  Wet  clay  under  pressure  will  part  with  its  water,  even  though  the 
mass  be  entirely  surrounded  by  that  liquid. 

Composition. — Mackler**  discovered  that  the  presence  of  magnesia  in  clays 
results  in  the  formation  of  a  dense  body  at  a  relatively  low  kiln  temperature, 
and  that  this  material  exerts  quite  a  different  effect  from  that  exerted  by  lime. 
He  found  that  clays  containing  magnesia  do  not  vitrify  and  shrink  so  suddenly 
as  do  the  calcareous  clays,  nor  does  the  magnesia  exert  as  strong  a  bleaching 
action  on  the  iron  of  the  bricks  as  the  lime  does.    The  effect  of  adding  magnesia 

"  Tkonindustrie  Zeitung,  Vol.  ZXVL,  p.  1067. 

1*  TratiBoetioTiM  of  the  American  Oeramie  Society ^  Vol.  IV.,  p.  146. 

>«  ThonindiuMe  Zeitung,  Vol.  XXXVI.,  p.  888. 

»  AnnaUt  de  la  8oei4U  giologi^ue  de  Bdgiqne,  VoL  XXVm.,  1901. 

>•  ThotUndvMtrie  Zeitung,  VoL  XXVI.,  p.  706. 


LITERATURE  OF  CLAYS  AND  CLAY  PRODUCTS,  131 

to  kaolin  was  to  cause -the  material  to  bum  dense  at  cone  No.  1,  whereas  other- 
wise it  would  not  assume  the  same  density  until  cone  No.  16.  He  suggests  the 
possibility  of  using  magnesia  in  pottery  bodies  as  a  substitute  for  lime  or  feld- 
spar. 

Mechanical  Analyses, — Kavalowski^^  describes  an  apparatus  for  the  mechanical 
analysis  of  clays,  consisting  of  a  pear-shaped  receptacle  with  a  wide  mouth  and 
a  cork  containing  three  openings.  The  first  opening  is  for  the  outlet  of  air,  while 
the  receptacle  is  being  filled,  the  second  is  for  the  water  inlet  tube,  and  the  third 
for  the  water  outlet  tube.  The  latter  can  be  moved  up  and  down  so  that  its 
lower  end  may  stand  at  any  level  in  the  receptacle.  The  disintegrated  sample  to 
be  analyzed  and  some  water  are  placed  in  the  bottom  of  the  receptacle  with  the 
lower  end  of  the  outlet  tube  raised  to  near  the  top.  Water  is  then  allowed  to 
run  in  and  to  pass  ofif  through  the  outlet  tube  until  it  becomes  clear.  The  out- 
let tube  is  then  pushed  further  into  the  receptacle  so  that  its  lower  end  is  about 
the  middle  or  in  the  zone  in  which  the  fine  sand  particles  remain  suspended 
during  the  passage  of  the  water  through  the  tube,  and  these  are  then  drained 
off.  Finally  the  outlet  tube  is  pushed  still  farther  into  the  receptacle  and  the 
sand  carried  off  through  it.  To  separate  the  coarse  sizes  of  sand  the  residue  is 
put  inside  of  a  small  egg-shaped  sieve,  outside  of  which  are  two  other  sieves.  The 
meshes  of  the  inner  sieve  are  5  sq.  mm.,  those  of  the  next  sieve  1  sq.  mm.,  and 
of  the  outer  sieve  0-5  sq.  mm.  These  sieves  are  then  suspended  by  a  string  in  the 
stream  of  running  water,  and  the  grains  of  sand  are  washed  toward  the  outer 
sieve,  where  the  finest  are  caught  while  the  coarsest  grains  are  retained  in  the 
inner  sieve. 

Chemical  Analyses, — ^A.  Sedeck*®  discusses  the  methods  for  the  i«ational  analyses 
of  clay. 

Pyrometers. — J.  Salt**  believes  that  the  irregular  working  of  Seger  cones 
is  often  due  to  improper  implacement  in  the  kiln. 

Manufacture  of  Zinc  Betorts. — The  manufacture  of  zinc  retorts  and  re- 
quirements of  the  raw  materials,  as  well  a&  their  properties  are  exhaustively 
discussed  by  0.  Muhlhauser.*® 

Pottery  Glazes. — The  formation  of  crj'^stalline  glazes  is  considered  by  many 
to  be  due  to  the  deposition  during  firing  of  willemite  crystals  from  saturated 
alkali-zinc  glazes,  and  therefore  it  is  looked  upon  as  a  kind  of  devitrification,  but 
others  ascribe  this  phenomenon  to  the  presence  of  titanic  acid  in  these  glazes. 
E.  K.  Bris**  after  a  series  of  tests  on  zinkiferous  glazes  with  and  without  titanic 
acid,  finds  that  those  free  from  titanium  form  crystals  only  sparingly  in  the 
thicker  portions  of  the  glazed  layer,  whereas  a  difference  of  1%  of  rutile  at  once 
increases  the  dimensions  of  crystals.  In  some  experiments  made  by  R.  H.  Jones'^ 
the  conclusion  is  reached  that  it  is  impossible  to  produce  a  crimson  glaze  in 
which  lead  is  the  only  flux,  and  that  a  better  color  and  brighter  surface  are 

"  Tfumindtutrie  Zeitung,  Vol.  XXVI.,  546  (abstract  from  Stein  und  Mortet). 

>«  Journal  of  the  Society  of  Chemical  Industry,  Vol.  XXV.,  p.  flO. 

>•  Ceramique,  Vol.  TV.,  p.  18». 

**  Zeititchrift  fuer  angeirandte  Chemim,  1908,  No.  7. 

»  Spredisaca,  Vol.  XXXV..  p.  138. 

«  Tran0action$  of  North  Staffordshire  Ceramic  Society^  Vol.  I.,  p.  87, 1901-08L 


132  THE  MINERAL  INDUSTRY, 

obtained  with  strongly  alkaline  glazes  when  lead  is  excluded.  He  also  describes 
the  effect  of  the  addition  of  whiting  to  clear  alkaline  glaze  and  the  production 
of  crimson  with  the  combination  of  tin  oxide,  lime  and  chrome.  The  occurrence 
of  a  golden  yellow  sheen  on  lead  glazes,  due  to  the  formation  of  small  lustrous 
yellow  crystals,  is  believed  by  L.  Thiriot^'  to  be  traceable  to  the  high  proportion 
of  lead  oxide  to  silica  in  the  glaze  (about  1:1),  when  quartz  sand  is  used.  A 
low  temperature  and  gradual  cooling  also  aids  the  formation  of  these  crystals. 
A  solid-colored  glaze  consisting  of  crude  or  burned  pyrite,  to  which  is  added 
some  clay,  sand,  ground  glass  and  other  substances,  is  used  in  many  parts  of 
Germany^*  for  interlocking  and  shingle  tiles.  The  air-dried  ware  is  dipped  in 
the  glaze  and  then  set  in  the  kiln.  According  to  M.  Heim^*^  the  tendency  of 
some  stoneware  glazes  to  deposit  sediment  can  sometimes  be  remedied  by  the 
addition  of  crude  plastic  clay  and  kaolin,  white  lead,  or  chalk  to  the  mass  before 
it  received  its  final  grinding.  It  may  also  be  prevented  by  increasing  the  density 
of  the  liquid  portion  of  the  glaze  with  gum,  dextrin,  syrup,  milk,  blood,  borax, 
boric  acid,  or  acetic  acid.  The  sediment,  however,  hardens  sometimes,  and  can 
only  be  redistributed  by  regrinding,  but  successive  treatment  of  this  kind  works 
injury  to  the  glaze.  W.  P.  Rix*'  describes  the  conditions  necessary  to  successful 
glazing,  stating  that  the  temperature  must  not  be  lower  than  1,200°C.,  and  that 
the  body  material  should  be  highly  siliceous.  L.  E.  Barringer*^  also  takes  up 
the  question  of  the  relation  between  the  constitution  of  the  clay  and  its  ability 
to  take  a  good  salt  glaze,  and  finds  that  clays  with  a  wide  molecular  ratio  of 
alumina  to  silica,  viz, :  from  1 :  4  6  to  1 : 2-5  can  be  treated  in  this  manner. 
He  also  states  that  soluble  salts  up  to  3%  may  be  present  in  a  clay  without 
seriously  interfering  with  salt  glazing  when  conducted  at  cone  No.  8.  S. 
Geisjbeek^*  claims  that  he  was  not  able  to  find  any  good  natural  engobe  clays  in 
the  United  States,  but  that  a  good  engobe  could  be  made  by  adding  flint  and 
spar  to  some  of  our  domestic  clays. 

Bodies. — Mica,  when  ground  exceedingly  fine,  is  found  by  R.  L.  StulP®  to  exert 
a  fluxing  action  upon  kaolin  at  temperatures  below  cone  No.  5.  He  claims  also 
that  it  is  plastic  if  ground  fine  enough,  and  that  it  vitrifies  sufficiently  to  pro- 
duce a  non-absorbent  body  below  the  temperature  of  cone  No.  4. 

Porcelain. — A.  S.  Watts'®  is  of  the  opinion  that  every  porcelain  showing 
a  high  resistance  test  contains  moderately  large  quantities  of  AljO.,  and  Si02, 
but  not  over  1%  Al.^Oj,  and  Cr2%  SiOg  should  be  used.  He  found  that  no  speci- 
mens below  0-8%  AI2O3  and  42%  SiO^  were  safe,  owing  to  their  very  narrow 
vitrification  limits.  He  believes  that  the  ideal  porcelain  for  electrical  purposes 
may  be  vitrified  at  any  point  between  Nos.  6  and  12. 

E.  Mayer^*  points  out  the  need  of  finer  grinding  of  the  American  pottery 
materials,  and  finds  that  the  English  ground  flint  is  considerably  finer  than 
the  American  ground  flint.     H.  E.  Wood^^  states  that  the  employment  of  bone 

»»  Sirrechgnal,  »>  [82],  1210-11. 

"  Cernminche  RundRchau.  1902.  «»  Sprerhtma!,  Vol.  XXXV..  p.  1887. 

'•  Travaactionn  of  Knrih  Staffordshire  Ceramfr  .SfonVfy,  Vol.  I.,  p.  28, 1901-02. 

^  Tironaactions  of  the  American  Ceramic  Society,  Vol  IV.,  p.  211. 

«»  rbid  ,  Vol  rv.,  p  48.        »•  Thid.,  Vol.  IV.,  p.  256.        "  Afe/d.,  Vol.  IV.,  p.  86.        »»  Ibid.,  Vol.  IV.,  p.  25. 

w  TransactionK  of  fforth  Staffordshire  Ceramic  Society.  Vol.  I.,  1901-02,  p.  21. 


LITERATURE  OF  CLAYS  AND  CLAY  PRODUCTS,  133 

in  English  cliina  dates  from  the  middle  of  the  eighteenth  century.  The  author 
believes  that  the  bone  remains  as  calcium  phosphate  throughout  the  firing,  and 
dissolves  in  the  silicates  without  affecting  their  translucency,  but  that  it  in- 
creases the  whiteness  and  lightness  of  the  body,  and  furthermore  that  being 
present  as  an  unalterable  body,  it  is  a  safeguard  against  overfiring,  and  hence 
prevents  distortion  and  blistering,  as  well  as  crazing. 

Tiles. — H.  Richardo^'  considers  the  use  of  enameled  tiles  for  saving  or  re- 
flecting light  and  for  decoration.  He  reviews  also  the  history  of  their  use  in 
early  times. 

Brick.^ — Kuehn'*  considers  that  face  brick  should  not  absorb  more  than  5% 
of  water,  and  that  a  transverse  test  is  applicable  in  cases  where  brick  are  laid 
projecting  from  the  wall  and  are  to  support  loads.  Bricks  with  lime  pebbles 
are  to  be  rejected,  and  the  same  is  true  of  bricks  containing  pyrite  nodules.  A 
face  brick  should  invariably  be  proof  to  the  action  of  the  weather,  and  sulphates 
contained  in  the  clay  should  be  rendered  harmless  by  the  action  of  barium. 
Buff  brick  should  be  burned  especially  hard  in  order  to  prevent  the  formation 
of  the  green  efflorescence  due  to  vanadiimi.  The  destruction  of  brickwork  has 
been  noticed  at  several  places  in  Italy,  and,  according  to  A.  Cajo,**^  is  due  to 
the  presence  of  incrustations  of  alkaline  sulphates  in  some  instances,  and  mag- 
nesium sulphate  in  others.  In  some  cases  a  portion  of  the  alkaline  compounds 
was  traceable  to  alkaline  sulphides  in  the  clay,  and  a  further  quantity  to  the 
sulphur  in  the  lignite  used  for  firing  the  kilns.  As  a  result,  it  is  suggested 
that  it  would  be  desirable  to  set  a  maximum  limit  for  the  presence  of  such 
impurities  in  bricks.  Two  tests  were  suggested :  ( 1 )  Determination  of  sulphur 
trioxide.  One  kilo  of  the  powdered  sample  of  brick  is  extracted  by  boiling, 
filtered,  and  the  solution  tested.  (2)  Direct  test  for  the  influence  of  sulphates. 
Prismatic  samples  of  the  brick  6X6X12  cm.  are  treated  in  a  copper  vessel  with 
a  saturated  solution  of  sodium  sulphate  by  boiling  for  half  an  hour  and  are 
then  exposed  to  a  current  of  air  until  incrustation  appears.  This  is  repeated  forty 
times,  after  which  the  residue  is  dried  at  100°C.  and  weighed. 

»«  Journal  of  the  Society  of  Arta,  Jan.  M,  1908. 
**  Thonindustrie  Zeitung,  Vol.  XXVI.,  p.  890. 
»»  Ibid.,  Vol.  XXVI.,  p.  115 


COAL  AND  COKE. 


The  continued  industrial  prosperity  of  the  United  States  during  1902  caused 
the  production  of  coal  to  exceed  the  enormous  total  registered  in  1901.  The 
total  production  of  anthracite  and  bituminous  coal  amounted  to  299,823,254 
short  tons,  as  compared  with  293,298,516  short  tons  in  1901.  Had  it  not  been 
for  the  protracted  strike  in  the  anthracite  region  of  Pennsylvania,  the  produc- 
tion in  1902  would  have  attained  to  still  larger  proportions.  The  total  produc- 
tion of  coal  in  the  chief  countries  of  the  world  during  1901  was  787,179,967 
metric  tons,  against  766,935,262  metric  tons  in  1900. 

TOTAL  PRODUCTION   OF   COAL  IN   THE  UNITED  STATES.       (iN  TONS  OF   2,000   LB.) 


Statea, 


BltumiTious: 
Alab^mjL ........ 

Arkn-nftAif . . .  H .  -  ,^  ^ 

QLllfornia.. 

ColortMlt>(f ).....  . 

Georgia  - *  - . 

minoifl 

Iadiana........«.. 

Cndiau  Territory. . 

Iowa .--..... 

Eani^frn ......^ 

JC«DLuckr 

ISAryiAU^... , 

Mlofilgan 

HlasouH  

MoDhnniL.. 

North  Dalcclttt<&^ 

Ohio - 

Oregon  ...*......* 

PetiDsyKiuila 

T«nai^£see... 

Tescasfc) .,.. 

Utah e 

VlMdnJa 

Waebln^^ton  fiJ>..., 
West  Yirgiiii* 


Tot*lbUuminoa«{gi^t^^Sn;:; 


]£«Dtuckj. 


i  Sh.  teas  >  ■  ■ 
>  U^t^  tons. . 


Anthmcite: 
Colorado ,,,,,. 
Nflir  Mexico  * 
Pe^nnsylvania. 


Total  anthroelte.. 


flrand  total  coal 


\  Sh.  tons. . . 
)  Met,  tons. . 


IflOl, 


Tom. 


Value  at  Mtne. 


Total 


]JlflJ36 
151,079 

S54.i" 

37,331  ,aas 

1.241, Si] 

1(W,W1 

*SXMS,ti07 

00,0  tl 

1J07,ft53 
2.735,873 
^,0t^.402 


904,806,110 


ig) 

(ffj 


54.tS0 
flT,47l,a<i7 


.  Sh.  ttins . . . 
J  Met.  inns. 


|10,ODO,8«S' 

»,08S,ei3 

3W,106 

43tt.ti85 

7,e^r 

S.Q91,A99 
5.^3,078 
B,ftl«,49l 
1, 753,001 

K.00©,310 

K&4fl.35r 

m,151 

173,(14fi 

si,afl7.fy*e 
4,oor,38» 

1,QQT.0S4 

3.353,089 

4.271.070 

^.!^,1S4 

0,000, 4fla 


P0r 
Ton 


fllO 
IH 
2«] 
1  11 
1  W 

im 

101 

1 

O-iS 
O-ffii 

1  a* 
l'»l 

1  44 

i-4a 
i-ao 

100 
3-5£ 
0-9» 
112 
I'Ta 

rss 

O90 

im 

0  87i 
1':H 


190S. 


Tonfl. 


10,3!J5>,479 
^,125,700 

8ft,4ao 

7,45S,156 
e  975,000 
30,031  .SOO 
8,80(XftO(> 
a,74ir" 
6,40r,144 
C,?»,7«7 
6,4a».4t9 

5,aa5,7aa 

4.007,158 

l,707j0fl 

1,090,S7B 

«9d,»0 

e«0,OQO 

ia«e.Bos 

4^23S.3SSi 
f  850,000 
3,041.480 
^,070,104 
a,(W,7HB 

so,iftaj:3 

4.TUO,000 


l-]5  2a4,3^6a9 


1103,740 

fi,S9fl 

1 13,504,020 


tii^.T^i.osr, 


|34^.O0ft,S«» 


$300 
2-75 
l-flT 


11-07 
]'8l 


fS! 


07,767 

4E,E71 

41,S40,g^ 


4t,45l,a&7 
37,001,343 


i:71,ftr7,S7S 


V^u^at  Mine. 


Total. 


fis,40»,oog 

S,a3S^1!T0 

B,349,7!» 
450,000 
28,Sft0.485 
7,886,000 
4,880,875 
7,§Da0O4 
7,531,074 
6.107,^ 
0,SM4' 
l,m,4B8 

1,637,"" 

ff7J,000 

S4J4a,008 

150,000 

iQCKset^ew 

i,flao,ooo 
£,ofle,i»9 

3.89S,0M 

5,ll00.aM 
£7,306  000 
0,4m000 


|3^,fiTi8» 


117,070 

j,oai,«5« 


tO^,0O3,SS0 


|SflS,57fl,WB 


Per 

Tim, 


tl  tl 
1-30 

in 

vm 

0*&4 
0*96 
fSO 
V4ti 

0-BS 
V13 
VU 

lai 

1-40 
1-41 

ia& 
I'oe 
2m 
vm 

1*80 

]-2e 

]'0G 

rfl7 

1-8S 


I  11 


13  00 

(/i*'oa 


tsoo 


1  98 


(a)  Fiscal  year.  (6)  All  Ui^ite.  (c)  One-third  lifirnite.  (d)  One-half  lignite,  (e)  Estimated.  (/)  Estimated; 
owinf?  to  the  protracted  strike  in  the  Pennsylvania  anthracite  resion  and  the  abnormal  oonditions  which  re- 
sulted in  the  trade,  the  value  of  anthracite  at  the  mine  can  be  nzed  only  approximately,  (g)  Included  in 
bituminous. 

Ohio, — The  production  of  coal  showed  an  increase  of  about  14%  in  1902, 
the  figures  being  23,929,267  against  20,943,807  in  1901.  The  large  increase 
was  due  primarily  to  the  strong  demand  for  coal  resulting  from  the  decreased 
supply  furnished  by  Pennsylvania. 


COAL  AND  COKE. 


135 


Pennsylvania. — ^The  production  in  1902  amounted  to  98,946,203  short  tons 
of  bituminous  coal,  and  41,340,929  short  tons  of  anthracite  coal,  as  compared 
with  82,305,946  short  tons  of  bituminous  and  67,471,667  short  tons  of  anthracite 
coal  for  1901.  The  output  of  anthracite  showed  a  large  falling  off,  owing  to  the 
long  strike  among  the  miners. 

West  Virginia, — The  production  of  coal  in  1902  was  26,162,173  short  tons 
as  compared  with  24,068,402  short  tons  in  1901,  the  increase  being  nearly  10%. 

Other  States. — Large  increases  in  production  were  recorded  in  Alabama, 
Colorado,  Illinois,  Tennessee,  Virginia  and  Wyoming.  Iowa,  alone  of  the  im- 
portant coal  producing  states,  failed  to  increase  its  output  in  1902. 

TOTAL  PHODUCTION  OF  COKE  IN  THE   UNITED  STATES.       (iN   TONS   OF  2,000   LB.) 


1901. 

1902. 

States. 

Tons. 

Value  at  Oven. 

Tons. 

Value  at  Oven. 

Total. 

Per  Ton. 

Total. 

Per  Ton. 

Alabama. ,  r .  r . .  r 

8,148,911 

671,806 

64,660 

96,068,616 

1,686,879 

164;685 

$2-88 
2-42 
2-88 

2,210,785 

6  760,000 

666,000 

Nil, 

49,279 

6  10,000 

126,569 

6  6,000 

66,060 

26,012 

6  160,000 

14,941,091 

666.188 

187,766 

978,848 

40,560 

8,949,744 

6  780,000 

16,858,278 

1,875,000 

166,750 

1810 

^•.«o 

Oolorado 

flmvrsria  aod  North  Carolina. . ,  r « - , .  -  -  t  -  -  - 

2*85 

Ukdi^a 

Tndian  TfMrltorr. ..........  t  ..  -  r  1 1 1 ^  - 

87,874 

7,188 

100,286 

4749 

67,004 

41,648 

108,774 

14,856,917 

404,017 

164,884 

15,079 

806,015 

887,881 

118,868 

299,480 

87,060,861 

4,110,011 
1,607,478 

4-14 
211 
2-07 
2-10 
5-92 
2-84 
2-76 
1-89 
2-86 

4-86 
1-80 
8-85 

197,116 

21,000 

278,101 

10.600 

816,549 

68,207 

412.600 

81,077,809 

1,709,746 

661,060 

1,761,086 

200,846 

4.189,629 

2,260,000 

4*00 

KaniiaR 

2.10 

KeDtuclcT 

2*15 

MiiBOiiri 

2- 10 

Montana 

6-75 

NewMeodoo 

8*25 

Ohio 

2 '75 

TVnnitTlTanla  (r^  .............   ......   .... 

2*06 

TraiMflHM.. 

8*08 

Utah 

4*03 

Vlndnla 

Washington 

90r,180 

49,197 

2,888,700 

604;i91 

l-ftO 
2-00 

West  VTrffinia  (b) 

1*84 

Other  States.  ...(fi 

8*00 

_  .  ,     ,     1  flhort  tons.. ..........  r 

21,796,888 
19,778,095 

$44,446,928 

$804 
2-26 

88,090,842 
80,947,421 

161.864,575 

$8-86 
^'48 

^^^*^«*®'i^c  tons.:::: :::.:::;:.:: 

(a)  Fiscal  year,  (b)  Includes  40,587  tons  made  in  Wisconsin  in  1889.  and  87,486  tons  made  in  1900;  also,  68,978 
tons  made  in  Virginia  in  1899.  and  64,740  tons  in  1900.  <c)  Includes  4,600  tons  made  in  Wisconsin  in  1900.  (d)  In- 
cluded in  Colorado,  (e)  Estimated.  (/)  Includes  Massachusetts,  Illinois,  Michigan,  Wisconsin,  New  Yorlc  and 
Wyoming. 

IMPORTS  OF  COAL  AND  COKE   INTO  THE  UNITED  STATES.       (iN   LONG  TONS.) 


Coal. 

Coke. 

Year. 

Anthracite. 

Bituminous 

Totals. 

Long  Tons. 

Metric  Tons 

Value. 

Long  Tons. 

Long  Tons. 

Long  Tons. 

Metric  Tons 

Value. 

ISB8 

61 

118 

886 

78,006 

1.870,667 
1,400,461 
1,900,268 
1,919,968 
8,478,875 

1,278,706 
1,400,688 
1,909,876 
1,980,248 
2,661,881 

1,204,066 
1,422,980 
1,039,906 
1,950,978 
2,598,208 

18,578,181 
8,888,675 
5,000,102 
6,298,278 
7,889,791 

41,186 
27,866 

108,176 
72,729 

107,487 

41,844 
88,801 

104,886 
78,888 

109,156 

9142,884 
142,604 
371,841 
266,078 
403,774 

18BB 

1000 

1901 

1908 

EXPORTS  OF  COAL  AND  COKE  OF  DOMESTIC  PRODUCTION.      (iN  LONG  TONS.) 


Year. 

Anthracite. 

Bituminous. 

Totals. 

Coke. 

Quantity. 

Value. 

Quantity. 

Value. 

Quantity. 

Value. 

Quantity. 

199,562 
280,196 
876,999 
884,880 
898,491 

Value. 

1896 

1,850,948 
1,707.796 
1,654,610 
1,908,807 
907,977 

95.712,985 
7,140,100 
7,092,488 
8,987,147 
4,801,946 

8,158,4OT 
4,044,854 
6,268,909 
5.890,086 
5,218,909 

16,099,248 
8,578,276 
14,431,590 
13,086,788 
18,927,068 

4,508,406 
6,752,150 
7,917,519 
7,888,396 
6,186,946 

$12,412,238 
16,718,876 
21,624.079 
22,082,910 
18,229,009 

$600,931 

1890 

1900 

1901 

1,858,968 
1,516,898 

1902 

1,786,188 

136 


THE  MINERAL  INDUSTRY. 


PBODUCTION    AND    CONSUMPTION    OF    COAL    IN    THE    UNITED    STATES.       (iN    LONG 

TONS.) 


Year. 

Production. 

Imports. 

Total  Supply. 

Exports. 

Consumption. 

Domestic. 

Foreipi. 

Tons. 

Metric  Tons. 

1898 

1899 

194,940,907 
225,108,024 
280,507,861 
261,878,675 
267,099,884 

1,273,706 
1,400,522 
1,909,876 
1,980,248 
2,661,881 

196,214,078 
226,603,646 
241.476,727 
268,793,923 
270,250,716 

4.503,405 
6,762,160 
7,917,619 
7,888,893 
6,126,946 

2,890 
6,806 
6,740 
8,808 
7,581 

191,708,378 
220.744.690 
238,562,468 
206,406,727 
264,116,188 

194,776,712 
2^,270,606 

1900 

237,289,807 

1901 

260,609,286 

1002 

268^848^047 

Exports  and  Imports. — There  was  a  decrease  in  the  exports  of  'coal  during 
1902,  the  figures  being  6,126,946  tons  for  1902,  as  compared  with  7,383,393  tons 
in  1901.  The  imports  increased  from  1,920,248  tons  in  1901,  to  2,551,381  tons 
in  1902.    Both  imports  and  exports  are  given  in  the  subjoined  table : — 

UNITED  STATES  EXPORTS  AND  IMPORTS  OP  COAL  CLASSIFIED  AS  TO  COUNTRIES. 


Country. 


Australasia 

Canada 

C  ntral  and  South  America. . . 

Europe ,• 

Hawaii  and  PhiUppbie  islands 

Japan ••••..•• 

Mexico 

West  Indies , 

Others 

Totals 


Exports. 


1900. 


Nil. 
5,422,493 
223,796 
686,237 
'  96.870 
Nil. 
664,066 
780,879 
114,909 


r.917,510 


1901. 


Nil. 
5,080,963 
291,816 
589,576 

71,718 
Nil. 
561,448 
786,389 

62,488 


7,! 


1902. 


Nil. 

4,468,598 

181,004 

188,696 

67.678 

Nil. 

587,708 

679,068 

5,286 


6,126,946 


Imports,  (a) 


1900. 


254.188 
1,484,576 


118,987 
Nil. 
9.045 
41,826 

1,141 


1,9G9,268 


1901. 


351,106 
1,438,581 


77,889 
Nil. 
11,068 
19,702 

Na. 

22.217 


1.919,962 


1902. 


324,648 
1,078,919 


466,988 

Na. 

9,666 
882 


2,478,875 


(a)  Does  not  include  anthracite  coal. 

Production  of  Coal  in  the  Chief  Countries  of  the  World. 

The  total  production  of  coal  in  the  world  during  1901  was  787,179,967  metric 
tons,  against  766,935,262  metric  tons  in  1900,  an  increase  of  40,385,224  metric 
tons  during  the  year.    Detailed  statistics  may  be  found  in  the  subjoined  table : — 


COAL  PRODUCTION  OF  THE  CHIEF  COUNTRIES  OF  THE  WORLD.       (iN  METRIC  TONS.) 


Africa. 

Australasia. 

Austria- 
Hungary 

Belgium. 

Canada. 

1 

New 
South 
Wales. 

New 
Zear 
land. 

864,142 
414,461 
501,913 
605,252 
647,624 

Tas- 
mania 

Vic- 
toria. 

Western 
Australia 

British 
Columbia 

A  Ter- 
ritories 

N.  Bruns- 

w'k,  Nova 

Scotia. 

France. 

1897 
1898 
1809 
1900 
1901 

2,008,174 

02,650,486 

a  239,443 

759,362 

1,888,206 

4,458,728 

4,781.661 
4,670,580 
5,595,879 
6,068,921 

864,164 
921,546 

990,838 
1.111,860 
1,247,280 

48,210 
49,902 
43,803 
61,549 
46,166 

240,068 
246,845 
286,578 
215.052 
212.678 

Nil. 

380 
66,208 
120,806 
119,721 

85,989,416 
37,788,962 
38,788,372 
:j9,027,92P 
40,746,704 

21,492,446 
22,088.3a'S 
22,072,068 
23,462,817 
22,213,410 

1,187,158 
1.454,452 
:, 601.833 
1,791,8» 
1,861.248 

2,267,681 
2,830,890 
2,866,144 
3.296,888 
8,788,168 

30,798,000 
32,886,107 
32,882.712 
38,404.298 
82,886.802 

Yr. 

1897 
1898 
1899 
1900 
1901 


Germany 


120,474,485 
127.958.550 
185,844.419 
149,788.256 
162.628,981 


India. 


lUly. 


4,128,137  314,222 
4.678,640  341,327 
5.016,055  888,634 
6.216,822,  479,896 
6.742,176  425,614 


Japan. 


5,647,751 


Russia. 


Spain. 


Sweden 


6,661 ,2(W  12,807,450 
6,721,798  114,274,361 
7,429.467  1 14,7119,866 
8,945,039  j  16, 156.038 


I  203,738  2,019.000 


2,466.800 
2,600,279 
2..582,972 
2,051,85: 


224,343 
236  277 
239,344 
252,820 
271,509 


United 
Kingdom. 


United 
States. 


All  Other 
Countries 


205,364,010  182,216,466  e2,000,000 
205,287,388  198.071,199  »^2,600.000 
223.616.279  228,71 7,579 if 2,500.(X)0 
228,772.886  24,8.414,164  e2,500,000 
222,614.981 ,266.078.668  (-2,500,000 


Totals. 


688.215,229 
666,480,706 
724,828,145 
766,936,268 
787,179,987 


(a)  Includes  estiraate  of* 60,000  tons  as  the  output  of  ihe  Orange  Free  State  and  Transvaal,  for  which  no  sta* 
Ustics  are  available,    (e)  Estimated.   (/)  Not  including  lignite. 


COAL  AND  COKE,  137 

Africa. — Coal  is  produced  in  Natal,  Cape  Colony,  the  Transvaal  and  Orange 
Hiver  Colonies.  Natal  in  1901  produced  569,200  long  tons  coal,  valued  at 
£649,439,  as  compared  with  241,330  long  tons.  Valued  at  £241,330  in  1900. 
The  output  was  mined  at  the  collieries  of  Indwe,  Cyphergat,  Sterkstroom  and 
Molteno.  Cape  Colony  produced  206,810  long  tons,  valued  at  £180,413,  as  com- 
pared with  198,451  long  tons,  valued  at  £152,581  in  1900,  and  the  Transvaal 
produced  809,898  metric  tons  coal  in  1901,  as  compared  with  514,171  metric 
tons  in  1900.  According  to  the  report  of  the  Transvaal  Mines  Department,  the 
output  of  coal  for  the  year  1902  was  1,910,947  long  tons,  valued  at  £637,640,  as 
compared  with  797,144  tons,  valued  at  £329,113  for  the  previous  year.  This 
coal  was  produced  by  fourteen  mines,  the  bulk  of  the  coal  coming  from  the 
Springs-Brakpan  area,  which  contributed  61-5%  of  the  total  tonnage. 

Australasia, — The  production  of  coal  in  New  3outh  Wales  in  1902  was  5,942,011 
long  tons,  valued  at  £2,206,678,  and  the  coke  was  valued  at  £89,605 ;  the  exports 
of  coal  were  3,104,735  long  tons,  valued  at  £1,628,121.  The  output  of  coal  in 
Queensland  in  1902  was  501,531  long  tons,  valued  at  £172,286.  The  output  in 
Victoria  was  225,164  long  tons,  valued  at  £155,850,  and  the  output  in  Western 
Australia  was  140,584  long  tons,  valued  at  £86,188. 

Canada. — The  production  of  coal  in  Canada  during  1902  was  6,930,287  metric 
tons,  valued  at  $15,538,611,  as  compared  with  5,649,917  metric  tons,  valued  at 
$12,005,565  in  1901,  an  increase  of  1,280,370  metric  tons  and  $3,533,046  for  the 
year.  The  production  of  coke  also  showed  a  large  increase,  being  459,463  metric 
tons,  valued  at  $1,558,930  in  1902,  as  compared  with  339,043  metric  tons,  valued 
at  $1,228,225  in  1901.  The  exports  of  coal  during  1902  were  1,648,852  metric 
tons,  valued  at  $4,867,088,  the  exports  of  coke,  52,873  metric  tons,  valued  at 
$184,499,  the  imports  of  anthracite  and  bituminous  coal,  4,892,096  metric  tons, 
valued  at  $13,307,838  and  the  imports  of  coke,  242,416  metric  tons,  valued  at 
$842,815.  In  1902,  Nova  Scotia  produced  4,366,869  long  tons  of  coal,  as  com- 
pared with  3,625,365  long  tons  in  1901,  3,217,559  tons  being  mined  in  Cape 
Breton  County.  The  sales  of  Nova  Scotia  coal  in  1902  amounted  to  3,898,626 
long  tons,  the  exports  of  coal  to  the  United  States  were  751,382  long  tons.  The 
Dominion  Coal  Co.  during  1902,  produced  2,952,758  tons.  Coal  is  also  mined 
on  the  Pacific  Coast.  It  is  generally  of  a  bituminous  nature,  and  is  mined  at 
collieries  at  Nanaimo,  Wellington  and  Comox  on  Vancouver  Island.  Both  an- 
thracite and  bituminous  coal  are  found  on  Queen  Charlotte  Islands.  The  Crow's 
Nest  Pass  Coal  Co.,  of  British  Columbia,  in  1902  produced  223,501  tons  of  coal 
and  107,837  tons  of  coke,  the  small  output  being  due  to  an  explosion  which 
crippled  their  principal  mine,  followed  by  a  strike  of  the  miners.  The  output 
of  the  Vancouver  Island  collieries  amounted  to  1,173,893  tons  of  coal. 

China. — The  Kaiping  coal  mine  in  Chi-li  Province,  near  the  Gulf  of  Pechihle, 
which  was  operated  since  1878  by  a  Chinese  company,  was  sold  in  1900  to  a  British 
syndicate,  the  Chinese  Engineering  &  Mining  Co.,  Ltd.  The  field  extends  for 
23  miles  along  the  Tientsin-Newchwang  Railway,  and  is  connected  both  by 
railway  and  canal  with  the  port  of  Tongu.  The  cost  of  coolie  labor  at  the  mines 
is  10  to  15c.  per  day,  native  labor  12  to  20c.,  and  skilled  mechanics  24  to  36c. 
The  company  intends  to  ship  coal  to  Western  America. 


138 


THE  MINERAL  INDUSTRY, 


Europe, — The  production  of  coal  in  the  United  Kingdom  during  1902 
amounted  to  227,178,140  long  tons,  as  compared  with  219,037,240  long  tons  in 
1901,  an  increase  of  8,140,900  long  tons  during  the  year,  the  greatest  individual 


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Thb  Production  of  Coal  in  the  Principal  Countries  of  the  Wobld  xk 

•      MM  Metric  Tons. 


COAL  AND  COKE.  139 

increase  being  Scotland.  The  coal  exported  in  1902  amounted  to  43,160,143  long 
tons,  against  41,877,081  long  tons  in  1901,  an  increase  of  1,283,062  long  tons. 
The  output  in  France  in  1902  was  30,196,994  metric  tons,  as  compared  with 
33,404,298  tons  in  1901,  the  decrease  being  due  to  the  strike  of  miners  at  the  be- 
ginning of  the  winter.  Of  this  total  the  Valenciennes  coal  fields  contributed 
18,363,791  tons,  while  nearly  the  whole  of  the  lignite  was  obtained  from  the 
Bouclies  du  Rhone  and  the  Var.  The  output  of  coal  in  the  Gennan  Empire  and 
Luxemburg  in  1902  was  107,436,334  metric  tons  bituminous  and  43,000,476 
metric  tons  brown  coal,  a  total  of  150,436,810,  as  compared  with  108,539,444 
metric  tons  bituminous  and  44,479,970  metric  tons  brown  coal,  a  total  of 
153,019,414  tons  in  1901.  The  exports  of  coal,  including  lignite,  during  1902 
were  16,122,907  metric  tons,  as  compared  with  15,287,984  metric  tons  in  1901, 
while  the  imports  of  the  same  products  were  14,307,668  metric  tons  in  1902,  as 
compared  with  14,406,331  metric  tons  in  1901.  The  exports  of  coke  in  1902  were 
2,182,383  metric  tons,  as  compared  with  2,096,931  tons  in  1901,  and  the  imports 
in  1902  were  362,488  tons,  as  compared  with  400,197  tons  in  1901.  In  Southern 
Russia  for  the  year  ending  Aug.  31,  1902,  the  output  of  bituminous  coal 
amounted  to  10,668,622  tons,  as  compared  with  11,774,272  tons  in  1901,  the 
output  of  coke  1,832,760  for  the  same  period  in  1902,  as  compared  with  2,065,845 
in  1901. 

India, — The  output  of  coal  for  the  year  1902  was  6,849,249  long  tons,  as  com- 
pared with  6,635,727  long  tons  in  1901,  the  great  bulk  of  which  was  produced  in 
Bengal.  Of  a  total  of  142,491  persons  engaged  in  mining,  85,361,  or  60%.  were 
engaged  in  coal  mining.  The  best  coal,  known  as  the  Gondwana  coal,  is  found 
in  large  quantities  at  shallow  depths  and  in  thick  seams  in  Bengal,  Central 
Provinces,  Central  India  and  Hyderabad.  The  output  is  largely  exported,  Ceylon 
being  the  chief  market.  Coal  has  been  discovered  in  Banganapalli  State  in  the 
Kumool  district.  The  new  coal  field  is  of  considerable  area,  and  the  coal  seems 
to  be  similar  to  the  coal  from  the  Singareni  mines  farther  north. 

Japan. — The  exports  of  coal  in  1902  were  valued  at  $8,635,209,  as  compared 
with  $8,771,137  in  1901.  The  imports  in  1902  were  valued  at  $649,187,  as  com- 
pared with  $1,271,067  in  1901.  The  exports  of  coal  during  1901  from  the  ports 
of  Shimonoseki  and  Moji,  in  the  consular  district  of  Shimonoseki,  amounted 
to  £1,141,725,  of  which  £425,796  were  exported  to  China.  In  1901  there  were 
73  coal  mines  in  North  Formosa,  42  of  which  with  an  area  of  over  3  sq.  miles 
were  in  operation  at  the  close  of  the  year,  the  total  output  being  62,547  tons. 
The  mines  are  in  the  Kelung  district,  and  are  for  the  most  part  surface  workings. 
The  coal  is  exported  from  Tamsui,  and  is  shipped  mainly  to  China.  Although 
the  coal  is  brittle,  it  has  great  heating  power  and  leaves  but  little  ash  when 
burned.  A  poorer  grade  of  coal  carrying  a  large  quantity  of  sulphur  is  also 
found.  The  Takasima  coal  mines  owned  and  worked  by  the  Mitsu  Bishi  Co.  are 
located  on  the  islands  of  Hasima,  Nakanosima,  Takasima  and  Yokosima,  near 
the  entrance  to  Nasaki  harbor. 

Mexico. — The  Mexican  Coal  &  Coke  Co.,  operating  at  Las  Esperanzas,  State 
of  Coahuila,  produced  in  1902,  2,000  tons  of  coal  and  from  200  to  300  tons  of 
coke  per  day.    It  is  reported  that  preparations  are  being  made  to  open  new  mines 


140 


TIIH}  MINERAL  INDUSTRY. 


and  to  put  in  new  coke  ovens,  and  it  is  expected  the  coko  output  will  be  increased 
to  500  tons  daily.  The  company,  which  owns  30,000  acres  of  co.il,  has  2,000 
men  on  its  pay-roll.  Its  nearness  to  Monterey  gives  the  company  a  market  for 
its  coal.  The  San  Marcial  coal  mines,  in  the  State  of  Sonora,  are  being  de- 
veloped so  as  to  produce  150  to  200  tons  of  coal  per  diem.  A  railway  is  being 
constructed  from  the  Sonora  Railway  to  the  mines,  and  it  is  proposed  to  ship 
coal  to  the  interior  in  the  summer  of  1903. 

South  America, — The  imports  of  coal  into  Chile  are  shown  in  the  following 
table,  reported  in  long  tons,  for  which  we  are  indebted  to  the  courtesy  of  Jack- 
son Bros.,  of  Valparaiso: — 


Steam  Coal. 

Smelting  Coal. 

Year. 

Hartly. 

Orrell. 

Other 
Classes. 

.\ustraliin. 

North 
Amei  ican 

Total. 

English. 

Australian. 

Total. 

189g 

Tons. 
184,177 
126,042 
88,655 
110.280 
122,965 

Tons. 
8,591 
7,688 

10,341 
6,804 
6,876 

Tons. 

100,480 

151,825 

121,284 

217,080 

255,868 

Tons. 

27O.08S 

807,119 

856,859 

442,880 

946,154 

Tons. 
10,608 
3,200 
85,600 
8S,1.')0 
84,887 

mm 

Tons. 
8,599 
24,078 
15,657 
25,868 
10,570 

Tons. 
42,768 
48,277 
46,850 
56,009 
54,278 

Tons. 
51,862 

1809 

67,850 

1900 

60,007 

igOl 

80.967 

1902 

64,848 

The  Anthracite  Coal  Trade  in  1902. 


By  Samuel  Sanford. 

The  year  1902  will  always  be  known  as  the  year  of  the  great  strike,  which 
greatly  curtailed  shipments  for  about  five  months,  caused  a  loss  of  fully $26,000,000 
in  gross  earnings  to  railroad  companies  and  of  $25,000,000  in  wages  to  mine 
employees,  and  gave  rise  to  much  inconvenience  and  even  distress.  From  its 
start  in  May,  the  strike  was  the  controlling  factor  in  the  trade. 

There  were  few  important  transfers  of  coal  properties  during  the  year,  and 
there  were  no  material  changes  in  the  general  policies  of  the  coal  carrying 
railroads.  The  Delaware  &  Hudson  Co.  turned  over  to  the  Erie  Hailroad  its 
tidewater  shipments  on  a  sales  contract  and  also  transferred  to  that  road  its 
business  at  Buffalo.  The  resignation  of  President  Walter  of  the  Lehigh  Bail- 
road,  owing  to  dissatisfactions  on  the  part  of  certain  stockholders  with  his  policy 
of  putting  the  road's  earnings  into  substantial  improvements,  was  an  outcome 
of  the  strike.  In  March,  Geo.  A.  Holden  retired  as  general  sales  agent  of  the 
Delaware,  Lackawanna  &  Western ;  his  retirement  marking  the  final  reorganiza- 
tion of  the  road  under  Mr.  Truesdale,  and  the  end  of  the  long  Sloan  and 
Holden  regime.  The  most  important  event  of  the  year  was  not  made  known  till 
the  spring  of  1903.  The  banking  house  of  Kuhn,  Loeb  &  Co.  purchased  in  open 
market  almost  a  controlling  interest  in  the  Reading  Co.  The  stocks  bought  were 
first  and  second  preferred  and  common,  the  largest  purchases,  relative  to  the  total 
issue  of  each  class,  being  in  second  preferred.  It  is  not  known  just  why  Euhn, 
Tioeb  &  Co.  made  the  purchases.  Possibly  the  object  was  to  prevent  the  Wabash 
Railroad  from  getting  control  of  the  Reading  and  thus  making  trouble  for  the 
Pennsylvania  Railroad.     Possibly  J.  P.  Morgan,  thinking  his  control  of  the 


THE  ANTHRACITE  COAL  TRADE.  141 

Reading  through  the  voting  trust,  secure,  did  not  think  that  any  outside  interest 
would  try  to  get  control — or  possibly  he. was  willing  to  sell  his  holdings  at  a 
profit.  The.  fact  remains  that  Kuhn,  Loeb  &  Co.  bought  the  stock,  and  the 
Pennsylvania  Railroad  afterward  transferred  part  to  the  Baltimore  &  Ohio  Rail- 
road and  part  to  the  Lake  Shore.  By  acquiring  its  large  interest  in  Reading 
the  Pennsylvania  took  a  leading  position  among  the  anthracite  railroads.  The 
house  of  J.  P.  Morgan  &  Co.,  it  is  said,  disposed  of  nearly  all  the  Reading  stock 
it  held. 

"^ade  by  Months. — As  the  floods  in  December  of  the  preceding  year  had 
greatly  reduced  output,  the  demand  at  the  opening  of  1902  was  strong.  The 
regular  f.  o.  b.  prices  New  York  Harbor  shipping  ports  were:  Broken  $4,  egg 
$4-25,  stove  and  chestnut  $4  50,  while  the  steam  sizes  were  in  demand  at  $3 
for  pea,  $2-50  for  buckwheat  and  $2  for  rice.  Cold  weather  during  much  of 
February  stimulated  consumption,  but  by  March  1,  the  prospect  of  lower  prices 
affected  buying.  On  March  5,  however,  disastrous  floods,  the  worst  in  40  years, 
almost  caused  a  complete  suspension  of  shipments  from  the  Lackawanna,  Wyo- 
ming and  Lehigh  regions  for  several  days,  the  Susquehanna  River  rising  32  ft. 
at  Wilkesbarre.  Great  damage  was  done  to  the  tracks  of  the  Central  Railroad 
of  New  Jersey  and  of  the  Lehigh  Valley  along  the  Lehigh  River,  while  in  the 
Schuylkill  and  Lehigh  regions  many  collieries  were  flooded,  some  of  which 
were  not  pumped  out  for  months.  The  total  damage  to  railroads  and  mines 
was  probably  not  less  than  $5,000,000.  On  April  1,  the  principal  companies 
announced  that  the  f.  o.  b.  New  York  Harbor  shipping  port,  prices  for  April 
would  be :  Broken  $3*75  and  egg,  stove  and  chestnut  $4.  Egg  was  thus  put  on  a 
parity  with  stove  and  the  differential  on  broken  was  reduced  to  25c.  in  accord 
with  practice  in  the  West.  Owing  to  the  prospects  of  a  strike  at  the  mines  which 
stimulated  buying,  tl*e  shipments  for  April  were  the  largest  on  record.  The 
monthly  advance  of  10c.  a  ton  on  May  1,  did  not  affect  buying,  and  the  outlook  fa- 
vored a  strong  market  that  would  continue  well  into  the  summer. 

The  unexpected  action  of  the  Hazleton  Convention  on  May  12,  however,  prac- 
tically stopped  mining  at  once,  though  a  few  washeries  kept  at  work.  Sales 
agents  at  New  York  refused  to  take  new  orders  and  began  to  sell  what  coal  they 
had  to  regular  customers  only,  in  order  to  stop  speculators  from  getting  control 
of  the  supplies.  Nevertheless  retailers  in  New  York  City  advanced  prices  $1  per 
ton,  while  in  other  cities  retail  prices  rose  25c.  and  50c.  By  the  middle  of  June, 
dealers  at  New  York  owing  to  limited  storage  capacity  were  running  short  and 
were  buying  coal  from  yards  beyond  Cape  Cod,  whither  it  had  gone  in  April  or 
May.  Prepared  sizes  were  selling  for  $10  per  ton  at  retail,  and  cargo  lots  of 
pea  coal  sold  up  to  $5  50.  By  the  end  of  the  month,  over  $6  was  paid  for  pea 
coal  at  New  York,  and  $9  for  broken,  the  latter  size  being  greatly  needed  by  the 
elevated  railroad.  Bituminous  coal  wherever  possible,  was  substituted  for  an- 
thracite in  hotels,  restaurants  and  public  buildings,  and  gas  and  oil  were  used  for 
domestic  purposes  as  never  before.  At  some  cities,  for  instance  Buffalo,  whole- 
sale prices  advanced  but  little. 

By  the  opening  of  August,  supplies  all  over  the  country  were  getting  low,  and 
in  the  whole  anthracite  region,  but  seven  collieries  and  some  twenty  washeries 


142  THE  MINERAL  INDUSTRY, 

were  busy.  At  Lake  Superior  ports  most  docks  were  bare,  and  at  Missouri  and 
Mississippi  River  points  dealers  were  trying  to  get  Colorado  anthracite  and  Ar- 
kansas semi-anthracite.  Prices  in  Eastern  cities  showed  wide  variation  according 
to  the  supplies  available,  though  egg  and  broken  were  practically  out  of  the  mar- 
ket, the  Manhattan  Elevated  Railroad  taking  all  of  these  sizes  it  could  get,  even  at 
points  as  far  away  as  Albany  and  Boston.  Speculative  coal  bought  up  by  job- 
bers, was  offered  wholesale  alongside  New  York  Harbor  at  these  prices:  Stove 
$8-45,  chestnut  $8-35,  pea  $7,  buckwheat  $4-40,  rice,  $3.  Supplies  continued  to 
get  scarcer,  and  prices  rose.  By  September  10,  prepared  sizes  at  Chicago  sold^or 
$11  and  $12  at  retail  and  $10  and  $11  at  wholesale,  with  visible  supplies  down  to 
15,000  tons.  Retailers  at  New  York  were  restricting  deliveries  to  one  ton  or 
less,  and  getting  $12  and  $13  a  ton.  At  Boston  the  retail  price  was  $10.  Balti- 
more and  some  other  points  along  the  seaboard,  as  well  as  Lake  Superior  ports, 
were  out  of  anthracite. 

Prices  continue  to  advance,  and  by  the  opening  of  October,  that  section  of 
the  country  north  of  Virginia  was  experiencing  the  worst  shortage  in  anthra- 
cite since  that  coal  came  into  general  use,  as  shown  by  these  retail  prices:  St. 
Paul  $12,  Kansas  City  $12,  Saginaw,  Mich.,  $12,  Chicago  $15  @  $16,  Springfield, 
Mass.,  $16,  Boston  $20,  Providence  $20,  New  York  $18  @  $25,  with  some  sales 
as  high  as  $27,  Philadelphia  $15  @  $20,  Richmond^  Va.,  $10.  At  New  York, 
steam  coal  often  of  poor  quality  sold  for :  Pea  $10,  buckwheat  $8,  rice  $6.  By 
the  middle  of  October  the  strike  was  virtually  over,  prices  had  fallen,  and  sales 
agents  were  overwhelmed  with  orders.  The  Philadelphia  &  Reading  Coal  & 
Iron  Co.  announced  on  October  5  that  to  cover  the  expenses  due  to  the  strike 
its  regular  winter  prices  would  be  advanced  50c.  per  ton  on  January  1,  making 
its  f.  o.  b.  New  York  Harbor  quotations:  Broken  $4-75,  egg,  stove  and  chestnut 
$5.  Other  companies  followed  the  Reading.  Fortunately,  the  weather  during 
October  and  November  was  very  mild,  and  with  actual  consumption  under  nor- 
mal, the  public  did  not  suffer,  though  demand  was  far  in  excess  of  supply  and 
speculative  coal  sold  at  a  premium.  By  November  20,  prices  f.  o.  b.  Chicago 
were:  Broken  $6-25,  Qgg,  stove  and  chestnut  $6 -50.  In  the  East  retail  prices  at 
Philadelphia  had  fallen  to  $7  and  $9,  and  at  Boston  and  Narragansett  Bay  ports 
to  $9.  At  New  York  Harbor,  where  the  nominal  retail  price  was  $6*50  specu- 
lative coal  sold  as  high  as  $10  for  prompt  delivery.  Some  lots  of  very  poor 
washery  coal,  steam  sizes,  sold  at  discounts. 

Early  in  December,  a  cold  wave  with  lower  temperatures  than  for  a  corre- 
sponding date  in  thirty  years  stimulated  demand  and  hindered  coatswise  ship- 
ments. Retail  prices  at  New  York  rose  to  $7-50  and  at  Boston  to  $12,  and 
remained  there  to  the  end  of  the  year.  It  is  important  to  note  that  during  the 
strike  some  of  the  railroad  coal  companies  managed  to  get  a  little  coal  for  certain 
concerns  which  had  to  bum  anthracite  and  this  coal  was  sold  at  the  regular 
list  price,  though  prices  in  the  open  market  were  twice  as  high.  The  difference 
between  list  and  speculative  prices  after  the  strike  was  marked,  and  it  is  almost 
impossible  to  say  what  were  average  selling  prices  at  tidewater  during  the  last 
half  of  the  year. 


THB  SEABOARD  BITUMINOUS  COAL  TRADE.  143 

The  Seaboard  Bituminous  Coal  Trade  in  1902. 
By  Samuel  Sanford. 

The  bituminous  coal  trade  of  the  Atlantic  seaboard  during  1902  was  controlled 
as  never  before  by  the  railroads.  Stockholders  in  the  Pennsylvania  Railroad  are 
reported  to  hold  large  interests  in  three  other  roads  shipping  bituminous  coal 
to  tidewater  from  the  West  Virginia  and  Pennsylvania  fields,  and  these  roads 
have  a  territorial  policy  by  which  certain  coals,  to  avoid  long  car  hauls,  are 
sent  to  certain  markets.  Industrial  activity  in  1900  and  1901  taxed  the  carry- 
ing capacity  of  railroads  all  over  the  country,  and  it  is  possible  that  in  1902 
the  Pennsylvania  and  allied  railroads  were  unable  to  give  the  service  demanded 
by  coal  shippers.  There  was  a  serious  strike  in  West  Virginia,  otherwise  pro- 
duction was  very  heavy.  The  great  shortage  in  fuel  over  the  northeastern  sec- 
tion of  the  United  States  due  to  the  anthracite  strike  affected  bituminous  prices, 
and  it  is  still  a  question  whether  or  not  the  railroads  could  have  moved  to  tide- 
water a  heavier  tonnage  of  soft  coal ;  some  people  contend  that  had  the  bituminous 
coal  roads  done  their  best,  prices  during  the  coal  strike  and  later  would  not  have 
reached  extreme  figures. 

Of  transfers  of  coal  lands  in  West  Virginia  and  Pennsylvania  there  were 
many,  the  two  most  important  being  the  acquisition  by  the  Goulds  of  the  hold- 
ings of  the  Davis  Coal  &  Coke  Co.,  including  its  mines  and  the  West  Vir- 
ginia Central  Railroad  from  the  mines  to  Cumberland.  The  Goulds  also  acquired 
the  Western  Maryland  Road,  owned  largely  by  the  City  of  Baltimore,  running 
from  Baltimore  to  Hagerstown,  and  by  these  roads  will  run  a  line  from  Pitts- 
burg to  Baltimore,  making  the  Wabash  a  factor  in  the  trade.  The  railroad  will 
not  have  a  particularly  well  situated  line,  but  it  will  open  a  large  coal  field,  and 
is  likely  to  have  much  influence.  In  Pennsylvania,  a  number  of  mines  and  com- 
panies holding  coal  lands  were  consolidated  as  the  Summerset  Coal  Co.  later 
acquired  by  Baltimore  &  Ohio  interests.  This  consolidation  was  largely  specu- 
lative, and  was  probably  made  to  enable  the  promoters  to  get  favorable  terms  by 
having  the  Wabash  compete  with  the  Baltimore  &  Ohio. 

Trade  iy  Months. — ^Though  the  year  opened  with  coal  selling  at  a  premium, 
by  the  middle  of  January  conditions  had  improved,  and  prices  were  about  normal 
-^hat  is,  $2-66  and  $2-85  for  Clearfield  grades  f.  o.  b.  New  York  Harbor  ship- 
ping ports.  The  best  grades  such  as  Georges  Creek,  were  out  of  the  market,  and 
practically  remained  out  of  the  market  throughout  the  year.  At  a  meeting  of  the 
Bituminous  Association  at  Philadelphia  in  February  the  members  favored  con- 
tinuing old  prices  for  new  contracts.  The  floods  in  March  affected  traffic  and 
Clearfield  sold  f.  o.  b.  at  New  York  Harbor  ports  for  $3-50  for  spot.  Car  supply, 
which  had  been  poor,  improved  subsequently  to  about  75%  of  the  demand,  and  by 
April  20,  prices  for  poorer  Clearfield  fell  to  $2*55  f.  o.  b.  New  York  Harbor.  The 
strike  of  the  anthracite  miners  on  May  12,  was  immediately  followed  by  the  bitumi- 
nous railroads  cutting  car  supply,  which  had  been  about  75%  of  the  demand,  to 
50%  of  some  shippers'  needs.  This  and  the  fear  that  the  anthracite  strike  might 
spread  to  bituminous  mines  frightened  the  trade,  and  Clearfield  sold  up  to  $3'50 
f.  o.  b.  New  York  Harbor.     Though  car  supply  improved  to  90%  of  demand,  the 


144  THB  MmSRAL  INDU8TRT, 

Pocahontas  and  New  River  miners  were  preparing  to  go  out,  and  the  market  soon 
became  speculative.  The  output  fell  oflE  about  80%  when  the  Virginia  and  West 
Virginia  miners  stopped  work  on  June  7.  By  June  25,  speculative  prices  rose  to 
$4*86  for  the  better  grades  of  Clearfield  f .  o.  b.  New  York  Harbor.  When  the  men 
began  to  return  to  work  in  July  and  transportation  and  car  supply  were  fairly  ade- 
quate, speculative  prices  dropped  to  $3-25,  and  there  was  complaint  of  an  apparent 
connection  between  speculative  prices  and  variations  in  car  supply  and  transporta- 
tion. By  the  middle  of  August,  some  Pittsburg  coal  was  arriving  at  tidewater, 
and  a  few  large  blocks  of  Nova  Scotia  coals  had  been  taken  for  delivery  at  points 
east  of  Cape  Cod.  At  New  York  Harbor  prices  for  Clearfield  fell  to  less  than 
$3  per  ton.  By  the  end  of  the'  month,  the  strike  in  the  Pocahontas  district 
and  at  most  of  the  New  River  mines  shipping  to  tidewater,  was  practically  over, 
but  car  supply  became  poorer  and  transportation  slower  and  Clearfield  grades 
advanced  to  $3 -55  f.  o.  b.  New  York  Harbor.  Then  a  serious  car  shortage  began 
to  develop,  the  market  became  suddenly  neiTous  and  speculative  prices  jumped, 
the  Pennsylvania  Railroad  getting  the  blame.  Bituminous  coal  supplanted  an- 
thracite in  hotels  and  public  buildings,  and  to  some  extent  for  domestic  pur- 
poses; the  New  York,  New  Haven  &  Hartford  Railroad  unable  to  get  coal  on 
its  contract  with  the  Davis  Coal  &  Coke  Co.,  because  of  the  dispute  between 
the  Pennsylvania  and  Wabash  roads,  was  buying  in  the  open  market;  yet  car 
supply  on  the  Pennsylvania  fell  off,  transportation  was  poor  and  less  than  a 
normal  tonnage  of  bituminous  coal  was  arriving  at  shipping  ports.  Prices  by 
September  25,  were  $6  35  at  New  York  Harbor  and  as  high  as  $850  f.  o.  b.  at 
points  beyond  Cape  Cod.  Early  in  October,  in  some  cases  as  high  as  $9  per  ton  ^ 
was  paid  for  Clearfield  grades  f.  o.  b.  New  York  Harbor  ports,  the  railroads  were 
seizing  coal  in  transmit,  and  many  manufacturing  concerns  were  closing  down. 
In  the  East  the  situation  had  been  relieved  by  imports  of  Canadian  coal  and  pur- 
chases of  Scotch,  English  and  Welsh  coals.  By  October  5,  however,  the  anthra- 
cite strike  was  virtually  over,  and  the  market  much  quieter,  Clearfield  grades 
selling  (in  a  few  days)  from  $8  to  below  $6  at  New  York  Harbor,  and  falling 
later  to  $4. '  Some  English  and  Scotch  coal  was  arriving  at  North  Atlantic  ports, 
some  of  it  being  offered  at  below  $7  per  ton  f .  o.  b.  New  York.  During  October, 
car  supply  continued  poor  and  transportation  irregular  with  demand  strong  and 
prices  rose  to  $6-25  by  November  30,  but  with  improved  car  supply  dropped  to 
$5*50  f.  0.  b.  New  York  Harbor  for  Clearfield.  Then  car  supply  fell  to  35% 
of  the  demand,  cold  weather  and  storms  increased  buying  and  interrupted  coast- 
wise shipments.  In  December,  speculative  prices  jumped  to  $7-25  per  ton  f.  o.  b. 
New  York  Harbor  and  $10  at  points  beyond  Cape  Cod;  while  at  Philadelphia 
before  the  end  of  the  month,  bituminous  coal  was  selling  for  $7,  or  for  more 
than  the  price  of  prepared  sizes  of  anthracite. 


RECENT  DEVEL0PMENT8  IN  THE  ANTHRACITE  COAL  TRADE.      146 

Recent  Developments  ii^  the  Anthracite  Coal  Tbiade. 
By  Samuel  Sanford. 

The  anthracite  coal  trade  during  the  last  few  years  has  attracted  much  atten- 
tion. A  great  wave  of  industrial  prosperity,  the  crest  of  which  is  perhaps 
passed,  has  lifted  the  trade  from  the  level  to  which  it  fell  in  the  years  following 
the  panic  of  1893,  and  also  enabled  financiers  to  try  to  give  it  such  support  that 
it  may  not  fall  back  to  its  old  level  when  the  wave  of  prosperity  has  passed. 
The  public,  though  in  a  general  way  cognizant  of  their  efforts,  has  apparently  no 
clear  idea  of  the  problems  those  now  in  control  of  the  trade  have  to  solve.  Two 
strikes  of  the  anthracite  miners  have  given  an  opportunity  for  newspapers  of 
the  baser  sort  to  indulge  in  all  sorts  of  abuse  of  the  mining  and  railroad  com- 
panies, to  advocate  confiscation  of  the  mines,  etc.,  thus  expressing  a  natural  anger 
at  having  to  pay  higher  prices  for  coal,  but  little  desire  or  even  willingness  to 
learn  the  facts  or  to  look  at  the  situation  from  more  than  one  view  point- 

This  article  will  not  take  up  except  incidentally  the  matters  discussed  so  ably 
in  the  report  of  the  Anthracite  Strike  Commission.  Neither  will  it  take  up  the 
early  growth  of  the  industry,  the  splendid  achievements  of  its  pioneers, — ^men  like 
Josiah  White, — ^nor  trace  the  growth  of  large  companies  previous  to  1860,  the 
insecure  prosperity  of  the  industry  during  the  Civil  War  and  in  the  period  of 
inflation  following,  the  rule  of  trade  imionism  under  the  MoUie  Maguires,  or  the 
ambitious  plans  and  utter  failure  of  the  brilliant  president  of  the  Philadelphia 
&  Reading  Railroad — Franklin  M.  Gowen — ^since  these  have  been  discussed  by  , 
the  late  R.  P.  Rothwell  in  his  article  on  the  "Evolution  of  the  Anthracite  Coal 
Trade,"  in  The  Mineral  Ini)ustry,  Vol.  IV.  That  trenchant  article,  in  its 
keen  analysis  of  the  weaknesses  of  the  trade  and  their  steady  development,  is 
perhaps  one  of  the  best  short  presentations  of  the  evolution  of  a  great  industry 
ever  written.  The  present  article  aims  simply  to  give  a  review  of  what  has  been 
done  in  the  trade  during  the  past  seven  years,  to  show  why  recent  attempts  to  put 
the  industry  on  a  profitable  basis  may  prove  successful,  to  point  out  the  present 
tendencies  in  the  trade  and  to  indicate  its  probable  future. 

Mr.  Rothwell  summarized  the  evolution  of  the  trade  up  to  1896  as  follows: 
"From  the  very  beginning  of  the  industry  there  has  always  been  more  money 
invested  in  it  than  reasonable  profits  on  a  normal  business  could  pay  interest  on. 
There  has  been  an  overproduction  of  both  coal  and  railroads.  Investments  in 
anthracite  lands  and  in  railroads  to  reach  them,  as  in  other  things,  have  generally 
been  on  the  crests  of  waves  of  inflation  when  all  valuations  were  exorbitant. 
Under  the  influence  of  enthusiastic,  oversanguine  and  not  always  disinterested 
or  even  honest  men,  unnecessary  lands  were  purchased  and  unnecessary  roads 
were  built  because  in  T)oom'  times  it  was  comparatively  easy  for  these  men  to  raise 
capital  on  stocks  and  bonds.  When  the  reaction  from  each  of  these  periods  of 
inflation  arrived,  and  it  was  difficult  to  cover  losses  by  increasing  indebtedness, 
the  real  condition  of  the  industry  became  more  or  less  apparent,  but  instead  of 
sealing  down  the  excessive  indebtedness  the  usual  course  has  been  to  increase  it 
by  making  new  debts  on  still  more  onerous  terms  to  provide  temporary  relief. 

*TYie  final  outcome  of  this  magnificent  industry  has  been  that  with  few  and 


146  THE  MINERAL  INDUSTRY, 

temporary  exceptions,  there  has  never  been  any  profit  in  the  mining  of  anthracite. 
It  is  shown  in  the  history  of  the  trade,  and  it  is  needless  to  multiply  the  proofs  of 
it.  Millions  have  been  made  from  the  royalties  on  coal  by  fortunate  land- 
owners, both  individuals  and  companies.  Fortunes  have  been  amassed  in  the 
transportation  and  in  the  marketing  of  coal,  and  immense  sums  have  been 
realized  in  salaries,  commissions,  and  in  various  other  ways  connected  with  and 
dependent  on  the  producing  of  coal.  But  it  must  be  admitted  that  in  the  actual 
business  of  mining  coal  and  selling  it  at  the  colliery,  there  has  rarely  been  any 
profit  over  a  series  of  years.  The  country  at  large  has  been  the  chief  beneficiary 
of  the  anthracite  fields  of  Pennsylvania.  No  other  industry  in  all  this  broad 
land,  nor  in  all  the  world,  has  ever  created  such  magnificent  results  in  material 
prosperity  as  has  the  anthracite  trade  of  Pennsylvania." 

At  the  close  of  1895  the  trade  was  in  a  bad  way.  Attempts  in  previous  years  to 
restrict  production  to  market  needs  and  keep  prices  high  enough  to  give  a  fair 
profit  had  failed,  and  the  1895  attempt  was  a  worse  failure  than  most  of  its  pred- 
ecessors. The  sales  agents  in  New  York  City  at  monthly  conferences  estimated 
what  the  market  would  take,  but  the  output  regularly  exceeded  the  estimates, 
so  that  by  November  even  the  pretence  of  restriction  was  abandoned,  every  com- 
pany being  free  to  get  out  as  much  as  it  chose.  The  net  result  for  the  year  was  a 
record-breaking  output,  sold  at  prices  which  could  have  hardly  been  satisfactory. 
Conditions  during  1896  were  also  unsatisfactory,  though  the  railroads  maintained 
prices  fairly  well  and  kept  output  in  sight  of  market  needs ;  but  the  country  had 
not  recovered  from  the  effects  of  the  pai^ic  of  1893  and  people  managed  to  get 
along  with  much  less  coal  than  the  directing  minds  of  the  anthracite  trade  ap- 
parently thought  possible,  and  at  the  end  of  the  year  the  companies  again  had 
large  unsold  stocks  on  hand.  At  the  opening  of  1897  the  producers  resolved  to 
restrict  production  still  more,  and  for  the  first  half  of  the  year  succeeded  fairly 
well,  but  shipments  though  cut  to  below  the  figures  of  1896,  were  still  too  much 
for  the  market.  The  sales  agents'  monthly  estimates  of  what  the  market  would 
take  in  1896  made  a  total  of  42,344,222  tons,  while  the  actual  shipments  from 
the  mines  were  43,177,400;  in  1897  the  estimated  tonnage  needed  was  38,159,200 
tons,  the  shipments  41,204,800  tons.  During  much  of  1898  the  trade  was 
demoralized.  Anthracite  prices  did  not  reach  the  1879  average — $3-30  for  stove 
size  f.  0.  b.  New  York  Harbor — but  by  the  end  of  the  year  were  very  low.  In 
1899  prosperity  came  to  the  anthracite  as  to  other  industries,  and  cama  quickly. 
Since  1899  strikes  have  interrupted  production  in  two  years,  resulting  in  ab- 
normal conditions,  and  the  continued  prosperity  of  the  country  has  main- 
tained demand. 

During  May,  June  and  July,  1898,  many  mines  in  the  Lackawanna  and  Wyo- 
ming regions  worked  but  5  days  a  month.  The  miners  were  dissatisfied,  and 
the  organizers  of  the  TJnited  Mine  Workers  found  ready  listeners  when  they 
began  to  preach  trade  unionism  in  a  region  where  trade  unions  had  lost  nearly 
all  power  after  the  defeat  of  the  Knights  of  Labor  in  1887.  The  independent 
mining  companies, — ^those  mining  companies  not  controlled  by  a  railroad, — ^were 
complaining  that  freight  rates  were  too  high,  that  the  railroad  companies  were 
altogether  too  arbitrary  in  restricing  car  supply,  though  in  the  demoralized  state 


BBCBNT  DEVELOPMENTS  IN  THE  ANTHRACITE  COAL  TRADE,      147 

of  the  market  it  was  utterly  impossible  for  the  coal  companies  to  dispose  of  all 
the  coal  the  independent  producers  wished  to  sell^  and  plans  of  all  kinds^  some 
good,  some  utterly  visionary  were  imder  discussion.  The  upshot  of  the  matter 
was  that  the  independent  operators,  most  of  whom  were  members  of  the  Anthra- 
cite Operators'  Association,  became  most  thoroughly  dissatisfied  with  conditions, 
and  a  number  of  those  in  the  Wyoming  and  Lackawanna  regions  took  up  the 
project  of  a  new  railroad  to  run  from  near  Pittston,  Pa.,  to  Belvidere,  reaching 
tide-water  at  New  York  Harbor.  It  was  incorporated  in  1898  as  the  New  York, 
Wyoming  &  Western  Railroad,  with  a  capital  of  $1,000,000.  T.  H.  Watkins,  of 
Simpson  &  Watkins,  T.  L.  Jones  and  T.  C.  Fuller  were  the  executive  committee. 
According  to  the  promoters  about  $750,000  of  the  capital  stock  was  subscribed, 
and  operators  not  under  contract  to  existing  railroads  pledged  a  tonnage  of  be- 
tween 2,000,000  and  3,000,000  tons  annually,  the  Simpson  &  Watkins  tonnage 
alone  being  1,160,000  tons.  The  company  had  surveyors  in  the  field  in  1899  and 
purchased  or  took  an  option  on  7,000  tons  of  steel  rails.  The  existing  railroads 
naturally  did  not  look  with  favor  on  the  project,  and  the  company  had  trouble  in 
locating  a  right  of  way.  In  fact  it  is  still  a  matter  of  doubt  if  the  company  could 
have  secured  a  right  of  way  to  all  the  collieries  it  proposed  to  reach. 

According  to  Mr.  Baer,  then  counsel  for  the  Reading  Co.,  Mr.  Watkins  had 
a  theory  in  1898  that  it  was  possible  to  get  up  a  company  to  consolidate  the  selling 
agencies  of  the  principal  anthracite  companies.  Among  the  stockholders  in  the 
firm  of  Simpson  &  Watkins  were  certain  New  York  men,  who  it  is  currently  be- 
lieved included  representatives  of  the  Vanderbilts.  These  gentlemen  were  much 
opposed  to  Simpson  &  Watkins  going  into  the  construction  of  a  rival  railroad, 
while  not  seriously  believing  that  the  road  was  planned  wholly  in  good  faith. 
When  a  syndicate  was  formed  to  buy  the  collieries,  Mr.  Watkins  outlined  his  plan 
of  a  central  purchasing  and  selling  agency.  The  various  railroad  companies 
already  in  the  field  agreed  to  finance  the  new  company,  by  a  purchase  of  the 
stock  in  the  future.  To  purchase  the  stock  of  the  various  collieries  the  charter 
of  the  Temple  Iron  Co.  was  secured.  This  company  had  a  small  anthracite 
blast  furnace  at  Temple,  Pa.,  and  employed  about  150  men.  It  was  capitalized 
at  $240,000,  Mr.  Baer  owning  one-fifth  of  the  stock.  The  Company's  Penn- 
sylvania charter  antedated  1874,  and  was  very  liberal  indeed,  even  empowering 
the  company  to  build  railroads,  transport,  mine,  buy  and  sell  coal,  iron  ore  and 
other  minerals,  etc.  By  Mr.  Baer's  advice  the  stock  of  the  company  was  in- 
creased to  $2,000,000,  and  bonds  were  issued  as  the  Pennsylvania  law  permitted. 
The  stock  was  deposited  in  a  voting  trust,  and  the  railroads  guaranteed  the  pay- 
ment of  the  bonds. 

The  railroad  companies  agreed  to  purchase  the  Stock  when  called  upon  by  the 
trustees,  the  call  being  optional  in  1904  and  absolute  in  1907.  Subsequently 
Mr.  Baer  discovered  that  the  scheme  of  a  central  agency  was  altogether  undesir- 
able ;  possibly  it  had  features  which  would  have  aroused  public  protest  and  legal 
action.  He,  therefore,  refused  to  make  the  Temple  Iron  Co.  the  selling  agent 
of  the  Reading  Co.,  and  the  other  railway  presidents  followed  his  example.  Mr. 
Watkins  resigned  as  president  of  the  Temple  Iron  Co.,  and  Mr.  Baer  succeeded 
him.     The  Temple  Iron  Co.,  however,  continued,  and  still  continues,  to  operate 


148  THE  MINERAL  INDU8TBT. 

the  collieries  it  acquired.  The  presidents  of  the  railroads  guaranteeing  the  stock 
and  bonds  of  the  company  were  made  directors  because  they  were  most  directly 
interested.  They  control  a  majority  of  the  stock.  The  railroads  guarantee  the 
debt  on  a  basis  of  the  average  percentage  of  the  total  shipments  of  coal  from  the 
anthracite  fields  each  handled  during  several  years  prior  to  1898;  this  being 
deemed  the  most  satisfactory  basis.  It  may  be  noted  in  passing  that  there  are 
other  men  than  Mr.  Baer  who  believe  that  the  interest  of  Simpson  &  Watkins  in 
a  projected  railroad  was  largely  a  pretext  to  get  better  terms  for  their  property. 
Certain  it  is  that  they  received  a  very  good  price  indeed. 

The  New  York,  Lake  Erie  &  Western  Railroad  was  reorganized  as  the  Erie 
Railway  in  1895.  It  had  a  shipping  arrangement  with  the  Delaware  &  Hudson 
Canal  Co.,  but  its  own  coal  lands  were  in  the  northern  part  of  the  Lackawanna 
region,  and  its  subsidiary  Hillside  Coal  &  Iron  Co.  was  not  a  very  important 
producer.  The  stock  of  the  Erie  Railway,  except  a  few  shares  of  common  stock, 
was  deposited  in  a  voting  trust ;  the  three  trustees,  one  of  whom  was  J.  P.  Morgan, 
were  to  hold  the  stock  until  1900  and  thereafter,  until  a  cash  dividend  of  4% 
had  been  paid  on  the  first  preferred  stock. 

In  1898  Mr.  Morgan  made  the  Erie  Railroad  a  much  more  important  factor 
in  the  anthracite  trade  by  taking  over  the  New  York,  Susquehanna  &  Western 
Railroad,  which  had  been  completed  to  the  anthracite  fields  in  1894,  after  con- 
siderable litigation  over  rights  of  way,  etc.,  with  existing  lines.  The  road  was 
to  take  the  tonnage  of  a  number  of  independent  operators  about  Scranton.  who 
had  pledged  their  tonnage  on  contracts  calling  for  50%  of  the  tide- water  selling 
price.  The  New  York,  Susquehanna  &  Western  Railroad  handled  the  output 
of  the  Jerm}Ti  collieries,  and  of  several  other  companies,  and  in  1897  handled  as 
an  initial  road  1,400,000  tons  of  coal.  The  Erie  Railway  paid  for  it  by  issuing 
stock,  and  exchanging  nine-tenths  of  a  share  of  its  stock  for  one  of  New  York, 
Susquehanna  &  Western. 

Most  of  the  independent  operators  were  shipping  under  contracts  by  which  they 
turned  over  their  coal  at  the  breaker  to  a  coal  and  iron  company  controlled  by  a 
railroad  company,  receiving  therefore  60%  of  the  average  selling  price  of  the  pre- 
pared sizes  of  free  burning  white-ash  coal,  f.  o.  b.  New  York  Harbor  during  the 
preceding  month.  It  is  to  be  noted  that  the  coal  and  iron  company  bought  the 
coal  outright  at  the  breaker,  and  the  60%  of  the  tide-water  selling  price  was 
simply  a  measure  of  value.  The  coal  of  an  independent  operator  bought  under 
one  of  these  contracts  might  be  shipped  to  some  nearby  point,  or  to  Chicago, 
Duluth  or  St.  Louis,  and  the  price  which  the  railroad  company  received  for  it 
would  then  have  nothing  to  do  with  the  New  York  Harbor  price.  The  sales 
contracts,  therefore,  were  not  shipping  contracts,  but  purchase  contracts  pure 
and  simple.  However,  many  independent  operators  were  much  dissatisfied  at  the 
restrictions  the  railroads  often  put  on  output  by  short  car  supply,  the  railroads 
being  hampered  by  the  poor  market  in  1896,  1897  and  1898,  and  these  operators, 
or  some  of  them,  projected  another  railroad  to  tide-water.  This  road  was  incorpo- 
rated in  1899  as  the  Delaware  Valley  &  Kingston,  and  was  to  run  from  Lacka- 
v/axen  to  Kingston  along  the  Delaware  &  Hudson  Canal,  which  the  Delaware  & 
Hudson  Canal  Co.  had  just  abandoned  as  unprofitable  after  some  70  years  of  use.  A 


RECENT  DEVELOPMENTS  IN  THE  ANTHRACITE  COAL  TRADE,    149 

large  part  of  the  tonnage  to  be  shipped  over  the  proposed  road  was  to  come  from 
the  mines  of  the  Pennsylvania  Coal  Co.,  one  of' the  few  large  concerns  in  the  anthra- 
cite regions  to  pay  good  dividends  over  a  long  term  of  years.  This  company  owned 
its  coal  lands,  therefore  paid  no  royalties.  It  had  bought  the  lands  at  a  time  when 
lands  were  cheap,  and  its  operations  had  been  carefully  managed.  The  company 
had  its  own  railroad,  the  Erie  &  Wyoming  Valley  Railroad,  running  from  Hawley 
to  Scranton,  and  this  road  was  to  be  part  of  the  projected  Delaware  Valley  & 
Kingston  Railroad.  The  construction  of  the  new  road  was  vigorously  opposed  by 
the  Erie  Railroad,  which  had  been  hauling  for  something  like  30  years  the  output 
of  the  Pennsylvania  Coal  Co.^s  mines  from  the  terminus  of  the  Erie  &  Wyoming 
Valley  Railroad.  The  Erie  Railroad  naturally  objected  to  losing  the  haul  of 
something  like  1,000,000  tons  of  coal  a  year,  and  bitterly  fought  every  step  in  the 
New  York  and  the  Pennsylvania  courts.  This  litigation  delayed  construction, 
if  construction  had  been  seriously  intended,  on  the  road,  and  finally  in  1900  the 
Erie  bought  the  property  of  the  Pennsylvania  Coal  Co.  and  of  the  Delaware  Val- 
ley &  Kingston  Railroad.  The  purchase  was  made  through  J.  P.  Morgan  &  Co., 
which  bought  up  the  shares  of  the  Pennsylvania  Coal  Co.,  paying  therefore 
$32,000,000,  and  afterward  transferred  the  shares  to  the  Hillside  Coal  &  Iron 
Co.  controlled  by  the  Erie  Railroad,  taking  payment  in  Erie  Railroad  bonds  and 
receiving  a  commission  of  $1,500,000  on  the  deal.  As  the  Pennsylvania  Coal 
Co.  was  now  out  of  it,  and  as  the  market  for  anthracite  had  greatly  improved,  the 
other  independent  operators  lost  interest  in  a  new  railroad,  and  finally  abandoned 
the  project  when  they  made  new  sales  contracts  in  1901,  by  which  they  sold  their 
coal  at  the  breaker  at  65%  of  the  tide-water  price.  The  new  contracts,  however, 
were  to  last  during  the  life  of  the  mine. 

When  the  Delaware  &  Hudson  Canal  Co.  abandoned  its  canal  from  Honesdale 
to  Rondout  in  1899,  it  turned  over  its  Eastern  shipments  to  the  Erie  Railroad, 
which  hauled  the  coal  from  Honesdale  to  tide-water  at  a  very  low  freight  rate, 
reported  to  have  been  about  0-3c.  per  ton-mile,  in  strong  contrast  with  the  usual 
charge  of  about  0-8c.  from  the  anthracite  mines  to  tide- water.  At  present  the 
Delaware  &  Hudson  sells  much  of  its  coal  to  the  Hillside  Coal  &  Iron  Co.  on  a 
contract  calling  for  65%  of  the  average  tide-water  price. 

The  Philadelphia  &  Reading  Railroad  was  reorganized  in  1896  as  the  final  out- 
come of  Mr.  McLeod's  attempt  in  1892  to  control  the  anthracite  trade.  His 
plan  was  to  unite  the  railroads  by  leasing  several  and  securing  a  majority  in  the 
boards  of  directors  of  the  others.  The  plan  also  included  the  purchase  by  the 
railroad  of  all  the  coal  produced  on  the  line  of  the  road  at  60%  of  the  price 
realized  at  New  York  harbor,  and  if  any  independent  wished  to  sell  his  own  coal 
he  was  to  be  brought  to  terms  by  an  advance  in  freights.  Mr.  McLeod  was  in 
some  ways  an  abler  railroad  executive  than  Mr.  Gowen,  and  his  plan  did  not 
rest  on  oversanguine  estimates.  It  failed  from  external  reasons.  (1)  The 
attempt  to  extend  the  Reading's  control  was  at  a  time  of  falling  values  and  con- 
tracting credit,  making  the  task  of  raising  sufficient  funds  very  difficult.  (2) 
Mr.  McLeod  wrongly  supposed  that  a  great  market  could  be  secured  by  an  all-rail 
route  to  New  England.  In  endeavoring  to  secure  New  England  connections  Mr. 
McLeod  incurred  the  displeasure  of  stockholders  in  the  Nqw  York,  New  Haven  & 


150  THE  MINERAL  INDUSTRY. 

Hartford  Railroad,  and  thereby  brought  quick  destruction  on  himself  and  his 
plans.    Mr.  McLeod's  attempt  was  premature,  but  in  the  main  soundly  planned. 

After  the  foreclosure  in  1896  the  capital  stock  of  both  the  Philadelphia  & 
Eeading  Railway,  successor  of  the  Philadelphia  &  Reading  Railroad,  and  of  the 
Philadelphia  &  Reading  Coal  &  Iron  Co.  were  acquired  by  the  Reading  Co., 
a  Pennsylvania  corporation.  All  the  stock  except  2,000  shares  of  common  stock 
was  deposited  in  a  voting  trust,  with  J.  P.  Morgan,  F.  P.  Olcott  and  C.  S.  W. 
Packard  as  voting  trustees,  to  be  held  until  January  1,  1902,  and  thereafter  until 
the  first  preferred  stock  should  receive  a  4%  dividend  for  two  consecutive  years. 

Speaking  of  the  Reading  Railroad,  Mr.  Roth  well  has  said :  "There  is  no  com- 
petitor in  market  so  dangerous  as  a  concern  obliged  to  force  its  output  and  sell 
its  product  regardless  of  consequences,  because  while  running  it  can  get  extensions 
of  credit  and  can  borrow  money  to  carry  it  over  to  those  better  times  which  are 
always  looming  up  on  the  horizon  of  every  sanguine  financier.  The  condition  of 
unstable  equilibrium,  in  which  the  finances  of  a  number  of  the  coal  roads  and 
companies  have  always  been,  could  not  withstand  the  additional  burden  which 
would  be  brought  upon  it  by  such  demoralized  markets  as  would  result  from  the 
frantic  struggles  of  a  bankrupt  competitor.  Hence  the  companies  have  unwill- 
ingly been  forced  to  hold  together  in  an  effort  to  support  the  market  price  of 
coal.  Since  the  weakest  financially,  and  consequently  the  most  dangerous  of  the 
coal  roads,  is  that  which  has  the  greatest  natural  advantages  and  elemeutfe  of 
strength,  it  is  evident  that  the  controlling  factor  in  this  struggle  lies  not  in 
natural  advantages  but  in  pre-eminent  ability  to  borrow  money.  There  is  no  doubt 
that  if  the  Reading  had  abundant  capital  it  would  promptly  take  a  very  much 
larger  proportion  of  the  trade  than  it  has,  and  would  practically  dictate  to  all 
its  competitors  or  absorb  them." 

In  reorganizing  the  Reading,  Mr.  Morgan  and  the  men  he  represented  were  of 
course  taking  up  a  project  out  of  which  they  expected  to  make  money.  Probably 
they,  like  Mr.  Gowen  and  Mr.  McLeod,  saw  the  possibilities  of  the  Reading  sys- 
tem and  of  the  anthracite  coal  trade ;  possessed  of  ample  resources,  all  they  needed 
to  do  was  to  take  full  advantage  of  the  first  rise  of  the  next  wave  of  industrial 
prosperity.  The  anthracite  companies  had  wandered  in  the  wilderness  of  mis- 
management long  enough  and  were  looking  for  a  Moses  to  lead  them  out.  Con- 
sequently the  house  of  J.  P.  Morgan  &  Co.  met  with  no  serious  resistance  in  its 
plans,  and  public  opinion  was  not  aroused  till  later. 

In  January,  1901,  the  Philadelphia  &  Reading  Railway  took  over  145,000 
shares  (a  majority)  of  the  stock  of  the  Central  Railroad  of  New  Jersey  for 
$23,200,000.  J.  P.  Morgan  &  Co.  bought  the  shares  and  charged  a  commission. 
The  purchase  gave  the  Reading  a  more  direct  entrance  to  New  York,  and  also 
enabled  Morgan  interests  to  extend  their  holdings  of  coal  lands,  as  the  Central 
Railroad  of  New  Jersey  controls  the  Lehigh  &  Wilkes  Barre  Coal  Co.,  which  has 
collieries  in  the  Wyoming  Valley  and  in  the  Lehigh  region.  New  York  business 
of  the  Reading  had  gone  over  Central  tracks  for  30  miles,  and  the  Reading 
hauled  considerable  bituminous  coal  to  Allentown,  Pa.,  whence  the  Central 
hauled  it  to  New  York. 

A  previous  transfer  of  the  Central  Railroad  of  New  Jersey  to  the  Reading'  Co. 


RJCGENT  DEVELOPMENTS  IN  THE  ANTHRACITE^  COAL  TRADE,     fsi 

by  lease,  under  the  McLeod  regime,  had  been  set  aside  by  the  New  Jersey  courts. 
Purchase  of  stocks  in  the  open  market  is,  however,  a  different  proposition,  and 
the  Beading  Co.  undoubtedly  violated  no  law  in  getting  control.  The  lines  of 
the  Reading  and  of  the  Central  Railroad  of  New  Jersey  from  the  anthracite  fields 
to  tide-water  are  not  parallel,  and  thus  the  Reading  Co.  does  not  violate  that 
clause  of  the  Pennsylvania  constitution  of  1874,  which  forbids  the  consolidation 
of  parallel  and  competing  railways. 

The  Lehigh  Valley  Railroad  owns  the  capital  stock  of  the  Lehigh  Valley 
Coal  Co.,  that  has  mines  in  the  Wyoming  and  Lehigh  regions,  and  has  long 
been  an  important  factor  in  the  anthracite  trade.  The  railroad,  once  a  magnifi- 
cent property',  got  into  financial  straits  by  building  its  own  line  from  the  coal 
regions  to  Buffalo,  completed  in  1892.  In  1895  the  railroad  officials  applied 
to  J.  P.  Morgan  for  aid,  and  he  advanced  a  large  sum,  taking  as  security  the 
stock  of  the  Packard  estate,  about  one-thijrd  of  the  total  capitalization  of  the 
company,  and  securing  an  option  to  purchase  it. 

This  stock  was  deposited  in  a  voting  trust  and  held  thus  several  years,  but  in 
1900  Mr.  Morgan  exercised  his  rights  under  his  option  and  bought  the  stock. 
The  Lehigh  Valley  securities  are  held  by  many  stockholders,  and  purchase  of 
control  in  the  open  market  would  have  been  expensive,  and  perhaps  not  desirable. 
The  Packard  estate  stock  was  the  largest  block  easily  procurable.  Mr.  Morgan, 
it  is  said,  turned  the  stock  over  to  the  Erie,  the  Reading  and  the  Delaware, 
Lackawanna  &  Western,  dividing  it  between  them;  the  railroads  paid  for  it  by 
an  exchange  of  stock,  and  Mr.  Morgan  got  his  commission,  it  is  generally  be- 
lieved, in  some  of  the  Packard  stock. 

Of  the  coal  mining  concerns  not  directly  owned  by  railroads  in  the  Lehigh 
region  the  largest  are  the  Cross  Creek  Coal  Co.  (Coxe  estate),  and  the  I^ehigh 
Coal  &  Navigation  Co.  The  Cross  Creek  Co.  owns  the  Delaware,  Susquehanna 
&  Schuylkill  Railroad  that  connects  with  the  Lehigh  Valley,  and  runs  its  own 
cars  and  locomotives  to  tide-water  over  Lehigh  Valley  tracks.  The  Lehigh  Coal 
&  Navigation  Co.  years  ago  leased  its  railroad  lines  in  the  Panther  Creek  Valley 
for  999  years  to  the  Central  Railroad  of  New  Jersey. 

Of  the  chief  coal  carrying  roads,  the  Delaware,  Lackawanna  &  Western  Rail- 
road enjoys  many  advantages.  Incorporated  in  1853,  its  Pennsylvania  charter 
gives  it  the  right  to  mine,  transport  and  sell  coal.  It  has  properties  around  Scran- 
ton,  near  Plymouth  and  back  of  Nanticoke.  Some  of  these  are  leased  at  high 
royalties,  but  many  were  bought  years  ago  at  low  prices,  consequently  the  road 
has  not  been  burdened  with  a  great  coal  land  indebtedness,  and  as  the  road  has 
been  managed  very  conservatively  it  has  paid  dividends  when  some  of  its  com- 
petitors were  undergoing  reorganization,  or  were  on  the  verge  of  bankruptcy. 
Being  thus  financially  independent,  the  road  under  the  administration  of  Messrs. 
Samuel  Sloan  and  E.  B.  Holden  acted  independently  in  the  matter  of  marketing 
its  output.  Its  officials  aimed  to  make  a  profit  in  their  own  way  regardless  of 
other  roads.  The  stock  of  the  company  was  largely  held  by  Mr.  Sloan,  by  the 
Taylor  estate  and  by  the  New  York  Central  Railroad,  or  stockholders  in  that  road. 
After  the  Vanderbilts  and  others  became  interested  in  Mr.  Morgan^s  plans  to 
put  the  anthracite  trade  on  a  more  profitable  basis  there  was  a  change  in  the 


152  THE  MINERAL  INDUSTRY. 

policy  of  the  Delaware,  Lackawanna  &  Western  Railroad.  Early  in  1899  Mr. 
Samuel  Sloan,  the  venerable  president  of  the  road,  resigned,  and  was  succeeded 
by  Mr.  W.  H.  Truesdale,  who  had  shown  high  ability  as  a  railroad  manager. 
His  coming  was  followed  by  many  changes  in  the  officials,  some  of  whom  had  held 
their  places  for  years,  by  a  more  open  attitude  of  the  directors  toward  the  stock- 
holders, and  apparently  by  a  changed  policy  regarding  output  and  prices. 

The  New  York,  Ontario  &  Western  Bailroad,  when  it  built  a  54-mile  branch  to 
Scranton  in  1890,  had  no  direct  control  of  anthracite  mines,  and  its  contracts 
with  individual  operators  did  not  insure  tonnage.  To  insure  tonnage  it  did  what 
other  railroads  had  done,  advanced  money  to  operators  to  open  mines,  and  later 
bought  a  majority  of  the  stock  of  the  Elkhill  Coal  &  Iron  Co.  and  of  the 
Scranton  Coal  Co.,  and  advanced  money  to  these  companies  to  buy  mines,  includ- 
ing those  of  the  Lackawanna  Iron  &  Steel  Co.  In  this  way  between  1898  and 
1901  it  secured  indirectly  over  80%.  of  the  producing  capacity  of  the  mines  it 
reaches.  The  stock  of  the  New  York,  Ontario  &  Western  is  largely  held  in 
England,  and  its  directors  though  willing  enough  to  support  any  policy  that 
would  increase  the  road's  earnings,  have  always  acted  rather  independently.  The 
Vanderbilts  are  believed  to  own  stock  in  the  road,  which  ships  to  New  York  har- 
bor from  Cornwall  over  the  tracks  of  the  West  Shore,  a  Vanderbilt  line. 

The  Pennsylvania  Railroad  has  been  interested  in  anthracite  through  its  sub- 
sidiary Susquehanna  Coal  Co.  with  mines  near  Nanticoke  in  the  Wyoming  region, 
and  through  the  Union  Coal  Co.  and  the  Mineral  Hill  Railroad  &  Mining  Co., 
with  mines  in  the  western  part  of  the  Schuylkill  region.  The  company  has 
always  given  attention  to  hauling  bituminous  coal,  and  has  had  little  to  do  with 
any  attempt  to  restrict  the  production  or  uphold  the  price  of  anthracite.  When 
Mr.  Morgan  started  to  control  the  anthracite  situation  he  met  with  little  or  no 
opposition  from  the  Pennsylvania,  and  the  opinion  prevailed  that  Mr.  Morgan 
and  the  Vanderbilt  roads  were  to  take  care  of  anthracite,  and  the  Pennsylvania 
Co.  was  to  look  out  for  bituminous  trade.  After  the  Pennsylvania  Railroad 
had  secured  large  interests  in  the  stocks  of  the  Norfolk  &  Western,  Chesapeake 
&  Ohio,  and  Baltimore  &  Ohio  (in  1899),  there  was  no  apparent  change  in  the 
Pennsylvania's  attitude  until  1902.  In  the  spring  of  1903  the  announcement 
was  made  that  the  banking  house  of  Kuhn,  Ijoeb  &  Co.  had  purchased  in  open 
market  almost  a  controlling  interest  in  the  Reading  Co.,  1,300,000  shares  out  of 
2,800,000,  mostly  first  preferred  stock.  Why  this  purchase  was  made  is  a  matter 
of  doubt.  Possibly  it  was  an  outcome  of  the  fight  between  the  Pennsylvania 
and  Wabash  systems,  Mr.  Morgan  having  no  objection  to  selling  out  his  Reading 
holdings  at  a  profit  and  the  Pennsylvania  and  the  Vanderbilt  railroads  wishing  to 
keep  the  Wabash  from  getting  control  of  the  Beading.  The  stock  acquired  by 
Pennsylvania  and  Vanderbilt  interests  was  taken  over  by  the  Baltimore  &  Ohio 
Railroad,  a  Maryland  corporation,  for  the  Pennsylvania  Railroad  and  by  the 
Lake  Shore  Railroad  for  the  Vanderbilts.  Thus  conflict  with  that  clause  of 
the  Pennsylvania  constitution  forbidding  the  consolidation  of  competing  lines 
was  avoided.  At  the  same  time  J.  P.  Morgan  &  Co.  increased  their  holdings  of 
Erie. 

The  house  of  J.  P.  Morgan  &  Co.  having  secured  a  commanding  position  in  the 


RECENT  DEVELOPMENTB  IN  THE  ANTHRACITE  COAL  TRADE.      168 


SHIPMENTS  FBOM  THE  ANTHBAOITE  BBOION8  (TONS  OF  2,240  LB.)   AND  PEBCBNTAOB 
OF  GOAL  HANDLED  BY  BACH  ROAD  AS  AN  INITIAL  LINE. 


Goal  BoadB. 


ShlpmentB.    ^^^ 


1896. 


ShiimunitB.    ^2St. 


1886. 


Shipments. 


1897. 


Per 
Cent 


Philadelphia  &  Beading. . . 
OentnU  of  NewSJeney . . . . 

Lehigh  Valley , 

DeL,  Lack  ft  WeBtern. . . . 

Delaware  ft  Hudson , 

Pennaylvania  R.R. 

FenneylTaaia  Coal  Co 

Erie 

N.  Y.,  Ontario  ft  Western 
DeL,  Sosq.  ft  Schuylkill.. . 
N.  Y.,  Susq.  ft  Western.. . , 

Total 


9,906,060 
5,888,104 
7,800,464 
6,189.861 
4,817,848 
6,0S6,646 
1,746.888 
1,880,088 
1,484,407 
1,906,784 


81*88 
11-68 
16-88 
18-17 
9*86 
10-80 
8-78 
8-91 
807 
4- 10 
8*81 


9,019,688 
4,999,006 
6,740,198 
6,627,688 
4,168,278 
4,768,120 
1,788,972 
1,718,862 
1,881,896 
1,096,684 
1,410,060 


20-89 
11-58 
15-68 
18-08 
9-08 
11-16 
4-06 
8-96 
806 
8-98 
8-27 


8,896.411 
4,7«),860 
6,486,227 
6,690,684 
6,646,868 


1,777,841 


46,511,476 


10000 


48,177,41 


10000 


41,687,864 


90-8 
11-4 
15*4 
18-7 
18*6 


4*8 


100-00 


Coal  Roads. 

1896. 

1899. 

1900. 

Shipments. 

Per 
Cent. 

Shipments. 

Per 
Cent 

Shipments. 

Per 
Cent. 

phq^AlphliL  V^  l^iMilinp 

8,219,814 
4,006,886 
6,866,677 
5,796,640 
6,618,186 

19-6 
11-0 
16-6 
18-8 
18-4 

9,088,608 
6.898.560 
7;M8;9a8 

21-21 
11-81 
16-02 

9.888,516 
6,809,866 
6.909,448 
6,018,849 
8,978,860 
6,109,947 

Geotial  of  New  JeraeyT 

Iiflhifrh  VftlW.  

Del.,  Wk.  ft  Western 

Delaware  ft  Hudson 

Pennf^lvania  R.R. * .  '. 

Pfsififwi^rania  Coal  Co.. .................  i  x  x .  x !! ' 

1,864,616 

4*4 

^^, ^. ":..:...;.....:..;..::.:::;.:; 

6,166,070 
1,658.4S7 
1,568,488 

N.  Y.,  Ont.  ft  Western 

DeLfSoBq.  ft  Seha^Ikill 

^)tal 

41,8?9,751 

10000 

47,066,808 

100-00 

45,107,484 

lOO'OO 

In  the  year  1886-1806  the  highest  and  lowest  percentages  handled  by  the  railroads  were:  Reading,  highest- 
21-84,  lowest  80-80;  the  Lehigh  Valley,  highest  21-12.  lowest  18-86:  Central  of  New  Jersey,  highest  17-10,  lowest 
11*68;  Delaware,  Lackawanna  ft  Western,  highest  18-48,  lowest  18-08;  Delaware  ft  Hudson,  highest  11*64,  lowest 
9*08;  FenuBylTania  Railroad,  highest  18*87,  lowest  9*88. 


anthracite  trade  could  put  through  any  plan  which  seemed  likely  to  benefit  the 
railroads^  make  mining  more  profitable,  and  insure  steadier  work  at  the  mines. 
As  has  been  pointed  out  time  and  again,  the  anthracite  trade  has  suffered  not  only 
from  the  persistent  tendency  of  operators  to  mine  and  market  more  coal  than  the 
public  could  take  at  a  profitable  price,  but  also  from  irregular  demand.  Anthra- 
cite being  a  domestic  fuel  is  most  wanted  in  winter,  while  from  April  to  Septem- 
ber but  little  coal  is  required.  A  demand,  heavy  during  a  few  months  and  then 
very  light,  has  made  the  working  time  of  miners  correspondingly  irregular,  with 
the  result  that  though  wages  have  been  high,  yearly  earnings  have  sometimes  been 
woefully  small.  The  wages  have  attracted  many  men  to  the  field  with  the  result- 
ing conditions  that  the  Anthracite  Strike  Commission  discusses  in  its  report. 

As  irregular  work  at  the  mines  is  more  expensive  than  steady  operation,  the 
mining  and  railroad  companies  have  sought  to  keep  the  mines  running  more 
steadily  by  storing  coal  during  the  slack  months — June,  July  and  August,  long 
known  as  the  time  of  "midsummer  dullness."  This,  however,  gave  little  relief 
to  the  independent  operators  since  the  railroad  could  hardly  be  expected  to  help 
an  independent  at  the  cost  of  rehandling  his  coal,  and  the  companies  themselvea 
aside  from  the  expense  and  waste  in  storing  coal,  according  to  Mr.  Baer,  20c. 


154 


THE  MINERAL  INDUSTRY. 


per  ton  for  the  Readings  have  often  found  this  stored  coal  a  demoralizing  factoi 
in  a  weak  market. 

A  new  plan  proposed  in  the  spring  of  1901  resembled  somewhat  a  plan  sug- 
gested years  before  which  had  failed  for  the  same  reason  that  caused  the  failure 
of  so  many  other  plans  to  m'ake  the  trade  profitable,  the  lack  of  good  faith  among 
officers  of  the  companies.  The  new  schedule  of  prices  was  on  a  basis  of  $4-50 
per  ton  for  stove  and  chestnut  sizes  of  free-burning  white  ash  coal  f .  o-  b.  New 
York  harbor,  with  egg,  $4-25  and  broken  $4.  A  discount  of  50c.  per  ton  was 
to  be  given  on  all  coal  delivered  in  April,  40c.  in  May,  30c.  in  June,  and  so  on  till 
basis  prices  were  reached  Sept.  1.  In  connection  with  this  plan,  a  most  excellent 
one  for  insuring  a  more  even  distribution  of  buying,  and  thereby  steadier  work 
at  the  collieries,  the  Reading  undertook  the  reform  of  another  abuse,  by  making 
prices  the  same  to  large  and  small  dealers,  and  doing  away  with  many  commission 
sales  agencies.  This  meant  a  saving  in  commissions,  and  the  removal  of  the 
influence  of  the  jobbers  and  speculators  who  by  buying  at  discounts,  perhaps  of 
some  relative  connected  with  a  coal  company,  had  helped  demoralize  market  condi- 
tions. It  is  to  be  noted  that  all  the  companies  announced  the  same  prices  and 
the  same  discounts  for  the  same  grades  of  prepared  sizes.     This  at  first  sight 

OIBOULAB  AND  SELLING  PRICES  OF  STOVE  GOAL  P.  O.  B.,  NEW  YOBK  HABBOB,  BY 

MONTHS,   1806-1902. 


1896. 

1806. 

1807. 

1008. 

Month. 

Circular 
Price. 

Sellinfl: 
Prica 

Circular 
Price. 

Selling 
Price. 

Circular 
Price. 

SelUng 
Price. 

Circular 
Price. 

Selling 
Price. 

January 

Ft^bruary.... 
March 

fe::::;:: 

S800 
8-60 
8-60 
8-86 
8-86 
386 
8-86 
8-86 
8*66 
8-87 
4-00 
4-00 
8-58 

S8-86 
8-88 
816 
806 
8-00 
8-87 
2-80 
8-75 
810 
888 
8-40 
828 
8-11 

$8-75 
8-75 
8-75 
8-76 
4-00 
400 
486 
4-85 
4-60 
4-60 
4-50 
4-50 
415 

$8-88 
8-84 
8-44 
8» 
8-60 
8-66 
8-81 
8-80 
8-86 
4-06 
4-14 
8-97 
8-78 

$4-85 
4-86-4-10 

4-86 

4-85 

4-85 
4-85-410 

4-80 

4-60 

4*60 

4-80 

4-60 

4-60 

4-87 

$8-87 
8-91 
8« 
808 
806 
807 
8*90 
401 
4-08 
400 
8-91 
8-78 
8-94 

$4-80 
400 
400 
400 
4.00 
4.00 
4.00 
4.00 
4.00 
4.85 
4.25 
4.86 
4.10 

$8-74 
8-84 
8-88 
8*88 
8*01 

June 

8*01 

July 

8-85 

September! . . 

October 

November.... 
December.... 
Average 

8-80 
8-78 
8-64 
8-60 
8-66 
8-76 

1899. 

1900. 

1901. 

100& 

Month. 

Circular 
Price. 

Selling 
Price. 

Circular 
Price. 

Selling 
Price. 

Circular 
Price. 

SelUng 
Price. 

Circular 
Price. 

Selling 

January 

February  .... 

March 

Aoril 

I4  2.S 

4-ir> 

4-25 
4-25 
8-75 
8-75 
400 
400 
4-00 
4-86 
485 
4  £5 
4-10 

$8-54 
8-57 
8S« 
808 
8-64 
3-60 
3-72 
8-75 
8-88 
8-98 
8-97 
408 
8-78 

$4-40 
4-40 
4-40 
8-90 
8-90 
8-90 
4-25 
4-25 
4-25 
4-25 
4-50 
4-50 
4-24 

$402 
8-96 
8-84 
8-72 
8-71 
8-70 
8-09 
8-78 
8-84 
4-28 
4-41 
4-44 
8-88 

$400 
4-50 
4-50 
400 
4-10 
4*20 
430 
4-40 
4-50 
4-50 
4-50 
4-60 
4-87 

$4-48 
4-42 
4-28 
8-90 
4-01 
4*12 
4-28 
4*84 
4-40 
4-46 
4-47 
4*48 
4*82 

$4-50 
4-50 
4-60 
400 
410 
4-20 
4-80 
4-40 
4-50 
4-50 
6-00 
600 
4-46 

14  60 
4-48 
4-48 
800 

Mky.:::.::::. 

410 

June.... 

i*80 

July         .... 

August 

September. . . 

October 

November.... 
December.,.. 
Average 

5-00 
5-00 

The  above  table  shows  quite  plainly  the  wide  divergencies  between  list  quotations  and  the  actual  selling 
prices  in  the  year  prior  to  lOOO.  It  will  be  seen  that  the  strike  of  September,  1000,  brought  selling  prices  up  to 
quotations.  During  the  long  strike  of  1002,  the  companies  nominally  adhered  to  regular  quotations,  but  had 
little  coal  to  sell  after  June,  and  the  f.  o.  b.  price  given  is  that  of  **  speculative'*  coal— coal  sold'by  independent 
operators  or  brought  to  New  York  from  other  markets. 


BEOSNT  DEVEL0PMENT8  IN  TBE  ANTBBACITE  COAL  TBADE,    165 

looks  like  a  combination  in  restraint  of  trade,  a  violatio^i  of  the  Sherman  act, 
and  certain  newspapers  have  actively  denounced  the  plan.  Mr.  Baer,  however, 
has  publicly  said  that  he  announces  what  prices  the  Reading  Co.  will  ask 
for  its  coal,  and  the  presidents  of  the  other  companies  follow  his  lead.  He  said 
that  the  president  of  another  company  would  be  foolish  to  sell  for  less  with  de- 
mand as  active  as  it  has  been  for  the  past  two  years.  This  is,  of  course,  so,  but 
back  of  this  is  the  fact  that  several  of  the  anthracite  railroads  are  owned  by  in- 
terests that  act  in  harmony,  and  those  that  are  not  have  no  desire  to  fight.  In 
conclusion  it  should  be  said  of  this  sales  system  that  it  has  yet  to  stand  the  test 
of  years  of  depression. 

Taking  the  roads  as  they  are  to-day,  therefore,  we  find  the  Pennsylvania 
Railroad  owning  stock  in  the  Norfolk  &  Western,  the  Chesapeake  &  Ohio, 
and  Baltimore  &  Ohio  railroads,  which  with  it  transport  9Q%  of  all  the  bitumi- 
nous coal  reaching  the  Atlantic  seaboard.  The  Reading  Co.  owns  63%  of  the 
stock  of  the  Central  Railroad  of  New  Jersey,  and  with  the  Erie,  the  Delaware, 
Lackawanna  &  Western,  and  the  Pennsylvania  owns  a  large  amount  of  Lehigh 
Valley  Railroad  stock.  A  controlling  interest  in  the  first  preferred  stock  of  the 
Reading  Railroad  is  held  by  the  Baltimore  &  Ohio  Railroad,  controlled  by  the 
Pennsylvania  Railroad,  and  by  the  Lake  Shore  Railroad,  a  Vanderbilt  road.  The 
Vanderbilts  have  large  holdings  in  the  Delaware,  Lackawanna  &  Western,  and 
possibly  also  in  Delaware  &  Hudson  Co.,  while  the  output  of  the  Delaware  &  Hud- 
son is  largely  handled  by  the  Erie,  a  Morgan  railroad.  Recently  there  have  been 
many  transfers  of  railroad  securities  on  the  Stock  Exchange,  and  it  is  not  known 
what  share  of  Lehigh  Valley  Railroad  stock  has  been  secured  by  men  interested 
in  the  Wabash  system,  but  with  Mr.  Morgan,  the  Vanderbilts  and  the  stockholders 
of  the  Pennsylvania  Railroad  acting  in  harmony  to  make  the  anthracite  industry 
profitable,  there  is  not  going  to  be  such  recklessness  in  the  management  of  the 
anthracite  roads  as  there  has  been.  There  is  little  need  of  sales  agents  agree- 
ing on  prices,  or  of  railroad  presidents  agreeing  on  outputs.  The  presidents 
are  expected  to  make  their  properties  pay,  but,  knowing  the  history  of  the  trade 
and  how  the  stocks  of  their  companies  are  held,  they  are  not  likely  to  use  extreme 
methods  to  sell  coal  or  to  secure  new  business.  It  is  very  doubtful  if  any  action 
brought  under  the  Sherman  law,  even  accepting  the  most  liberal  interpretation 
given  that  law  by  the  courts,  would  show  that  there  was  any  combination  in 
restraint  of  trade  among  the  anthracite  railroads.  The  independent  operator 
has  had  his  day,  great  corporations  control  the  anthracite  fields,  and  these  com- 
panies compete  for  business  to  a  certain  extent.  Mr.  Baer  has  stated  that  he 
determines  what  price  the  Philadelphia  &  Reading  Coal  &  Iron  Co.  shall  ask  for 
its  coal  at  New  York  harbor.  The  presidents  of  the  other  railroads  follow  Mr. 
Baer's  estimate  because  behind  Mr.  Baer  and  the  other  presidents  are  the  di- 
rectors and  the  stockholders.  Thus,  should  some  newspaper  or  politician  suc- 
ceed in  having  the  suit  brought  against  the  Temple  Iron  Co.,  and  should  the 
contracts  guaranteeing  that  company's  stock  be  set  aside,  yet  such  action  would 
affect  the  situation  little.  The  railroads  most  interested  would  exercise  the  rights 
given  them  by  Pennsylvania  laws  ai^d  the  laws  of  the  United  States  and  buy  the 
stock  outright. 


166  THE  MINERAL  INDUSTRY. 

It  is  frequently  said  that  the  anthracite  railroads  habitually  violate  the  new 
Constitution  of  the  State  of  Pennsylvania,  adopted  in  1874.  Article  XVII.  of  the 
Constitution  says,  "No  incorporated  company  doing  business  as  common  carrier 
in  the  State  shall,  directly  or  indirectly,  engage  in  mining  or  manufacturing 
articles  for  transportation  over  its  works."  But  this  same  Article  XVII.  makes  no 
further  provision  for  companies  already  chartered  than  to  say  that  *^no  railroad, 
canal  or  other  transportation  company  in  existence  at  the  time  of  the  adoption 
of  this  article  shall  have  the  benefit  of  any  future  legislation  by  general  or  special 
hiws,  except  on  condition  of  complete  acceptance  of  all  the  provisions  of  this 
article."  The  Pennsylvania  courts  have  held  that  charters  granted  by  the  State 
are  inviolate,  and  that  the  Constitution  is  not  retroactive.  Hence  the  prohibition 
does  not  apply  to  companies  incorporated  twenty  or  thirty  years  before,  like  the 
Delaware,  Lackawanna  &  Western,  or  Delaware  &  Hudson,  the  latter  a  New  York 
corporation.  In  the  case  of  the  Reading  the  situation  is  this:  The  mortgagee's 
committee  that  bid  in  the  road  at  the  foreclosure  of  1896  secured  the  charter  of  the 
National  Enterprise  Co.,  incorporated  in  1871,  changed  its  name  to  the  Reading 
Co.,  increased  its  capitalization,  and  transferred  to  it  all  the  capital  stock  of 
the  Philadelphia  &  Reading  Railroad  and  the  Philadelphia  &  Reading  Coal  & 
Iron  Co.  The  reorganization  of  the  railroad  involved  its  recognition  of  the 
new  Constitution,  but  the  franchises  of  the  Coal  &  Iron  Co.  were  expressly  ex- 
cepted in  the  sale,  since  recognition  of  the  Constitution  would  have  taken  from 
that  company  the  right  to  hold  over  10,000  acres  of  land.  The  Reading  Co.'s 
charter  antedates  the  new  Constitution.  Thus  it  happens  that  while  the  Phila- 
delphia &  Reading  Railway  has  accepted  the  Constitiition,  the  Reading  Co.  and 
the  Philadelphia  &  Reading  Coal  &  Iron  Co.  have  not. 

Further,  it  may  be  said  that  State  laws  have  empowered  railroad  companies 
to  purchase  the  stock  of  coal  and  iron  companies,  and,  according  to  a  ruling  of 
the  Supreme  Court  there  is  no  limit  on  the  amount  of  stock  the  railroad  may  own. 
The  distinction  between  indirectly  mining  coal  and  controlling  a  coal  mining 
company  is  a  pretty  fine  one,  but  the  Pennsylvania  courts  have  made  it. 

Writing  in  1896,  Mr.  Rothwell  said :  "The  natural  evolution  of  the  industry 
has  always  been  in  the  direction  of  the  union  of  the  business  of  mining  and  of 
transporting,  and  its  concentration  into  fewer  and  fewer  hands,  and  this  tendency 
will  undoubtedly  continue.  The  financially  strong  will  devour  the  weak,  ana 
the  control  of  nearly  all  the  coal  lands  and  mines  by  the  coal  roads  will  lessen  the 
chance  of  new  roads  being  projected  to  secure  this  coveted  tonnage.  Agreements 
or  devices  to  regulate  prices  will  become  less  important  as  the  concentration  of 
interests  goes  on  and  as  the  available  supply  of  anthracite  diminishes." 

The  present  condition  of  the  industry  shows  that  the  time  when  agreements 
would  be  unnecessary  was  nearer  than  Mr.  Rothwell  supposed.  Viewed  in  this 
light  the  evolution  of  the  anthracite  coal  trade  is  not  likely  to  be  affected  greatly 
by  anti-trust  legislation.  Unless  the  United  States  is  rushing  pell  mell  into 
socialism,  with  State  ownership  of  all  mines,  railroads,  industrial  establishments 
and  land,  the  anthracite  trade  in  the  future,  as  in  the  past,  will  be  governed  by 
the  working  of  that  inexorable  law  that  controls  the  growth  of  corporations  or 
industries,  as  it  controls  the  development  of  organisms — the  law  of  the  survival 


RECENT  DEVELOPMENTS  IN  THE  ANTHRACITE  COAL   TRADE.     157 

of  the  fittest.  Since  the  evolution  of  the  industry  has  been  in  the  direction  of 
the  union  of  the  business  of  mining  and  transporting  and  the  consolidation  of 
the  transporting  lines  or  the  control  of  their  policy  by  a  common  ownership  of 
their  stocks^  it  is  idle  to  speculate  on  what  might  have  happened  had  mining 
always  been  conducted  by  mining  companies  and  the  railroads  remained  strictly 
common  carriers.  Unrestricted  competition  among  mining  companies  and  trans- 
porting companies  proved  unprofitable  years  ago;  no  one  having  the  good  of  the 
industry  in  mind  advocates  it  now.  Restricted  competitipn  will  prevail  in  the 
future. 

That  present  industrial  conditions  are  but  temporary  every  intelligent  person 
knows.  Business  depression  will  follow  prosperity  as  the  trough  of  the  wave  fol- 
lows the  crest.  Anthracite  prices  just  now  are  influenced  by  a  wide  demand 
but  the  strongest  financial  support  cannot,  in  times  of  depression,  long  maintain 
prices  at  an  artificial  level,  and  though  anthracite  coal,  through  increasing  con- 
sumption from  increased  population  and  through  the  increased  cost  of  production 
as  mines  go  deeper  and  are  exhausted,  will  undoubtedly  sell  at  higher  average 
prices  than  in  the  past,  there  is  no  reason  to  believe  that  present  prices  will  be 
long  maintained.  Sooner  or  later  they  will  fall,  though  probably  not  to  the 
level  of  1879,  or  even  to  the  level  of  January,  1898.  XJltimately,  it  is  likely  that 
present  methods  of  marketing  the  fuel  and  the  present  wastes  in  its  use  will  be 
superseded  by  the  utilization  of  coal  at  the  mines  and  the  transmission  of  its 
c?nergy  as  electricity. 


158  THE  MINEBAL  INDUSTRY. 

By-Phoduct  Coke  Ovens. 

By  F.  SCHNIEWIND.  * 

The  development  of  the  by-product  coke  oven  in  the  United  States  is  progress- 
ing satisfactorily,  as  is  indicated  by  the  subjoined  table  which  gives  the  number 
of  ovens  of  this  type  operative  or  in  course  of  construction  in  the  United  States 
and  Canada  during  1902. 

BY-PBODUCT  COKE  OVENS  IN  THE  UNITED  STATES  AND  CANADA  IN  1902. 


Company. 

Location. 

No.  of 
Ovens. 

Use  of  Coke. 

Use  of  Gas. 

Otto-Hoffmann  ovens : 
Cambria  Steel  Co.  (o) 

Johnstown,  Pa 

Johnstown,  Pa 

Giassport,  Pa 

Everett,  Mass 

Sydney,  C.B 

Hamilton,  0 

Lebanon,  Pa 

Buffalo,  N.Y 

Camden,  N.J 

Sparrows  Point,Md 
Wyandotte,  Mich.. 

Sharon,  Pa 

Duluth,  Minn 

Syracuse,  N.Y 

Dunbar,  Pa 

Benwood,  W.  Va. . 

Ensley,  Ala 

Halifax,  N.S 

Delray.  Mich 

Chester,  Pa 

Tuscaloosa,  Ala.. . . 

Lebanon,  Pa 

Milwaukee,  Wis.... 
Pocahontas,  Va.... 

Cleveland,  O 

100 
160 

lao 

400 
400 
60 
2S8 
664 

100 
200 

15 
212 

50 

80 

110 

120 

240 

10 

130 

40 

HO 

90 

80 

60 

66 

8,(349 

Blastfurnace 

Blastfurnace 

Fuel 

Cambria  Steel  Co. . . . .' 

Fuel 

PittsbuiY  Qas  &  Coke  Co 

Blast  furnace  and  domestic 
Domestic  and  locomotive. . . 

Blast  furnace 

Foundry  and  domesUc 

Blast  furnace 

rUtim  and  fuel 

New  England  Oas  &  Coke  Co 

Dominion  Iron  &  Steel  Co.,  Ltd 

Hamilton  Otto  Coke  Co 

Fuel. 

lUuminatinr. 

Fuel. 

Lackawanna  Iron  &  Steel  Co 

Lackawanna  Iron  and  Steel  Co.  (a). . . 

Blast  furnace 

Fuel 

South  Jersey  Qas,  Electric  &  Trac- 
tion Co 

Foundry  and  domestic 

IHuminatiDg. 
Ilium  RndniaL 

Maryland  Steel  Co 

Michigan  Alkali  Co 

BumlnfiT  lime.  ...... 

FueL 

Sharon  Coke  Co.  o) 

Blast  furnace 

FueL 

Zenith  Furnace  Co.  (a) 

Blast  furnace  and  foundry . 
Lime  kilns. ...                 ... 

Illuminating. 
FueL 

Semet-Solvay  ovens: 

Semet-Solvay  Co 

Blast  furnace 

Blast  furnace            ..... 

FueL 

National  Tube  Co 

FueL 

Semet-Sclvay  Co 

Blast  furnace 

FueL 

People's  Heat  &  Light  Co 

Domestic 

rihi7T>,  and  fuel 

Bolvay  Process  Co 

Lime  kilns 

FueL 

Philadelphia  Suburban  Qas  Co.  (a). . . . 
Central  Iron  &  Coal  Co.  (a). . . .' 

Blast  furnace 

niuminating. 
FueL 

Blast  furnace 

Pennsylvania  Steel  Co.  (a) 

Blast  furnace  .      .  . 

FueL 

Biilwaukee  Coke  and  Qas  Co.  (a) 

Newton  Chambers  ovens 

Blast  furnace  imd  foundry. 
Blast  f umnoe 

Illuminating. 

Retort  Coke  ovens: 
Cleveland  Furnace  Co.  (a) 

Blast  furnace 

• 

Total 

(a)  In  course  of  construction. 

The  production  of  coke  in  1901  from  by-product  ovens  amounted  to  1,179,900 
tons,  valued  at  $2,894,077,  or  about  5%  of  the  total  quantity  of  coke  produced. 
The  average  yield  per  oven  in  1901  was  1,000  tons  of  coke.  The  by-products 
included  12,659,150  gal.  tar,  12,927,627  lb.  ammonium  sulphate  and  2,537,510 
gal.  ammonia  liquor,  aggregating  in  value  $1,029,876.  The  quantity  of  gas  pro- 
duced is  estimated  at  12,000,000,000  cu.  ft.,  worth  $3,000,000.  From  these  statis- 
tics, the  importance  of  this  special  branch  of  manufacture  may  be  appreciated. 

The  number  of  ovens  erected  or  in  course  of  erection  during  1902  was  3,649, 
as  compared  with  3,278  ovens  in  1901.  Of  the  former  total,  2,603  ovens  are  of 
the  Otto-Hoffmann  t\^e,  and  920  are  Semet-Solvay  ovens.  The  tendency  of 
the  present  time  is  to  increase  the  capacity  of  the  ovens,  and  the  new  ones 
of  the  United  Coke  &  Gas  Co.,  erected  during  the  year,  are  43  ft.  8  in.  long, 
6  ft.  6  in.  high,  and  17  in.  wide.  Of  the  3,649  ovens  referred  to  above,  all  are 
practically  completed  with  the  exception  of  the  plant  of  the  Lackawanna  Steel 
Co.,  at  Buffalo,  X.  Y.,  and  the  plant  for  the  Zenith  Furnace  Co.,  at  Duluth,  Minn. 
The  Semet-Solvay  Co.  is  also  increasing  the  size  of  its  ovens,  and  five  horizontal 
flues  are  now  being  used  in  the  side  walls  instead  of  the  three  originally  used. 

>  Supplementlnff  the  article  by  F.  Rchnlewind.  on  "The  Manufacture  of  Coke  in  the  United  States  with 
Sp^Ial  Reference  to  the  Markets  for  By-Products,"  The  Mineral  Industry,  Vol.  X.,  pp.  18R-174. 


BY-PRODUCT  COKE  OVENS, 


161) 


The  application  of  a  number  of  new  pieces  of  apparatus  has  been  described 
by  Mr.  C.  G.  Atwater  in  a  paper  read  before  the  American  Institute  of  Mining 
Engineers,  New  Haven  meeting,  October,  1902.  At  the  Dominion  Iron  &  Steel 
Co.'s  plant  at  Sydney,  Cape  Breton,  the  coal  used  yields  a  brittle  coke,  and  on 
this  account  the  charge  is  first  compressed  into  a  solid  cake  before  being  charged 
into  the  oven.  A  rectangular  mold  with  movable  sides  is  used,  and  the  coal 
compressed  by  means  of  power-driven  rammers.  Coke  of  better  quality  results 
from  this  treatment.  A  larger  quantity  of  coal  can  be  charged  into  the  oven,  an 
advantage,  however,  which  is  partly  offset  by  the  higher  cost  of  the  compression 
apparatus.  There  is  a  net  increase  of  30%  in  the  quantity  charged,  but  20% 
more  time  is  required  to  coke  it,  so  that  there  is  a  net  increase  of  10%  in  the 
coke  yield.    This  gain,  however,  is  balanced  by  the  cost  of  the  installation  and 


Fig.  1. — Section  of  an  Otto-Hilgenstock  By-Product  Coke  Oven. 


maintenance  of  the  compressing  plant  and  the  condensing  and  ammonia  ap- 
paratus required  for  the  increased  quantity  of  gas  liquor  due  to  the  8  or  10%  water 
needed  for  the  compression.  The  process  has  its  greatest  value^  in  handling  coals 
that  cannot  be  successfully  coked  in  other  ways,  but  it  is  impracticable  to  use  it  in 
the  case  of  swelling  coals.  In  the  oven  illustrated  in  Fig.  1,  designed  by  Mr.  6. 
Hilgenstock,  of  C.  Otto  &  Co.,  and  known  as  the  underfired  oven,  the  regenerators 
are  omitted,  the  gas  firing  being  introduced  at  different  points  underneath  the 
vertical  flues  instead  of  at  one  point  at  the  end  of  the  oven.  This  oven  has  the 
advantage  of  simplicity  as  well  as  a  better  distribution  of  the  gas,  and  conse- 
quently more  uniform  heating.  Dr.  Schniewind  has  combined  the  advantage  of 
improved  heat  distribution  with  the  use  of  regenerators,  and  has  designed  the 
Schniewind  or  United-Otto  oven,  the  essential  points  of  difference  between  this 


160 


THE  MINERAL  INDUSTRT. 


oven  and  the  Otto-Hoflfmann  and  Otto-Hilgenstock  oven  being  summed  up  as 
follows:  (1)  The  introduction  of  the  underfired  principle  in  connection  with 
the  use  of  regenerators;  (2)  the  use  of  a  columnar  substructure  instead  of  brick 
arches,  admitting  anchorage  rods  beneath  the  ovens  to  facilitate  complete  in- 
spection while  in  operation;  (3)  the  entire  separation  of  the  regenerative  cham- 
bers from  the  frame  work  supporting  the  ovens.  The  Schniewind  oven  can  be 
more  easily  watched,  the  heats  can  be  better  controlled,  and  the  length  can  be 
increased  from  33  to  43  ft.  An  8-ton  charge  can  be  treated  in  place  of  a  6-ton 
one,  with  a  corresponding  decrease  in  the  operating  costs  per  ton  of  output. 

Mr.  E.  A.  Moore,  of  the  United  Coke  &  Gas  Co.,  has  designed  a  new  form  of 
quenching  car,  whereby  the  coke  is  cooled  with  a  minimum  amount  of  water, 
and  its  silvery  luster  preserved.  The  coke  can  be  handled  directly  to  the  railroad 
cars.  The  car  is  covered,  and  receives  the  charge  of  coke  directly  from  the  oven, 
quenching  it  by  water  supplied  to  nozzles  placed  inside.     The  top  and  sides 


[] 


r-"* 


It'-" 


*i 


•♦ 


S«B«e«     7«t    toil   tt  It  14  1«  It  17  It  It  to  Itttn  14  It  M 

TIME  IN  HOURS^ 


gr  witte  ti  titVMW 


.v^ 


Fig.  2. — Diagram  showing  the  Temperature  of  the  Oven  Charge  at  Dif- 
ferent Points. 


of  the  car  are  of  cast-iron  plates,  so  that  the  steam  is  confined  and  assists  in  the 
quenching  operation.  The  bottom  of  the  car  is  movable  in  order  that  the  coke 
may  be  discharged  from  the  car  with  ease. 

A  series  of  tests  was  made  at  Sydney  on  the  progress  of  coking  in  the  oven. 
Holes  were  bored  in  the  oven  door  at  various  points,  as  shown  in  Fig.  2,  and 
temperatures  were  taken  at  intervals  during  the  coking  period.  These  tempera- 
tures were  plotted  by  means  of  curves,  as  shown  in  Fig.  2,  which  group  them- 
selyes-into  two  classes,  those  very  near  the  heating  walls  rising  rapidly,  and  those 
in  the  middle  of  the  oven  charge  remaining  at  a  lower  temperature,  between 
lOO"*  and  200°C.,  until  some  time  has  elapsed,  when  they  rise  rapidly  as  the 
coking  becomes  complete.  The  diagram  shows  that  the  gasification  begins  at 
the  oven  walls  and  that  it  proceeds  gradually  from  the  wall  toward  the  center; 
also  that  the  evolved  gases  pass  upward  along  the  wall  and  through  the  fissures 
in  the  coked  portion.  During  the  passage  of  the  gas  it  has  an  opportunity  to 
deposit  a  certain  portion  of  its  carbon  in  graphitic  form,  which  accounts  in  part 


BT-PBODVCT  COKE  OVENS.  161 

for  the  increased  yield  of  the  by-product  oven  over  that  of  the  beehive  type.  The 
same  results  were  obtained  by  C.  Otto  &  Co.  when  carrying  out  a  similar  series 
of  tests,  the  curves  in  the  two  cases  being  almost  identical. 

The  building  of  coke  ovens  in  Germany  in  1902  showed  continued  progress. 

According  to  the  annual  report  of  the  Chief  Inspector  of  Alkali  Works,  etc., 
for  the  United  Kingdom,  several  improvements  have  been  made  in  the  use  of 
coke  ovens  of  the  Semet-Solvay  t3rpe  in  the  steel  works.  The  washfed  fine  coal, 
before  being  placed  in  the  ovens,  is  molded  into  cakes  by  means  of  a  compressor 
worked  with  coke-oven  gas.  One-fourth  more  coal  can  be  charged  into  the  oven, 
the  time  of  charging  is  shortened,  and  a  gain  of  10%  in  the  yield  is  obtained. 
A  needle  bath  is  also  used  to  quench  the  cake  of  incandescent  coke,  by  which  the 
brightness  of  the  resulting  coke  is  increased.  The  time  of  carbonizing  is  now 
made  more  regular  by  controlling  the  draught  by  means  of  a  fan  connected  with 
the  flues.  During  1902,  five  plants  with  165  ovens  have  been  constructed  by 
the  Otto-Hilgenstoek  Coke  Oven  Co.,  Ltd.,  the  ovens  all  being  of  the  Hilgen- 
stock  non-regenerative  imderfired  type. 


COFFER. 

By  Joseph  Stbuthbbs,  D.  H.  Nbwlakd  and  Henbt  Fishsb. 

The  production  of  copper  in  the  United  States  during  1902  amounted  to 
610,815,384  lb.,  as  compared  with  597,443,212  lb.  in  1901,  an  increase  of 
13,372,172  lb.  resulting  from  increased  activity  throughout  all  of  the  copper  min- 
ing districts  in  the  United  States  excepting  Arizona  and  California.*  The  gre^^^ 
est  increase  was  from  the  Michigan  mines,  followed  by  those  in  Montana.  De- 
tailed as  to  principal  States,  the  production  of  copper  during  1902  contrasted 
with  that  of  1901  was  as  follows:  Montana  240,050,000  lb.  as  compared  with 
229,870,415  lb.  in  1901 ;  an  increase  of  10,179,585  lb. ;  Michigan  170,663,999  lb. 
as  compared  with  155,511,513  lb.  in  1901 ;  an  increase  of  15,152,486  lb.;  Arizona 
119,841,285  lb.  as  compared  with  126,183,744  lb.  in  1901,  a  decrease  of  6,342,459 
lb.,  and  California  25,038,724  lb.  as  compared  with  33,667,456  lb.  in  1901,  a 
decrease  of  8,628,732  lb. 

According  to  the  reports  of  the  American  copper  refiners,  the  quantity  of  cop- 
per refined  electrolytically  during  1902  was  approximately  80%  of  the  total  pro- 
duction. The  output  of  copper  sulphate  during  1902  was  48,763,538  lb.  as  com- 
pared with  78,004,257  lb.  in  1901,  a  decrease  of  29,240,719  lb.  The  average  price 
of  copper  sulphate  during  1902  was  416c.  per  lb.  as  compared  with  4*lc.  per  lb. 
in  1901.  Of  the  total  production  of  copper  sulphate  during  1902,  the  quantity 
recovered  as  a  by-product  was  35,879,212  lb.  as  compared  with  51,000,000  lb.  so 
prochicod  in  1901,  while  that  produced  direct  from  ore  was  739,801  lb.  as  com- 
pared with  204,095  lb.  in  1901. 

The  stock  of  copper  on  hand  at  the  end  of  1902  was  144,905,600  lb.  as  com- 
pared with  209,587,698  at  the  end  of  1901. 

The  imports  of  copper  during  1902,  as  reported  by  the  smelting  and  refining 
companies  and  the  United  States  Treasury  Department  were  161,551,040  lb.  as 
compared  with  176,472,369  lb.  in  1901,  while  the  exports  during  1902  were 
369,402,880  lb.  as  compared  with  227,194,184  in  1901.  As  given  in  detail  later 
in  this  section,  the  price  of  Lake  copper  during  1902  averaged  ll-887c.  per  lb.  aa 

♦  The  Rtatistics  of  production  do  not  include  copper  recovered  In  the  form  of  copper  Bulphate. 


REVIEW  OF  COPPER  MINING  IN  THE  UNITED  STATES. 


163 


compared  with  16-53c.  per  lb.  in  1901.     The  average  price  of  electrolytic  copper 
during  1902  was  11 -6260.  per  lb.  as  compared  with  1612c.  per  lb.  in  1901. 


COPPER  PRODUCTION  IN  THE  UNITED  STATES. 

(lb.  of 

FINE  COPPER.) 

States. 

im&. 

1900. 

1901, 

iMa, 

Fcyunds, 

Lour 
Tern*. 

PouDds. 

Poundi. 

Long 
Tons. 

PoundA. 

Long 
Tons. 

AHlOEIB.  ,...**.„*...*...*,..*.,. 

Ba,m5,48Q 
I0,fll4.a5« 

9,Sia.»44 
8,801,017 
4,W».00(J 

'M.36l.47£> 
94M"5atl,OBf) 

10.677 

m,&7* 
ioa,iftt9 

4,166 
4,^ 

115.40S,»I6 

»9,fi88,9H7 

T.8S».W9 

H44S7.»I0 

a&i,46ojia 

18,504,736 
11,31S,MIS 

51,530 
13,839 
S.4«4 
64,a87 
na.5WB 

5,051 

195,185,744 
3S,0C7,4dfl 
7,»7Ta.^ 
lfi&,5Jl,fiia 
3ai*,a7D,4l& 

17,360,r.y7 
1I,7^<JOO 

nfLB41.^H6 

5tt.50(> 

ifi^gmf  aB,osH,7a4 

3,515!      ».4«3,Wi8 
(59,42.^ /mi.fifirt.9W* 

ic^eiJi  s!40,fl50.or)n 

S,9eii*S3,9^,9tH 
S.tiJBf  1S,50©,WT 
7,7501      1>,ai8,490 
6,33^1      ©.lM.T5a 

114*>* 

Dotonjao.-.-. .,....„. 

HfmS^i 

107.155 

uuh       .....,.,*.. 

10,6»« 

All  oU)er»^ , - *. 

B,mi 

4,115 

Odppei-iD  sutphAt*)(6|..» 

4,0»7 

Stock  Jsnunq'  1h 

Im  ports  iMirs,  lugots,  okl,  &  ort»  a 

250,517 
4fl.3l» 

,  lik3,lr(as,7t*3 

4«,!M:i 

iri7.4tB 
155Jt*9 

tioi*,ir3.gis 

^fcl,06O,sai0 
l7>0.4?2,!ftR< 

227,lii4.1H4 
440,91  H.930 

271,94S'  <iJ9,mO,I.'«7 
41.541   3lf0.5H7,CJ98 
7W,7¥C  iei,&5UlM0 

101.42fi   a69,40S.HHl 

m,fla7|  47T.7^,Cim 

B7fl,7T^ 
72.12 1 

Total  mipply.. , *. 

Deduct.  PxptirU ,» .,,,,,. 

TJlMltic^t  cxibBUEDDCion    *     •■,     **« 

B91.fl02,ni 

!74  N2J 

1 

Stock  December  31 

88,7S3,fi50 

39,60(4 !   (ta.a'ia.^90 

4K&41 

(M.tSlio 

1 

(a)  This  includes  copper  imported  in  low-grade  Spanish  and  otlier  pyrites  chiefly  for  sulphur,  and  tlie  cop- 
per imported  from  Canada  in  copper-nickel  matie,  in  which  the  nicKei  is  the  metal  of  chief  value:  also  the 
copper  in  certain  gold  and  silver  ores.  These  items,  until  1M6,  did  not  appear  in  the  United  States  statistics  of 
imports.  (6)  Including  only  the  copper  in  sulphate  obtaiued  as  a  by-product  and  by  leachine  copper  ores, 
(c)  Mot  including  Mexican  copper  en  route  for  Europe,  (e)  Preliminar}-  estimate  of  the  U.  8.  Qeoloiical  Sur- 
rey* (/)  Probably  includes  a  certain  quantity  of  anode  copper  from  Montana,  which  was  refined  at  Lake 
Superior  furnaces  and  reported  as  Lake  copper. 

Review  of  Copper  Mining  in  the  United  States  during  1902. 

Alaska. — The  copper  deposits  of  the  White,  Tanana  and  Copper  River  districts 
were  described  by  Alfred  H.  Brooks  in  the  Engineering  and  Mining  Journal, 
July  5,  1902.  The  occurrence  of  placer  copper  on  the  headwaters  of  White 
Kiver  was  first  definitely  determined  by  Dr.  C.  W.  Hayes  in  1891,  although  the 
natives  for  a  long  time  had  drawn  supplies  of  copper  from  this  region.  The 
deposits  are  contained  in  benches  that  owe  their  existence  to  rocky  barriers 
through  which  the  streams  have  eroded  their  courses.  Nuggets  weighing  from 
8  to  10  lb.  are  found.  The  source  of  copper  may  be  traced  to  veins  filling  the 
joints  of  greenstone  dikes  that  cut  through  limestones  and  schists.  So  far  as 
observed,  the  veins  are  small  and  of  no  commercial  importance.  Along  the 
Copper  and  Chitina  rivers,  the  deposits  are  associated  with  greenstones  and 
consist  of  native  copper  in  stringers  or  filling  cavities  and  sulphide  in  true 
fissure  veins.  On  Stretna  Creek  there  is  a  mineralized  zone  from  8  to  10  ft. 
in  width  carrying  copper  and  iron  sulphides.  In  the  bed  of  Nugget  Creek,  a 
tributary  of  the  Kuskulana,  a  mass  of  copper  8  ft.  in  length  and  from  3  to  5  ft. 
in  width  was  found.  Fissure  veins  carrying  copper  ores  have  been  observed  on 
the  ridge  between  McCarty  Creek  and  Kennicott  Glacier.  In  the  Prince  William 
Sound  region,  copper  prospects  were  opened  up  several  years  ago.  The  ores  are 
chiefly  sulphides  occurring  in  fissure  veins  and  mineralized  zones.  These  de- 
posits have  the  advantage  of  being  located  on  tide-water  and  can  bo  exploited 
without  any  great  outlay  of  capital.  The  developments  thus  far  made  in  the 
deposits  of  the  interior  are  limited  to  a  few  prospect  holes  and  cross-cuts.    Ex- 


164 


THE  MINERAL  INDUSTRY, 


ploitation  on  a  commercial  scale  is  dependent  upon  the  construction  of  a  rail- 
road which  it  is  thought  would  oflFer  no  serious  diflBculties. 

Arizona. — (By  James  Douglas.) — The  works  of  the  Calumet  and  Arizona  Co. 
at  Douglas  were  started  in  November,  1902,  with  an  output  of  from  20  to  25 
tons  of  copper  per  day,  which  will  be  increased  during  1903.  The  Shannon  Co. 
in  the  Clifton  district  closed  its  smelters  after  a  short  campaign  in  order  to  sup- 

COPPER   PRODUCTION   IN   ARIZONA,    (a)     (POUNDS   OF   FINE   COPPER.) 


Mines. 

1897. 

1896. 

1809. 

1900. 

1901. 

1902. 

Arizona  Cop.  Co. . . . 
Calumot  &  Arizona 

18,737,911 

18,169,096 

19,078,709 

19,697,086 

20,686,800 

80,821,842 
2,066,647 

SeSt  .'»!'*■:::::: 

28,009,878 
8,406,138 
2,000,000 

81,855,025 

1,241.975 

290,000 

88,749,890 
11,428,992 
1,800,000 
42,828,926 
2,847,460 
e  600,000 

'86,96i,6t<4 
18,906,268 
6,.%0,000 
48,996,932 
4,461,180 
e  750,000 

84,888,809 

10,749,258 
7^156,000 

6  8,450,000 

89,781,888 
17,586,000 
10,094,800 
84,590,096 
88ai00 
e  2.886,516 

86,881,765 
18,791,411 

Old  Dominion 

United  V€>rde 

United  Globe 

Other  mines 

7,908,560 
«  6,000,900 

Totals 

81,010,922 

110,828,864 

125,Sr7,768 

115,408,846 

126,188,744 

119,841,986 

(a)  Reported  by  producers  direct  to  Tes  Minkral  Ihdubtbt.    (e)  Estimated. 

plement  the  works  with  a  concentrator  of  500  tons  daily  capacity;  when  opera- 
tions are  resumed  the  production  of  copper  will  probably  amount  to  300  tons  per 
month.  In  Yavapai  County  the  Val  Verde  Co.  is  active  and  is  producing  a  cop- 
per matte  rich  in  gold  and  silver.  The  Black  Diamond  Co.,  operating  in  the 
Dragoon  Mountains,  expects  to  start  a  100-ton  furnace  early  in  1903.  The 
older  companies  are  showing  no  symptoms  of  decay.  The  new  Copper  Queen 
works  at  Douglas  should  start  during  the  present  summer;  they  are  designed  to 
take  custom  ores  of  copper;  gold  and  silver,  as  well  as  a  slightly  larger  tonnage 
from  the  mines  of  the  company.  The  works  are  to  be  supplied  with  large  fur- 
naces and  good  engines,  and  planned  so  as  to  handle  large  quantities  of  fuel  and 
ore  by  machinery.  The  removal  of  the  works  to  a  distance  of  28  miles  from 
the  mines  was  made  to  secure  space  for  an  enlarged  and  better  designed  smelter, 
water  for  high-class  condensing  engines,  nearer  proximity  to  fuel,  a  location 
more  central  to  the  mines  of  the  Phelps-Dodge  properties,  and  to  facilitate  the 
purchase  of  ores  from  Mexico  and  the  Southwest.  There  is  no  intention  of 
invading  the  market  for  lead,  but  the  company  will  enrich  the  copper  bullion 
with  gold  and  silver.  The  completion  of  the  El  Paso  &  Southwestern  Rail- 
road, and  the  -extension  of  the  Nacosari  Railroad  into  Sonora  from  Douglas, 
makes  this  town  a  favorable  center  for  metallurgical  works,  which  may  hope  to 
secure  ores  from  Mexico  and  from  the  reopened  mines  of  Tombstone.  The 
latter  are  being  revived  by  the  Development  Co.  of  America,  and  have  been 
reached  by  a  branch  of  the  El  Paso  &  Southwestern  Railroad.  Recent  explora- 
tion in  depth  in  the  mines  of  the  Old  Dominion  and  the  United  Globe  com- 
panies reveal  sulphides  in  quantity  of  a  grade  that  promises  to  give  life  to  the 
mines,  and,  it  is  hoped,  a  better  smelting  mixture.  The  United  Verde  mine? 
should  show  an  increased  production  in  1903.  During  the  past  year  this  com- 
pany earned  net  profits  of  $927,654.  In  the  Clifton  district  the  Arizona  and 
Detroit  companies  are  aiming  rather  at  increased  efficiency  in  operation  and 
lower  cost  of  production  than  at  making  more  copper,  assured  as  they  are  of  the 


BBVIEW  OF  COPPER  MINING  IN  THE  UNITED  STATES.  165 

long  life  of  their  mines,  and  believing  in  the  future  value  of  the  metal.  The 
Arizona  Copper  Co.,  Ltd.,  during  the  year  ending  Sept.  30,  1902,  earned 
a  net  profit  of  £183,226  from  the  mines  and  £113,662  from  the  railroad,  a  total 
of  £296,887.  Payments  for  mine  administration  were  £13,888;  for  railroad 
administration,  £8,306;  office,  £2,506;  interest,  £25,718;  reserve,  £40,000;  divi- 
dend on  preference  shares,  £24,531,  leaving  a  net  balance  of  £181,938  in  addition 
to  the  balance  of  £14,410  brought  forward  from  the  previous  year.  Out  of  the 
surplus,  which  amounted  to  £196,348,  a  dividend  of  £180,488  or  9s.  6d.  per  share 
was  declared  on  the  ordinary  shares,  and  the  sum  of  £15,860  carried  forward  to 
the  following  year.  The  total  quantity  of  ore  treated  in  the  mill  was  195,849 
tons,  yielding  28,806  tons  of  concentrates.  The  ore  and  concentrates  smelted 
amounted  to  54,849  tons,  while  the  leaching  plant  handled  35,721  tons  of  tailings. 
The  average  yield  of  all  copper  ores  treated  was  3-37%,  a  decrease  from  the  pre- 
ceding year,  which  was  due  in  part  to  the  reduced  output  of  first-class  ores  and 
in  part  to  a  slightly  lower  quality  of  the  concentrating  ores.  In  the  Bisbee 
group  of  mines  the  most  promising  feature  of  the  year's  development  has  been 
the  discovery  of  profitable  sulphide  ore  bodies  in  the  deeper  limestones,  in  the 
property  both  of  the  Copper  Queen  and  the  Calumet  &  Arizona  companies. 
The  extension  of  the  ore  bodies  over  a  large  area  has  been  proved. 

California. — The  Bully  Hill  mines  in  Shasta  County  have  been  consolidated 
with  the  properties  of  the  Mount  Shasta  Gold  Mines  Corporation,  and  are  to 
be  operated  under  the  latter  title.  These  mines  are  situated  about  25  miles 
northeast  of  Bedding  in  the  same  geological  district  as  the  deposits  owned  by 
the  Mountain  Copper  Co.  The  ore  bodies  are  composed  of  pyrite  and  chalco- 
pyrite,  with  chalcocite,  bomite  and  traces  of  carbonates  and  native  copper.  One 
body  of  ore  is  said  to  have  assayed  15%  Cu,  $S  in  gold  and  6  oz.  silver  per  ton. 
The  main  group  of  mines  is  opened  to  a  depth  of  350  ft.  by  three  tunnels  with 
extensive  drifts  and  cross-cuts.  At  the  Bully  Hill  smelter,  which  began  opera- 
tions in  1901,  a  matte  carrying  from  35  to  55%  Cu  is  produced.  The  matte 
is  taken  directly  from  the  furnace  to  the  converters,  and  the  metal  assaying  98% 
fine  is  shipped  to  the  De  1^  Mar  refinery  at  Carteret,  X.  J.  At  the  Shasta 
King  mine,  four  miles  east  of  Iron  Mountain,  development  work  has  been 
actively  carried  on,  exposing,  it  is  reported,  an  enormous  body  of  low-grade  ore. 
The  company  has  secured  a  smelter  site  near  Kennet,  and  intends  to  erect  a 
smelter  of  500  tons  capacity.  According  to  the  reports  of  the  Mountain  Copper 
Co.,  Ltd.,  the  output  of  copper  ore  in  1902  was  139,903  tons,  the  quantity 
smelted  at  the  Keswick  works  was  149,787  tons,  which  yielded  7,854  tons  con- 
verter copper,  and  the  output  of  fine  copper  was  8,739  tons.  The  sales  of  copper 
for  delivery  during  the  year  were  7,822  tons,  from  which  a  profit  of  £117,846 
was  earned,  while  rents,  interest  and  other  sources  of  income  increased  the 
profits  to  £124,308.  Out  of  the  latter  sum  £14,304  were  expended  for  ex- 
ploratory work,  administration,  and  general  expenses  at  London,  leaving  a  total 
net  profit  of  £110.004.  Debenture  interest  required  £60,000,  and  the  remainder, 
after  payment  of  income  tax  and  crediting  a  due  portion  to  purchase  price,  was 
carried  forward. 

Idaho, — Owing  to  the  lack  of  transportation  facilities,  operations  in  the  Seven 


166 


THB  MINERAL  INDUSTRY. 


Devils  district  during  1902  were  limited  practically  to  development  work.  The 
White  Knob  Copper  Co.  completed  the  construction  of  its  smelting  plant  at 
Mackay,  and  it  is  expected  that  production  will  begin  early  in  the  present  year. 
A  large  quantity  of  ore  assaying  about  9%  Cu  and  $3  gold  and  silver  per  ton 
has  been  opened  preparatory  to  an  active  campaign. 

Michigan. —  (By  D.  H.  Newland.) — ^Despite  the  low  prices  of  copper  that  pre- 
vailed during  1902,  the  mines  on  the  Upper  Peninsula  made  the  largest  output 
yet  recorded.  The  increase  over  the  preceding  year  amounted  to  about  10%, 
and  was  contributed  in  most  part  by  the  new  mines,  viz.:  the  Baltic,  Trimoun- 
tain.  Champion,  Isle  Royale,  Arcadian,  and  Mohawk,  whose  combined  produc- 
tion exceeded  20,000,000  lb.  The  larger  properties  made  no  advance  in  respect 
to  output,  although  improvements  in  both  mines  and  mills  materially  strength- 
ened flieir  position  for  continued  profitable  working.  It  is  expected  that  the 
output  in  1903  will  reach  a  still  larger  total,  due  to  the  more  extended  operations 
of  the  new  producers.  The  production  of  all  the  mines  during  the  past  six  years 
was  as  follows: — 

COPPER   PRODUCTION    IN    MICHIGAN.       (POUNDS    OP   FINE    COPPER.) 


Minet. 

1897. 

1808. 

1800. 

1000. 

1001. 

1902. 

Arcadian 

Atlantic 

Na. 

5,109,868 

yn. 

4,877,800 
42.766 

201.380 

500,000 

4,676,882 

608,570 

e  800,000 

4,030,140 

1,785,060 

81,408,041 

e  1,000,000 
4,666,880 
2,641,482 

e  500,000 
4,040,868 

Baltic 

6,886,810 

Calumet  &  Hecla 
Central 

81,248.780 

Na. 

OhAinnion 

4,166,784 

rranklin 

8*,081 

28,050 

0,600,000 

16,9S24,618 
12,500 

20,000.000 

8,568,978 

Nil. 
18,441 
11,800,000 
16,854,061 

10,050,000 
14,801,182 

(a) 
17,750,000 

Na. 

Nil. 
11,200,000 
14,116,551 

18.4(»,000 

8,767,410 
2,171,965 
e  800,000 

Nil. 
18,723,671 
20,640,790 

18,o£,862 

6,260,140 

Isle  Royale 

Maw..     

National 

OMceola  ConsoPd 
Qaincr 

8,560.748 
2,845,806 

Na. 

18,416,806 
1&088,401 

Ridge 

(a) 

16,061,508 

e  6,000,000 

6,478,181 

1,500,000 

Tamarack 

Trimountain  .... 

22,500.000 

Wolverine 

All  other  mines.. 

25,000 

4,588,114 
e  26,000 

4.780,015 
2,088,000 

4,778,«i0 
8,200,000 

4,046,126 
788,888 

Totals 

145,830,740 

]66,600,0g6 

156,845,786 

144,227,340 

166,607,466 

170,668,000 

(o)  Consolidated  with  Mass.    (e)  EsUmated. 

In  the  subjoined  table  will  be  found  the  results  obtained  by  ten  leading  mines, 
their  capitalization,  profits  and  itemized  costs  for  the  period  1898-1902.  Similar 
information  relating  to  previous  years  is  included  in  The  Mineral  Industry, 
Vols.  I.,  IX.,  and  X. 


CALUMET  AND  HEOLA  MINING  CO. 


Tear. 

Capital 
Pafd  In. 

Real   Es 

tate. 
Amount 
Invested. 

Personal 

Estate. 

Amount 

Invested. 

D^bta. 

Credito. 

Produoed 
Lbs. 

Yield. 

Average 

Price  per 

lb.  (a) 

Estimat. 

ed 
Beoeipts. 

dfinilB. 

180B 

1800 

1900 

1901 

1902 

1.200.000 
1,200,000 
1,200,000 
1,200.000 
1,200,000 

14,288,895 
14,082,991 
16,545,611 

ic) 
(c, 

4,184,82' 
7,215,716 
8,092.768 

(c) 
iv) 

2.286,548 
2,298,467 

(c) 
(c) 
ic) 

6,280,589 

1,660,622 

1,676,766 

ic) 

ic) 

94,108,000 
98,002,15^7 
81,408,041 
82,519,676 
81,248.789 

807 

(c) 
ic) 

1201 

16-92 

(c) 

(r) 

(0 

ll,801,7n) 
15,788,162 

5.000,000 
10,000,000 
7,000,000 
4,600.000 
2,600,000 

(a)  Prices  obtained  by  taklnji:  the  averafi^^  prices  realised  hv  the  other  leading  mines,  including  Qulncr, 
Tamarack.  Atlantic;  and  Wolv»»rine.  (6)  Computed  from  the  shlpmenfR  of  freight  over  the  Hecla  and  Torai 
Lake  R-iilroAd.  On  this  basis  the  yield  in  1875  was  4  30^:  in  1891,  8-18)(:  and  iq  1896,  809^.  (c)  Not  given  !» 
report  of  the  coin  any. 


BEVIieW  OF  COPPER  MININO  IN  THE  UNITED  STATES, 


167 


ATLANTIC   HINB. 


Tear. 


1806.. 
1809.. 
1900  . 
IWI  . . 

looe.. 


Capital 


I 

960,000 
980,000 


960,000  410,674 


960,000 
980.000 


i 
I 


Tons. 
870,767 
380,781 


409,184 
446,096 


Fine 
duoed. 


^,S 


Lbs 
4,877,899 
4 

4,930,149 
4,666,880  0 
4,049,868  ' 


% 

0*590 
1,675,682  0-614 


60016 


0 

•570 
0-556 


eta, 
11-88 
1715 
41 
16-76 
11-88 


T6tal 
Reoeipta. 


518,819-14 
808,804-51 
809,177-00 
747,17788 
588,800  78 


Cost  of  Ton  of  Ore  Stamped. 


eta. 
66  77 
78-56 
76-86 
88*87 
60-84 


H 


eta. 

5 

6- 

698 

7*68 


eta. 

66  88*84 

'50  96*08 

96*78 

97.67 


5-07  10*81 


eta. 
9411 
88*85 
94-70 
81*98 
96-08 


Cte. 


eta. 


1918  16*04 
90*68  17- 04 


87-7514 
46*72  14*  07 
4*68  14*11 


3^ 


h 

|3 


eta. 
18-01 
18*96 
80 
17-78 
18-87 


014 


9 

1*54 
1-71 
1-78 
8*08 
1-85 


NetProflt 


Cta. 

-1-18 
8*98 
1*61 
1*97 


ll 


I 

-0-14 
0-40 
0-19 

-0-80 


—1.50  -008 


BALTIC   MINE. 


1890.. 

1,000,000 
1,000,000 
1,000,000 
1,000,000 

35.411 

85,508 

114,708 

876,175 

608,570 
1,785,080 
8,641,488 
6,885,810 

0*868 
0-070 
1-150 
1*142 

16*06 
16-40 
16*48 
11*87 

107,896 

897,180 

448,551 

746,97602 

861*7 
160-0 
1718 
186-7 

1500 

14*00 
16-11 

100-0 
68-0 

58-18 
7*77 

4U-00 
41*40 
41*08 
88*80 

1000.. 

adiio 

107*7 

80*60 
88*57 
8806 

1001.. 

18*67 

<Si 

-V-aol  1^-41 

CHAMPION   MINE. 


1902..  2,600,000180,485  4,166,7841*78  11-88    498W86    id)      (d)     (d)       (d)     670-99  68*21  87*98  966 -161 -5'57 


FRANKLIN    MINE. 


1896.. 

•2,000;000 

116,606 

9,688,708 

1*18 

1807 

(a. 
817,017*68 

% 

(<i) 

(d) 

51-06 

84-90 

0*80 

9-11 

9-6R 

0*61 

180J.. 

:i,000,000 

80,780 

1,880,000 

0-68 

16-48 

808,647*81 

Id) 

^4 

8980 

88-88 

(d> 

id) 

(d> 

J.^ 

1000.. 

2,000,000 

968,671 

8,668,710 

0-68 

16-90 

6M,852-86 

179 

\i 

icH 

80-84 

28-7017-te 

9*41 

-1*70 

1001.. 

8,800,000 

818,50 

8,757,410 

0-88 

16  60 

828,045-04 

188 

»l-76 

86*76 

1*0016*48)1508 

9*60 

0*77 

0-19 

1002.. 

2,800,000 

815,687 

5,850,140 

0.88 

11-88 

688,717*87 

127*9 

7*28 

88*81 

1*81 

94-84 

11-48 

1-80 

0*46 

0-08 

ISLE  ROYALE  MINE. 


1001  ..19,000,000185,175  9,171,055  0*5851    (d)  281.260  190*0  I  6-501  8*00     94*01    (d)    88-0088*57  1-861   (d)  I   (d) 

1908.. |9,000,000|968,g78  8,569,7480*675111*91         500,rr5    96*8  |  607|  9*85     26*48    7*1    19*ao|  18-45  1*60|-1 -54 1-4)'89 


OSCEOLA  MINE. 


1806.. 

8,825,000 

506,006 

11,800,000 

1*168 

(d) 

1,549,89018 

(rf) 

(d) 

(d) 

88-04 

18*10 

^S 

0-98 

8*88 

8-15 

074 

1890.. 

9,388,760 

546,896 

10,960,000 

1002 

1,791,471*01 

id) 

S 

(d) 

86-80 

18-90 

11-48 

8-80 

4-98 

096 

1900.. 

9,897,500 

688,066 

11,900,000 

0*819 

18-00 

9,186,858-Oe 

167*0 

(d) 

87-80 

97-68 

^(S 

18*98 

8*88 

{S-15 

OKS 

1901.. 

9J»7,500 

796,907 

18,788,671 

0-865 

1,084,487-14 

(d) 

96*575 

60  05 

14*64 

8-58 

0-005 

0-09 

1908.. 

9,406,760 

886,400 

13,418.8060-808 

11-78 

1,504,468-76 

187*0 

(d) 

id) 

^■785 

10-90 

id) 

10*65 

1*79 

0007 

0-19 

QUINOY  MINE. 


1806.. 

1,450,000 

648.502 

16,864,061 

1-54 

19-14 

1,986,116-81 

^U 

fd) 

id) 

(/i)98*98 

80-50 

84-98 

817 

2-80 

i%r 

/••?. 

1890.. 

1,460,000 

560,164 

14,801,188 

1-97 

1718 

8,460,178*66 

181 

id) 

id) 

(ft^-10 

79-80 

27  50 

1006 

9-81 

6-17 

1-56 

1000.. 

1,460,000 

558,728 

14,116,651 

1-96 

16-6? 

8,358,416-50 

908 

id) 

id) 

{$ 

108-8 

98-17 

1868 

8-44 

8-04 

0-77 

1901.. 

1,450,000 

686.866 

80,540,790 

1-10 

16-08 

8,800,574-80 

181 

id) 

id) 

18-87 

28-28 

0*61 

928 

6-04 

161 

1008.. 

1,450,000 

968,019 

18,966,491 

000 

11-09 

8,876,810-95 

156 

id) 

(d) 

(d) 

10-00 

10*50 

002  1.79 

2-07 

0-59 

TAMARACK  MINES. 


1808.. 

1,500,000670,882 

22,500,000 

id) 

id) 

2,881,888-06 

170 

g) 

id) 

98-40 

id) 

Cd) 

i^ 

id) 

id) 

1800.. 

lJi00,00(]  681,00Q 

17,750,000 

1-40 

id) 

2,968,098*91 

}S 

<d) 

88*78 

68*40 

19-46 

4*17 

1-17 

1900.. 

1,500,000  686,421 

18,400,000 

1*47 

3,890,077-96 

id) 

81*48 

id) 

98*66 

11*41 

3-86 

6*5fl 

1-99 

1901.. 

1,500,OOC  886,006 

18,000,858 

1-48 

2,697.061-85 

244-0 

id) 

id) 

84*05 

44*87 

11*67 

8*85 

m 

(nim 

1908.. 

1,500,000^,790 

16,061,688 

1-21 

11  87  1,041,007*26 

280-0 

7*98 

id) 

88*80 

88-60 

11-00 

8  88 

(00-80 

WOLVERINE 

MINE. 

1899.. 
1900.. 
1001.. 
1908.. 

600,000 
600,000 
600,000 
600,000 
600,000 

180,080 
184,700 
184,604 
190,104 
187,488 

lit 

1-88 
1*97 
1-99 
1-99 
1-88 

11  ^S 
14-85 
16-86 
16*74 
18-21 

(a) 
899,888T7 
675,86006 
806.810-88 
828,797-82 
665,888-28 

119 
100 
112 
116 
188-8 

ll 

5-86 

28-51 
19-66 
24-01 
24-16 
20-70 

4119 
86  89 
84-86 

47-42 

5*83 

86*67 

1456 

141*18 

83-83 
84-00 
32-34 
80-00 
32-13 

9-78 
7-71 
9-67 
8-84 
18-82 

2-46 
2-2R 
3-67 

1-70 
6*64 
7-90 
7'00 
-0-61 

0-45 
1-69 
1-86 
204 
-0-18 

(a)  Salaa  of  copper  and  intereat  (6)  Includea  underground  and  aurface  ezpen§ea  and  coata  of  stamping. 
(e)  Includea  tranaportation  to  mill  and  surface  ezpenaea.  id)  Not  stated  in  the  reporta.  ie)  Not  including  Inier- 
eat  if)  Includea  mining,  tranaportation  to  mill,  surface  and  stamping  coata.  ig)  Fiacal  year  ending  ^me  80. 
(h\  Included  und^r  mining  coata.  it)  Exclusive  of  interest  and  income  from  real  estate,  ik)  Not  including  aa- 
sesaroenta.  it)  Not  deducting  extraordinary  construction  account  from  annual  profits,  (m)  Not  including 
taxe«» 


168  THE  MLNBRAL  INDUSTRY. 

The  Calumet  &  Hecla  Mining  Co.  during  1902  continued  making  additions 
and  improvements  to  it.s  equipment,  and  this  work  will  be  carried  on  for  some 
time  to  come.  The  Red  Jacket  shaft,  which  is  bottomed  in  the  conglomerate  at 
a  depth  of  4,920  ft.,  is  supplied  with  hoisting  engines  aggregating  8,000  H.P., 
and  capable  of  raising  over  2,000  tons  of  ore  daily.  A  duplex  air  compressor 
with  a  capacity  of  550  drills  is  to  be  installed.  Shaft  No.  4  has  been  carried 
to  a  depth  of  6,900  ft.  on  the  incline.  The  amygdaloid  ore  body  was  not  worked, 
owing,  it  is  said,  to  the  low  price  of  copper.  Explorations  from  the  Red  Jacket 
shaft  show  that  the  conglomerate  gradually  decreases  in  copper  tenor  with  depth. 
The  electrolytic  plant  at  Black  Rock  on  the  Niagara  River  was  started  during 
the  year.  The  Osceola  Consolidated  Mining  Co.  has  practically  abandoned  work 
si  the  Tamarack  Junior  mine,  and  hereafter  will  confine  its  operations  to  the 
Osceola,  North  Kearsarge,  and  South  Kearsarge  mines.  The  Osceola  No.  5 
shaft  was  idle  for  a  large  part  of  the  year  owing  to  a  cave-in,  which  badly 
damaged  the  shaft  timbers.  A  large  amount  of  development  work  was  done  in 
the  North  Kearsarge  and  South  Kearsarge  mines,  and  extensive  ore  reserves  have 
been  made  available.  The  Quincy  Mining  Co.  completed  the  construction  of  the 
new  coal  dock  and  coal  hoisting  plant  which  will  effect  a  considerable  saving  in 
the  cost  of  fuel.  A  new  warehouse  for  the  storage  of  refined  copper  was  erected 
at  the  smelting  works.  'At  the  Tamarack  mine  the  new  No.  5  shaft,  which  is 
4,938  ft.  in  depth,  was  operated  for  the  first  time  in  December,  1902.  Seven 
levels  have  been  opened  from  the  shaft  giving  facilities  for  a  large  daily  output 
of  ore.  Operations  last  year  were  restricted  to  some  extent  owing  to  the  low 
prices  of  copper.  The  Wolverine  Copper  Mining  Co.  started  its  new  mill  on 
Traverse  Bay  in  August.  The  mill  has  two  steam  stamps  capable  of  handling 
daily  about  1,000  tons  of  ore,  or  double  the  capacity  of  the  old  mill.  This  com- 
pany produces  copper  at  a  very  low  cost  so  that  it  was  able  to  maintain  the 
regular  dividend  pavments  throughout  1902.  The  year's  developments  at  the 
Baltic  mine  were  highly  satisfactory,  the  output  of  fine  copper  being  more  than 
double  that  for  1901.  The  new  mill  at  Redridge  was  placed  in  commission,  but 
was  operated  only  at  partial  capacity,  as  two  of  the  stamps  were  not  ready  until 
late  in  the  year.  When  the  four  stamps  are  in  operation  the  Baltic  will  rank 
well  up  in  the  list  of  Michigan  mines.  The  Isle  Royale  Copper  Co.  started 
work  in  its  new  3-stamp  mill  on  Portage  Lake,  but  one  stamp  only  was  operated 
during  the  latter  half  of  the  year  in  order  to  make  possible  a  closer  selection  of 
ore.  The  Isle  Royale  and  Portage  lodes  have  proven  to  be  *T)unchy,"  and  their 
successful  exploitation  requires  large  ore  reserves  with  close  selection  of  ground 
in  accordance  with  the  prices  obtainable  for  copper.  The  Adventure  Consoli- 
dated Copper  Co.  during  1902  received  $70,791  from  the  sales  of  copper  and 
$1,182  from  the  sales  of  silver,  while  tho  total  income,  including  an  assessment 
of  $200,000,  was  $278,714.  The  total  expenditures  for  mining  and  additions 
and  improvements  to  the  oompany's  property  amounted  to  $718,805,  leaving  a 
balance  with  that  brought  forward  from  the  previous  year  of  $69,571.  Owing 
to  delay  in  the  equipment  of  the  stamp  mill  the  production  of  copper  was  much 
less  than  expected.  The  Mohawk  Mining  Co.  in  the  past  year  received  $104,417 
from  the  sales  of  mohawkite  and  metallic  copper,  and  $340,249  from  assessments 


REVIEW  OF  COPPER  MINING  IN  THE  UNITED  STATES, 


169 


and  other  sources,  making  a  total  income  of  $444,666.  The  expenditures  for 
mining  were  $185,697,  for  construction  $260,374,  and  for  office,  freight  and 
smelting  charges,  $17,362 — total,  $463,433.  An  assessment  of  $200,000  was 
levied  to  meet  the  indebtedness  and  for  completing  the  equipment  in  course  of 
installation.  Although  it  was  expected  that  the  new  mill  would  begin  opera- 
tions by  the  middle  of  the  year,  the  first  stamp  was  not  started  until  December. 
The  quantity  of  ore  treated  was  8,613  tons,  which  yielded  226,824  lb.  copper,  or 
an  average  of  2634  lb.  per  ton.  The  Champion  Copper  Co.  began  operations  in 
January,  1902,  employing  a  single  stamp  in  the  Atlantic  mill,  with  which 
120,485  tons  of  ore  averaging  34  lb.  copper  per  ton  were  stamped.  Three  stamps 
in  the  new  mill  were  placed  in  commission  early  in  1903,  and  when  the  full 
equipment  of  four  stamps  are  in  operation  the  capacity  will  average  about  2,000 
tons  of  ore  per  day.  The  mine  has  been  opened  by  four  large  shafts,  and  suffi- 
cient ore  is  in  sight  to  supply  the  mill  for  manj  years.  Among  the  new  com- 
panies organized  during  1902  was  the  Copper  Bange  Consolidated  Co.,  which 
took  over  the  Baltic  Mining  Co.  and  the  Copper  Range  Co.,  issuing  its  shares 
in  exchange  for  the  shares  of  the  two  companies.  At  the  same  time  35,000  new 
shares  of  the  Copper  Range  Consolidated  Co.  were  sold  at  $40  per  share  for  the 
purpose  of  providing  funds  to  complete  the  equipments  of  the  Baltic  and  Cham- 
pion mines  and  to  extend  the  Copper  Range  Railroad. 

Montana, — (By  W.  H.  Weed.) — There  was  no  marked  change  in  the  copper 
mining  industry  during  1902.  The  numerous  suits  at  law  between  the  Amal- 
gamated Copper  Co.  and  the  Heinze  interests  were  still  before  the  courts,  and  as 
a  result  production  was  entirely  shut  off  from  some  properties,  and  greatly  cur- 
tailed in  others.  The  New  Washoe  smelter,  at  Anaconda,  which  went  into 
commission  early  in  1902,  handled  4,500  tons  of  ore  a  day,  a  business  estimated 

COPPER  PRODUCTION  IN  MONTANA.       (POUNDS  OF  FINE  COPPER.) 


Mines. 

1806. 

1897. 

1808.  (d) 

1899. 

1900. 

1901. 

1908. 

A*i#cmdA. 

185,850.698 

j  «0.25O,00O 

1    4,500,000 

4,285,M7 

9,000,680 

812,445 

8,015.648 

15,049,066 

4,948,588 

181,471,187 
60,000,000 

'*7,8ffl;796" 

8,911,678 

815,481 

14.884,487 

18.047,648 

804,474 

107.814,050 
68,000,000 
7,000,000 
9.685,068 
7,657  938 
121.080 
18,444.888 
18,064,000 
(6) 

107,914,857 

[  79,000,000 

10,049.689 
9,OT2,165 
155,719 
10,685,696 
15360,679 
5,775,716 

5  66,800.000 

1 16,950,000 

18  456,778 

11,468,940 

181,494 

88,86^568 
185,011,944 

e  101,850,884 

]e  68,086,746 

17,909,663 

c  7,465.860 

108,071 

e  10,167,850 

«  89.896,960 

6  8,886,081 

e  75,000,000 

Boston  A  Montana 

Biitt«  ft  Boston 

Butte  ReductioD  Works. . 
Colorado 8m. ft  Mg.Co... 
Heda  Cons.  MininicOo. . . . 
PUTOt 

e  75,000,000 
e  10,000,000 
e  19,400,000 
e  10,000.000 
54,718 
e  10,000.000 
80,650.000 
e   9,945,887 

Montana  Ore  Parches  Oo  . 
other  Mines  

Totals.*. ...   .     ,..T 

0888,966,164 

r887,158,540 

c816,979,834  i    SS7.QRS.QK1 

254,460,718 

289,870,415 

840.060,000 

(a)  In  addition  to  818,581  lb.  of  Canadian  copper  smelted  by  the  Montana  Ore  Purchasing;  Co.  and  deducted 
in  the  above  table,  there  was  also  deducted  l.(XX),000  lb.  more  of  foreitm  copper  estimated  as  having  been 
included  in  the  a«?regate  of  the  abore  returns,  leaving  the  net  amount  885,956,164  lb.  (6)  Included  In  reports 
of  smelters  iteniized  above,  (c)  Totals  reported  by  E.  B.  Braden.  id)  The  individual  reports  include  some 
copper  derived  outside  of  Montana,  wherefore  their  sum  exceeds  the  total  as  given,  (e)  Estimated.  (/)  In- 
cluoed  under  "  Other  Mines.'* 

at  $60,000  daily.  The  old  works  of  the  Anaconda  Co.  are  idle  save  the  electro- 
lytic refinery,  which  is  refining  the  output  of  the  New  Washoe  smelter.  The 
Great  Falls  plant,  which  was  completely  overhauled  during  the  latter  part  of 
1901,  started  up  again  in  January,  1902,  and  ran  uninterruptedly.  The  Butte 
&  Boston  smelter  at  Butte  was  operated  successfully,  and  while  not  considered 
as  thoroughly  modem  as  the  larger  plants  of  the  Amalgamated  Co.,  it  probably 


170  THE  MINERAL  INDUBTBT, 

can  show  as  good,  if  not  a  better  economic  record  for  the  year.  The  matte 
produced  by  the  Colorado  smelter  and  the  Butte  Reduction  Works  is  being  con- 
verted at  the  New  Washoe  plant.  In  August  a  fire  destroyed  the  reverberatory 
department  of  the  Butte  Reduction  works,  but  it  was  rebuilt  and  again  in 
operation  in  October.  The  fire  did  not  necessitate  the  closing  of  the  other  de- 
partments of  the  works.  The  smelter  owned  by  the  Montana  Ore  Purchasing 
Co.  continued  in  active  operation,  although  a  fire  on  August  28  completely 
destroyed  the  compan/s  concentrator,  which  was  the  means  of  curtailing  the 
output  of  the  smelter  itself.  The  concentrator  was  not  rebuilt,  but  instead  the 
management  leased  the  uncompleted  concentrator  at  Basin  owned  by  the  Basin  & 
Bay  State  Mining  Co.  This  plant  has  been  put  in  working  order,  the  Montana 
Ore  Purchasing  Co.  sending  its  crude  ore  to  Basin,  and  returning  the  concen- 
trates to  the  smelter  at  Butte  to  be  treated.  During  the  year  Mr.  Heinze 
merged  the  Montana  Ore  Purchasing  Co.  and  auxiliary  companies  into  the 
United  Copper  Co.,  with  an  authorized  capital  of  $80,000,000  divided  into 
50,000  common  shares,  all  of  $100  par  value.  Of  the  common  stock  300,000 
shares  have  been  reserved  in  the  treasury.  Early  in  the  summer  the  Speculator 
mine  was  closed  by  a  court  injunction,  and  remained  idle  during  the  remainder 
of  the  year.  The  Minnie  Healey  mine,  which  was  operated  by  Mr.  Heinze,  was 
also  closed  by  an  injunction.  The  Pittsburg  &  Montana  Copper  Co.,  which 
succeeded  the  Parrel  Copper  Co.,  prosecuted  development  work  by  sinking  two 
shafts  to  bedrock  on  the  flat  east  of  Meaderville.  The  completion  of  this  work 
has  been  attended  by  unexpected  difficulties.  The  depth  to  solid  formation 
was  found  to  be  in  the  neighborhood  of  700  ft.,  a  goodly  portion  of  the  sinking 
being  through  quicksand.  The  net  earnings  of  the  principal  copper  mining  com- 
panies during  the  fiscal  year  ending  June  30,  1902,  as  reported  to  the  assessors 
of  Silver  Bow  County,  were:  Anaconda  Copper  Mining  Co.,  $1,289,610;  Boston 
&  Montana  Consolidated  C.  &  S.  Mining  Co.,  $1,639,695;  Montana  Ore  Pur- 
chasing Co.,  $600,000;  Butte  &  Boston  C.  &  S.  Mining  Co.,  $166,136;  Colorado 
Smelting  &  Mining  Co.,  $152,495 ;  Parrot  Silver  &  Copper  Co.,  $577,617 ;  Colusa- 
Parrot  Mining  &  Smelting  Co.,  $397,475.  Outside  of  Butte  the  copper  proper- 
ties have  not  yet  reached  the  productive  stage.  The  Indian  Queen,  near  Dillon, 
has  shown  large  bodies  of  glance  and  chalcopyrite,  but  it  is  not  yet  a  regular 
producer.  The  Basin  Creek  properties,  in  Jefferson  County,  have  been  worked 
throughout  the  year,  and  development  work  has  been  carried  on  in  the  copper 
properties  near  Helmville.  The  Sweet  Grass  Hills  and  Blackfoot  Reserve  proper- 
ties are  as  yet  in  the  prospect  stage. 

Nevada, — The  property  of  the  New  York  &  Nevada  Copper  Co.,  in  White  Pine 
County,  was  actively  developed,  and  construction  work  was  begun  on  a  500-ton 
concentrator  and  smelting  plant  near  Ely.  The  ore  is  chalcopyrite  and  chalcocite 
in  a  gangiie  of  quartz  porphyry  and  averages  about  3%  Cu.  A  tramway  will 
be  built  to  connect  the  mine  and  smelter.  The  Nevada  Copper  Co.  and  the  Bell 
Mare  Mining  &  Smelting  Co.,  both  oporatincr  in  the  Table  ^fountain  district, 
were  consolidated  under  the  name  of  the  Boll  ^fining  &  Koduction  Co.,  ^''hich 
i)lan8  extensive  developments. 

New  Jersey. — The  reduction  plant  of  the  Arlington  Copper  Co.,  Titd.,  erected 


REVIEW  OF  COPPER  MtNINQ  IN  THE  UNITED  STATES.  171 

at  a  cost  of  $250,000,  was  inactive  during  1902,  except  for  experimental  runs. 

New  Mexico. — ^The  Burro  Mountain,  San  Andreas,  Lordsburg  and  Black 
Bange  districts  made  good  progress  during  1902,  and  an  increased  output  of 
copper  ore  was  recorded  in  each  of  these  mining  centers.  The  Burro  Moun- 
tains are  situated  in  Grant  County,  about  16  miles  southwest  of  Silver  City. 
Mining  has  been  conducted  in  the  district  on  a  small  scale  since  1875,  but  it  is 
only  in  the  last  three  years  that  the  operations  have  assumed  any  marked  im- 
portance. The  main  copper  bearing  area  is  about  three  miles  long  and  two 
miles  wide,  with  a  general  east  and  west  strike.  The  prevailing  rocks  are  granite 
and  porphyry,  which,  by  metamorphism  and  disturbance,  have  been  thoroughly 
shattered  and  the  seams  mineralized  with  iron,  manganese  and  copper  oxides. 
In  addition  the  country  rock  contains  impregnations  of  malachite  and  azurite 
that  constitute  low-grade  ore  bodies.  The  low-grade  ore  is  to  be  treated  by 
lixiviation  with  sulphuric  acid,  for  which  a  suflBcient  supply  of  water  can  be 
obtained  from  the  deeper  workings.  New  discoveries  of  copper  ore  were  reported 
in  the  Sandia  and  Organ  Mountains  and  in  the  Sacramentos. 

North  Carolina, — ^At  the  Gold  Hill  mine  in  Rowan  County  a  20-stamp  mill 
was  operated  on  copper-gold  ores.  The  Union  Copper  Co.  is  reported  to  have  dis- 
covered a  large  body  of  ore  in  the  Randolph  shaft,  which  assays  about  10%  Cu.  A 
lO-stamp  mill  and  a  leaching  process  are  to  be  installed  at  the  Rowan  mine. 

South  Dakota. — A  small  copper  smelter  is  in  course  of  erection  near  Hill 
City.  The  Central  Black  Hills  Copper  Co.,  which  exploits  a  deposit  of  copper 
carbonate,  has  installed  a  leaching  plant  with  crushers  and  six  leaching  tanks, 
and  will  produce  cement  copper. 

Tennessee. — ^The  two  copper  mining  companies  in  the  Ducktown  district  were 
active  during  1902.  The  Tennessee  Copper  Co.  completed  its  smelting  plant, 
although  only  one  of  the  two  furnaces  was  in  blast  during  the  first  five  months 
of  the  year.  The  total  quantity  of  ore  smelted  was  221,194  tons,  which  yielded 
8,103,539  lb.  fine  copper,  or  about  36-5  lb.  per  ton.  The  receipts  from  copper 
sales  were  $760,450,  and  from  other  sources  $2,647,  making  a  total  of  $763,097, 
from  which  after  deducting  all  working  expenses,  interest,  depreciation,  and 
other  charges,  there  remained  a  profit  of  $231,109,  or  $132  per  share  on  the 
outstanding  stock.  An  issue  of  bonds  to  the  amount  of  $5,000,000  was  author- 
ized to  pay  the  floating  debt  and  provide  working  capital.  The  results  of  the 
operations  in  both  mining  and  smelting  departments  were  highly  satisfactory, 
and  there  is  promise  of  increased  activity  in  the  immediate  future.  Develop- 
ments underground  added  nearly  800,000  tons  to  the  ore  reserves,  which  at  the 
close  of  the  year  were  estimated  at  2,050,000  tons.  The  smelting  capacity  is  to 
be  augmented  by  a  third  blast  furnace,  assuring  an  annual  production  of 
10,000.000  lb.  copper.  A  summary  of  the  working  costs  per  ton  of  ore  during 
1902  is  as  follows:  mining,  84c.;  crushing  and  sorting,  8-3c. ;  roasting,  34c.; 
railroad,  15-5c.;  engineering  and  laboratory,  2-7c. ;  general  expenses,  8-7c. ;  blast 
furnace,  $105;  converting,  21-7c. ;  refinery,  10c. ;  total,  $2  90  per  ton.  The 
results  obtained  in  blast  furnace  operations  are  described  under  copper  metal- 
lurgy elsewhere  in  this  volume.  The  Ducktown  Sulphur,  Copper  &  Iron  Co., 
Ltd.,  in  1901  earned  gross  profits,  including  interest,  of  £24,488,  from  which  the 


1  Hi  TBS  MmmAL  INI)  V8TH  Y 

net  profits  after  providing  for  interest  on  debentures  and  appropriating  £3,000 
to  depreciation  amounted  to  £14,761.  An  interim  dividend  of  5%  was  paid, 
and  a  further  dividend  of  5%  on  the  ordinary  shares  and  £9  18s.  per  share  on 
the  founders'  shares  was  declared. 

Utah, — The  Bingham  district  formerly  a  producer  of  low-grade  silver-lead 
ores  is  now  the  largest  copper  mining  camp  in  the  State.  The  Highland  Boy 
shipped  about  500  tons  of  ore  per  day,  which  were  treated  in  its  own  furnaces. 
New  developments  in  the  mine  have  exposed  large  ore  bodies  in  the  limestones 
above  the  old  workings  so  that  the  future  of  this  company  appears  promising. 
The  Bingham  Consolidated  mines  produced  about  250  tons  of  fluxing  ore  daily, 
which  together  with  siliceous  ores  purchased  in  the  open  market  was  handled 
in  the  company's  smelter.  The  United  States  Mining  Co.  has  erected  a  com- 
plete smelting  plant  with  three  ftimaces,  and  during  the  year  treated  daily  about 
300  tons  of  ore  from  Bingham  mines  mixed  with  siliceous  ore  from  the  Cen- 
tennial mine  at  Tintic.  This  plant  reduces  the  ore  in  a  blast  furnace  without 
previous  roasting,  and  produces  converter  matte  with  two  smeltings.  The  com- 
pany has  large  ore  reserves,  and  will  increase  the  output  of  copper  during  1903. 
Work  has  been  prosecuted  on  a  number  of  other  properties  in  the  Bingham  dis- 
trict with  the  result  that  two  mines — the  Boston  Consolidated  and  the  Yampa — 
have  been  brought  to  the  productive  stage  warranting  the  erection  of  smelters. 
The  Columbia  Copper  Co.  operating  in  the  main  Bingham  Canon  has  steadily 
developed  its  mine,  shipping  the  ore  in  the  form  of  concentrates. 

Wyoming, — (By  Wilbur  C.  Knight.) — The  progress  in  the  copper  mining 
industry  has  been  of  development  rather  than  production,  the  greatest  changes 
having  been  made  in  the  Grand  Encampment  and  the  New  Rambler  camps. 
The  North  American  Copper  Co.  purchased  the  Ferris-Haggerty  mine,  the  new 
tramway  that  has  been  put  in  at  a  cost  of  over  $250,000  to  connect  the  mine 
with  the  smelter,  the  Grand  Encampment  smelter,  and  numerous  other  valuable 
rights.  The  purchase  price  was  stated  to  be  $1,000,000.  The  company  has 
commenced  extensive  development  at  the  mine,  and  is  erecting  a  large  concentrat- 
ing plant.  It  is  claimed  that  the  Union  Pacific  Railroad  will  construct  a  branch 
into  the  camp.  Other  properties  have  been  greatly  developed  during  the  year ; 
to  the  southward  the  Pearl  district  has  been  opened  up  on  the  Colorado- Wyom- 
ing line.  In  the  New  Rambler  district,  early  in  the  season,  a  new  matting  fur- 
nace was  installed,  which  made  several  very  successful  runs.  Later,  an  Eastern 
company  purchased  the  Rambler  mine  and  incorporated  it  for  $2,000,000.  The 
Laramie  &  Hahns  Peak  Railroad,  now  under  construction,  which  is  graded  to 
a  distance  of  about  25  miles  southwest  of  Laramie,  will  pass  within  a  few  miles 
of  this  property.  Several  companies  have  opened  very  promising  prospects  near 
the  New  Rambler.  The  discovery  of  platinum  and  palladium  in  the  Rambler 
vein  was  of  more  than  ordinary  interest,  and,  as  far  as  is  known,  this  property 
is  the  only  producer  of  ore  carrying  these  rare  metals.  From  an  average  of 
many  assays  the  covellite  ore  contains  3-5  oz.  of  platinum  and  palladium  to  the 
ton,  sometimes  being  all  palladium.  Although  about  2,000  tons  of  this  ore 
was  sold,  nothing  was  paid  for  the  precious  metals  contained.  At  Hartville,  an 
old-time  copper  camp,  some  very  rich  ore  bodies  have  been  discovered. 


nsviEW  OB"  COPPER  MiJsiNa  nr  the  ujnitmd  statejs.       its 

Philippine  Islands. — Copper  deposits  of  considerable  importance  are  found 
on  the  Island  of  Mindanao,  in  the  region  inhabited  by  the  Moros.  The  na- 
tives, as  well  as  the  Chinese,  have  exploited  the  ores  on  a  small  scale  with  re- 
munerative residts.  The  ore  obtained  from  small  workings  is  pounded  on 
anvil-shaped  pieces  of  metal,  and  the  crushed  material  is  then  run  through 
rolls.  These  rolls  are  of  stone  or  iron,  and  are  turned  by  hand  or  by  a  water 
buflfalo.  In  some  places  there  are  large  furnaces  for  heating  the  rock,  prepara- 
tory to  crushing,  and  several  smelting  furnaces  have  been  in  operation,  some 
of  them  owned  by  Germans.  The  native  miners  are  said  to  be  efficient  work- 
men and  can  be  obtained  for  a  few  cents  a  day.  Gold  and  silver  as  well  as 
copper  are  found  in  Mindanao. 

By  a  recent  enactment  of  Congress,  the  mineral  deposits  of  the  Philippines 
are  to  be  thrown  open  to  exploration  and  purchase  by  citizens  of  the  United 
States,  natives  of  the  Philippines  and  Spaniards  in  the  Philippines  who  have 
declared  their  intention  of  becoming  citizens  of  the  Islands.  Claims  for  lode 
mining  are  limited  for  each  individual  to  1,000  ft.  square;  for  placer  mining 
to  20  acres;  and  for  coal  lands  to  160  acres.  Provision  has  been  made  for 
proper  inspection  and  registration  of  the  claims  upon  proof  and  payment  of  the 
fees  prescribed,  and  the  publication  of  notice  in  two  newspapers  of  the  Islands. 
A  prescribed  amoimt  of  work  must  be  done  upon  the  claims  each  year  in  order 
to  hold  them* 


174 


THE  MINERAL  INDUSTHT. 


Copper  Mining  in  Foreign  Countries. 
Australia. — ^Both  the  depressed  condition  of  the  copper  market  and  the  severe 

1888     1885 1890 1895 1000     190» 


The  Production  of  Copper  in  the  Principal  Countries  op  the  World. 

(In  Metric  Tons.) 

drought  had  an  unfavorable  influence  upon  mining  operations,  which  under  more 
normal  conditions  would  have  shown  a  greater  expansion. 


COPPER  MININQ  IN  FORElON  COUNTRIES. 


175 


The  output  of  fine  copper  in  New  South  Wales  during  1902  was  valued  at 
£308,923,  against  £413,902  in  1901,  a  decrease  of  £104,979.  This  State  suffered 
from  the  long  period  of  dry  weather,  which  necessitated  a  partial  or  complete  sus- 
pension of  activity  by  most  of  the  copper  mines.  In  the  Cobar  district,  the  Great 
Cobar  Copper  Co.  was  the  only  concern  that  worked  continuously  through  the 
year,  and  its  activity  was  due  to  the  fact  that  the  company  had  entered  into  a 
contract  for  the  supply  of  copper.  For  a  time  water  was  drawn  to  the  mine  by 
railway,  a  distance  of  150  miles.  The  Lloyd,  the  Nymagee,  and  the  Mt.  Hope 
mines  were  closed  down  during  a  part  of  the  year.  The  ore  from  the  Cobar 
CSiesney  mine,  in  which  600  mefn  were  employed,  was  smelted  in  the  furnaces 
of  the  Great  Cobar  Co. ;  about  4,500  tons  of  ore  containing  3%  copper  and  1  dwt. 
gold  per  ton  were  shipped  during  1902.  A  discovery  of  high-grade  copper  ore 
near  Cowl  Creek  was  reported. 

The  Queensland  Copper  Co.,  Ltd.,  for  the  16  months  ending  July  31,  1902, 
reports  an  expenditure  of  £18,456,  and  an  income  of  £14,277.  From  February  to 
September  inclusive,  3,707  tons  of  ore  were  smelted  to  matte,  containing  0-35  oz. 
gold,  18  oz.  silver  per  ton,  and  50%  Cu.  Arrangements  are  being  made  to  con- 
vert the  matte  into  blister  copper  at  the  smelter.  The  Mount  Perry  mine  has 
been  opened,  and  work  upon  it  is  being  rapidly  done.  Copper  ores  have  been 
found  near  Mount  Hector,  on  the  eastern  side  of  the  Dawes  Range,  about  46 
miles  due  south  of  Gladstone,  Queensland.     Development  work  is  being  prose- 

THB  world's  copper  PRODUCTION,  1898 — 1902.       (fl). 


Countries. 


Algeria 

ATKentitxA 

Australasia. 

AustriarHungary. 

Bolivia 

Canada w 

Cape  of  Good  Hope 

Gape  Company. 

Namaqua 

Chile 

Oermany— TotaL. 

(Mansfeld) 

Italy 

Japan 

Mexlio— Total . . . 

(Boleo) 

Newfoundland . . . 

Norway 

Russia 


SpaIn-Port.--Total 

RioTinto 

lliarsis 

Mason  &  Barry 
Sevllla 

Sweden 

Turkey , 

United  Kingdom. 

United  States. . . . 


Totals 484,880 


1896. 


Tons  of 
8040  Lb. 


60 
186 
18,000 
1,640 
8,060 
8,040 

Axm 

24.^^10 

ns/i45) 

iff,  ]  75 

19,416) 
2Am 

;ViH6 
f.Vi/JO 
;ioiO 

fJC.fKlO 

:t.r-^10 

I      S<)0 

4« 


640 
880,841 


Metric 
Tons. 


61 

127 

18,888 

1,566 

2,068 

8,169 

4,786 
2,488 
25,848 
20.407 

25,578 
16,010 

8,678 

6,096 

8,069 

64,076 

84,244 

12,192 

8,668 

818 

488 


660 
848,009 


44' 284 


1899. 


Tons  of 
2840  Lb. 


Nil. 
66 

20,750 
1,606 
2,600 
6,780 

4,140 

2,850 

25,000 

88,460 

(20,785) 

2,065 

28,810 

19,006 

(10,222) 

2,936 

8,010 

7,210 

6,166 

54,220 

84,870 

9,448 

3,600 

1,800 


687 
),517 


468,679 


Metric 
Tods. 


NU. 
66 

21,062 
1,529 
2,540 
6.83H 

4,206 
2,888 
25,400 
23,886 
(21,118) 
3,01!^ 
28,768 
19,810 


8. 

8, 

7,825 

5.248 
66,068 
84,920 
9,699 
8,668 
1,219 


647 
268,666 


1900. 


Tons  of 
2240  Lb. 


Nil. 

75 

28,000 

1,855 

2.100 

6,450 

4,420 
8,800 
25.604 
20,810 
(16,890) 
2,763 
27,640 
22,119 
(11,119) 


8,985 

aooo 

8,220 

62,872 

85,7»2 

7,965 

8,460 

1,460 

450 

8,804 

765 


476,194    486,684     404,422 


Metric 
Tons. 

~Nir 

76 

23,868 

1,877 

2,184 

6,596 

4,491 

2,887 
26,016 
20,685 
(18,664) 

2.79: 

26JB66 

22,478 

(114897) 

2,929 

8,128 
6,85P 
58,718 
86,804 


8,515 
1,463 

457 
2,841 

777 
272,536 


1901. 


Tons  of 
^240  Lb. 


Nil. 

780 

80,675 

1,885 

2,000 

16,282 

4,000 

2,400 

80,805 

21,720 

(16,780) 

8,000 

27,475 

88,618 

(10.783) 

2,756 

8,875 

6,000 

9.520 

58,621 

85,848 

7,427 

3,729 

1,292 

450 

1,639 

532 

271,949 


Metric 
Tons. 


Nil. 
798 

81,371 
1,356 
2,032 

16,575 

4,064 

8,489 

81,299 

22,069 

(19,062 

8,048 

27,916 

83,943 

(10,966) 

2.800 

8,429 

8,129 

9.678 

54,482 

35.916 

7,546 

3,789 

1,313 

457 

1,666 

641 

278,800 


537,861 


1901. 


Tons  of 
2240  Lb. 


Nil. 
240 

28,640 
1,600 
8,000 

17,486 

2,760 

1,700 

26,980 

21,606 

(16,750) 

8,370 

29,775 

4O,C0O 

(10,786) 

2,566 

4,566 

7,660 

8,000 

49,790 

84,480 

6,710 

8,330 

1,545 

455 

1,100 

600 

272,685 


625,857 


Metric 
Tons. 


Nil. 
244 

29,096 
1,624 

2,a& 

17,786 

2,794 
1,727 
29,898 
21,961 
(19,060) 
8,424 
80,261 
40,640 

2,627 

4,688 

7,701 

6,126 

60,767 

85,081 

6,617 

8,366 

1,670 

462 

1,116 

610 

277,047 


583,763 


(a)  The  fUnires  in  this  table  are  taken  from  the  annual  metal  circular  of  Henry  R.  Merton  &  Co.,  except 
where  returns  have  been  received  by  Thb  Mineral  Industry  direct  from  official  sources. 

cuted,  but  SO  far  little  is  known  as  to  the  extent  of  the  deposits.     The  ores  are 
oxidized  and  carry  gold  and  silver;  a  trial  shipment  assayed  5%  Cn,  1-6  oz.  gold 


176  THJH  MIAMHAL  INDUtiTRY. 

and  2  02.  silver  per  ton.  The  mines  and  smelters  at  Mount  Garnet  in  the 
Herberton  district  were  operated  intermittently,  producing  copper  and  silver 
valued  at  £164,267.  Systematic  prospecting  was  carried  on  at  Chillagoe,  and 
one  smelter  was  started  in  October  which  produced  copper  and  silver  of  a 
value  of  £22,519.  In  the  Kangaroo  Hills  district  smelting  works  have  been 
erected,  and  the  mines  are  undergoing  rapid  development.  The  ore  is  re- 
ported to  assay  16%  Cu,  15%  Pb,  an^!  49  oz.  silver  per  ton.  The  totiil  out- 
put of  copper  in  the  form  of  ore  and  matte  in  Queensland  during  1902  was 
3,784  long  tons  valued  at  £189,200. 

In  Western  Australia  there  is  only  one  district,  the  Mt.  Malcolm,  where  opera- 
tions are  carried  on  systematically,  and  this  is  the  only  district  in  which  the 
ore  is  reduced  to  matte,  water-jacket  furnaces  being  erected  at  the  mines.  The 
ore  from  the  Murchison,  Nortliampton,  West  Pilbarra,  Phillips  River,  and  other 
districts  is  exported  for  treatment.  In  the  latter  district  only  the  high-grade 
ore  can  be  exported,  as  the  cost  of  treatment  is  considerable  and  the  shipping 
facilities  poor. 

The  Mount  Lyell  Mining  &  Railway  Co.  during  the  semester  ending  Sept. 
30,  1902,  treated  159,450  tons  of  ore  from  the  Mount  Lyell  mine  and  5,689  tons 
purchased  from  outside  mines ;  the  yield  being  3,608  tons  of  blister  copper  which 
contained  3,608  tons  of  fine  copper,  341,346  oz.  silver,  and  11,681  oz.  gold.  Out 
of  the  net  profits  of  £45,348,  the  sum  of  £34,375  was  paid  in  dividends,  making 
a  total  disbursement  on  this  account  of  £896,887.  As  compared  with  the  results 
of  the  previous  half  year,  the  cost  of  producing  blister  copper  per  ton  of  ore 
shows  a  reduction  from  £1  Is.  3-2d.  to  19s.  8-3d.  Considerable  exploration  work 
was  carried  out  at  the  Mount  Lyell,  South  Tharsis  and  Royal  Tharsis  mines, 
and  the  company  increased  its  holdings  by  acquiring  the  leases  formerly  owned 
by  the  North  Crown  Lyell  and  the  CentraK  Lyell  companies.  The  last-named 
property  adjoins  blocks  13  and  14  of  the  original  Mount  Lyell  leases  and  con- 
tains the  downward  extension  of  the  main  ore  body.  The  company's  present 
contract  with  the  Baltimore  Copper  Smelting  &  Rolling  Co.  for  refining  the 
blister  copper  was  extended  for  a  period  of  three  years.  The  North  Mount  Lyell 
mine  during  the  year  ending  June  30,  1902,  produced  61,728  tons  of  ore,  the 
larger  part  of  which  was  sold  to  the  Mount  Lyell  Mining  &  Railway  Co.  and 
realized  £188,620.  Satisfactory  progress  was  made  in  the  erection  of  the  com- 
pany's smelting  works  at  Crotly.  The  Mount  Lyell  Blocks  mine  during  the 
same  period  produced  5,066  tons  of  ore,  valued  at  £21,200  and  the  Lyell  Tharsis 
mine  13,197  tons  of  ore.  Operations  at  the  latter  mine  were  temporarily  sus- 
pended owing  to  the  low  price  of  copper. 

Argentina, — In  the  Calamuchita  district,  60  miles  southwest  of  Cordoba  City, 
the  Rosario  Co.  is  operating  a  36-in.  blast  furnace  on  ore  yielding  from  5  to  6% 
Cu.  The  matte  which  contains  about  65%  Cu  is  exported.  The  Famatima  De- 
velopment Corporation.  Ltd.,  capitalized  at  £400,000,  is  operating  mines  in  the 
Mexicana  spur  of  the  Famatima  range.  There  are  14  lodes  averaging  4  ft.  in 
width  and  two  miles  long.  The  ore  contains  silver  and  gold  as  well  as  copper, 
and  30-ton  samples  show  values  from  £7  15s.  to  £22  lOs.  per  ton.  An  aerial 
tramway  25  miles  long  is  being  constructed  to  connect  the  mines  with  the  smeltei 


GOPPER  MINING  IN  FOREIGN  COUNTRIES,  177 

at  Chilecito.  The  Upolongos  mine  in  the  Mexieana  district  has  been  operated 
for  many  years  and  yields  ore  assaying  15-3%  Cu,  which  is  reduced  to  66%  matte 
and  shipped  to  Europe.  The  Carranza-Lafone  Copper  Smelting  Corporation  of 
London,  capitalized  at  $3,000,000,  has  acquired  the  mines  and  smelters  in  the 
Capillitas  and  Atajo  districts.  The  construction  of  a  modern  smelting  plant  is 
proposed. 

Bolivia. — ^The  exports  of  barilla  (native  copper)  from  the  port  of  MoUendo 
in  1902  was  3,498,117  kg.,  which  practically  represented  the  entire  output  of 
this  country,  as  the  ore  exported  from  Antofagasta  amounted  to  only  12  tons. 

Brazil. — The  Bahia  Exploration  Co.  has  acquired  copper  claims  50  miles  west 
of  Jaguarary,  which  are  said  to  cany  from  2  to  40%  Cu. 

Canada. — (By  Samuel  S.  Fowler.) — The  copper  deposits  of  British  Columbia 
are  widely  scattered,  generally  occurring  in  the  igneous  rocks  and  their  deriva- 
tives, which  are  extensively  developed  throughout  the  southern  pari;  of  the  Prov- 
ince. The  important  mines  are  found  at  three  general  centers,  viz.:  Rossland, 
in  the  southwest  comer  of  West  Kootenay ;  the  Boundary  portion  of  Yale  district ; 
and  the  southern  part  of  the  mainland  coast,  including  Vancouver  and  other 
islands.  All  of  the  copper  occurs  as  chalcopyrite,  with  pyrite  and  p3rrrhotite, 
and  carries  more  or  less  value  in  gold  and  silver.  The  total  output  of  copper  for 
1902  was  14,818  short  tons  derived  from  the  following  localities:  Rossland  and 
vicinity,  5,834  tons;  Boundary,  7,478  tons;  coast,  1,248  tons;  other  districts,  258 
tons.  The  Rossland  mines  increased  their  output  over  1901  when  serious  labor 
troubles  interfered  with  mining  operations.  All  of  the  Rossland  ores  are  smelted 
to  matte,  either  at  Northport,  Wash,,  or  at  Trail,  B.  C,  in  both  instances  the 
matte  being  converted  elsewhere.  At  Trail  a  considerable  quantity  of  the  Ross- 
land low-grade  ore  is  used  as  a  "dry"'  ore  in  lead  furnaces.  Experiments  in  pre- 
liminary concentration  have  been  tried  extensively  on  these  low-grade  ores,  and 
with  apparent  success.  I  believe  that  successful  commercial  results  may  be  looked 
for  during  1903.  The  Le  Roi  Mining  Co.,  Ltd.,  during  the  fiscal  year  ending 
June  30,  1902,  mined  and  shipped  to  the  Northport  smelter  155,765  dry  tons 
of  ore,  averaging  1*53%  Cu,  0373  oz.  gold  and  0-71  oz.  silver  per  ton,  or  a  total 
value  of  $11-70  per  ton.  In  addition  there  were  shipped  14,333  tons  of  ore  from 
the  dump  valued  at  $10-29  per  ton.  The  yearns  sales  of  matte  amounted  to 
£385,521,  while  the  stocks  of  ore  and  matte  on  hand  were  valued  at  £218,571. 
The  costs  of  mining  were  £124,201,  and  of  smelting  £387,967.  At  the  close  of 
the  year  there  was  a  debit  balance  of  £46,551 — an  unfavorable  showing  which 
was  due  to  the  overestimation  of  the  stocks  of  metal  on  hand,  the  losses  of  copper, 
new  work  and  improvements.  The  Le  Roi  No.  2,  Ltd.,  in  the  year  ending  Sept. 
30,  1902,  shipped  63,262  dry  tons  of  ore  containing  3,001,027  lb.  copper, 
32,436  oz.  gold  and  82,548  oz.  silver,  with  a  gross  value  of  $1,068,916  or  $16-89 
per  ton.  The  costs  of  mining  were  $502  per  ton  and  of  smelting  $7*87  per  ton, 
making  the  total  cost  of  realization  $1289  per  ton.  The  profits  of  the  year's 
operations  were  $224,935,  out  of  which  an  interim  dividend  of  5%  was  paid. 
In  the  Boundary  district,  near  Phoenix,  are  the  mines  of  the  Granby  Co.,  the 
''B.  C.*'  Co.  and  the  Snowshoe  Co.,  and  near  Greenwood,  the  mines  of  the  British 
Columbia  Copper  Co.  and  the  Montreal  &  Boston  Copper  Co.     The  operations 


1?8  THE  MINERAL  INDUSTRY. 

of  these  com])ani(»s,  as  well  as  of  those  in  Rossland,  were  hampered  r^erioiisly 
by  strikes  at  the*  coai  mines  upon  which  they  de[)end  for  cheap  coke  supplies, 
and  the  copper  output  was  therefore  much  less  than  it  would  have  been  under 
more  favorable  (onditions.  The  copper  deposits  in  the  Boundary  district  are 
rsually  of  large  size  and  of  self-fluxing  composition,  and  although  yielding  ex- 
tremely low  values  they  can,  with  possibly  one  or  two  exceptions,  be  worked  at 
a  profit.  The  Granby  Co.  is  engaged  in  the  construction  of  two  new  furnaces 
which  will  bring  its  capacity  up  to  about  2,100  tons  daily.  The  plant  is 
equipped  with  converters  and  handles  the  matte  of  the  two  other  smelters,  so 
that  the  entire  shipment  from  the  Boundary  district  is  in  the  form  of  metal. 
Mining  and  smelting  operations  in  this  vicinity  are  greatly  facilitated  by  the 
supply  of  electric  current  from  the  power  plant  at  Cascade,  B.  C.  From  the 
generating  station  lines  extend  to  the  Granby  smelter  and  to  Phoenix,  a  distance 
of  22  miles.  The  Hall  Mining  &  Smelting  Co.  in  the  Nelson  district,  during 
the  year  ending  June  30,  1902,  mined  and  treated  22,661  tons  of  ore  for  a  yield 
of  £66,179.  The  copper  furnace  treated  22,936  tons  of  ore  from  the  Silv€fr 
King  mine  and  2,558  tons  purchased  from  other  mines.  The  results  of  opera- 
tions in  all  departments  show  a  net  loss  for  the  year  of  £5,946.  In  the  Coast 
districts  much  activity  was  manifested  during  the  year,  smelting  facilities  being 
provided  by  the  Northwestern  Smelting  &  Eefining  Co.,  at  Crofton,  V.  I.,  and 
others.  Unfortunately  one  of  the  largest  mines  became  legally  involved,  and 
on  this  account  the  copper  output  from  the  Coast  mines  was  310  tons  less  than 
in  1901.  This  part  of  the  Province  appears  to  have  a  particularly  bright  future, 
due  to  its  many  good  copper  prospects. 

The  output  of  copper-nickel  ore  in  Ontario  in  1902  was  265,538  tons,  of  which 
233,388  tons  were  smelted  yielding  38,023  tons  of  matte.  The  copper  content 
of  the  matte  was  4,066  tons,  valued  at  $616,763. 

Copper  mining  has  been  carried  on  as  usual  at  Capelton  by  the  Nichols 
^  Eustis  companies,  with  an  output  of  32,938  tons,  valued  at  the  mine  at 
$121,170.  A  quantity  of  12,152  tons  has  been  shipped  to  the  United  States, 
while  the  balance  remains  in  Canada  for  use  at  the  chemical  works  of  Capelton. 
The  Ascot  mine  has  been  worked  during  the  year  for  development  purposes, 
with  a  small  output  of  good  grade  ore.  The  King  &  Norton's  mines  have  also 
been  a  little  developed,  and  the  old  Ballarat  mine,  in  Melbourne,  has  been 
pumped  out  for  examination  purposes.  During  the  year,  there  was  talk  of  es- 
tablishing a  custom  smelter  in  Sherbrooke  or  its  vicinity,  and  if  a  sufficient  supply 
of  ore  could  be  obtained  to  support  it  several  old  mines  would  be  re-opened  and 
new  ones  started,  having  then  a  ready  market  for  their  output,  big  or  small. 
The  district  around  Sherbrooke  is  rich  enough  in  copper  ore  to  encourage  such 
an  enterprise.  A  new  discovery  of  high-grade  copper  ore  has  been  made  near 
Matane,  in  the  county  of  this  name.  The  ore  found  is  mostly  bomite  with  some 
chalcopyrite.  Native  copper  is  also  found  in  small  quantity.  A  local  company 
is  presently  sinking  down  with  a  small  steam  plan,  and  it  claims  to  be  satisfied 
with  the  results. 

Cuba. — There  have  been  no  notable  developments  in  copper  mining  during 


COPPER  MINING  IN  FOREIGN  COUNTRIES.  179 

1902.  The  copper  resources  of  Cuba  are  described  in  The  Mineral  Industry, 
Vols,  IX.. and  X. 

Italy. — (By  Giovanni  Aichino.) — The  only  important  centers  of  copper  min- 
ing at  the  present  time  are  Massa  Marittima,  Tuscany,  and  eastern  Liguria. 
The  once  famous  mines  of  Montecatini  are  now  nearly  exhausted.  The  largest 
producers  in  the  Massa  Marittima  district  are  the  "Bocchegiano,"  the  "Fernice 
Massetana^'  and  the  "Capanne  Vecchie."  Of  these  the  first  named  is  located  on 
a  quartz  vein  enclosed  between  Permian  and  Tertiary  schists  and  averaging  about 
6  m.  in  thickness.  During  the  period  1895-1901,  this  mine  produced  257,332 
tons  of  ore  (pyrite  and  pyrrhotite)  which  gave  an  average  yield  of  3  68%  Cu 
and  28-15%  S.  Of  the  total  product  30,300  tons  were  classed  as  first  grade, 
assaying  1067%  Cu  and  31;97%  S ;  48,040  tons  as  second  grade,  assaying  344% 
Cu  and  40-48%  S:  and  178,992  tons  as  third  grade,  assaying  267%  Cu  and 
2419%  S.  The  Femice  Massetana  and  Capanne  Vecchie  mines  also  exploit  a 
quartz  vein  carrying  pyrite  and  pyrrhotite,  which  ranges  from  a  few  centimeters 
to  20  m.  in  thickness.  The  ore  is  sorted  into  first  grade  (ll%Cu)  and  second 
grade  (3%  Cu).  The  richest  ore  from  these  mines  is  roasted  and  treated  by  the 
Bessemer  process  at  Leghorn,  while  the  poorer  grades  are  heap-roasted  at  the 
mines  and  subjected  to  the  leaching  process  with  the  precipitation  of  the  copper 
by  iron.  The  deposits  in  eastern  Liguria  call  for  no  special  discussion,  as  their 
product  at  present  is  mostly  pyrite.  The  Etruscan  Copper  Estates  Co.  is  develop- 
ing mines  at  Campiglia  which  were  worked  by  the  Etrurians;  the  company^s 
directors  are  very  sanguine  as  to  the  future,  but  competent  engineers  who  have 
examined  the  property  are  much  less  confident. 

Mexico. — (By  James  W.  Malcolmson.  See  also  under  the  sections  "Lead" 
and  "Gold  and  Silver'*  elsewhere  in  this  volume.) — The  advance  of  Mexico  as 
a  producer  of  copper  has  been  very  marked  during  the  past  few  years,  principally 
owing  to  the  developments  of  mines  in  the  State  of  Sonora.  In  1897  Mexico 
produced  11,370  metric  tons  of  metallic  copper,  10,170  tons  of  which  were  from 
the  Boleo  mine  in  Lower  California.  In  1902,  40,000  tons  were  produced,  the 
production  of  the  Boleo  mine  being  10,958  tons.  A  great  amount  of  develop- 
ment has  taken  place  along  the  linos  of  the  railroads,  due  to  the  establishment 
and  the  growth  of  the  custom  smelting  industry.  In  these  smelters  copper  as  a 
vehicle  for  the  concentration  of  silver  and  gold  seems  to  be  steadily  displacing 
lead.  It  is  probable  that  recent  improvements  in  the  metallurgy  of  copper,  and 
the  opening  of  large  deposits  will  increase  considerably  the  quantity  of  the 
precious  metals  so  handled  in  1903. 

Along  the  extension  of  the  Mexican  Central  Railroad  now  building,  between 
Guadalajara  and  Colima,  a  very  important  and  almost  virgin  copper-gold  coun- 
try is  being  rendered  accessible,  and  the  Kansas  City,  Mexico  &  Orient  Railroad 
now  building  between  Chihuahua  City  and  the  United  States-Mexican  frontier 
will  open  up  a  large  field  of  copper  ores  low  in  silver  and  gold  values. 

In  addition  to  the  above  a  fair  quantity  of  copper  is  produced  as  a  secondary 
product  in  the  mining  of  gold  and  silver  ores,  notably  at  Viesca,  Quinteras; 
Piedras  Verdes;  La  Bufa;  The  Lustre  Mining  Co.,  Inde. ;  Cushing  &  Walkup's 


180  THB  MINERAL  mDUBTRT. 

mines,  Durango;  Dolores  in  Matehuala;  Santa  Fe  Chapas;  Bolaaoe;  Barranca 
de  Cobre,  eta 

Sonora.— The  completion  of  the  Nacosari  and  Cananea  copper  smelting  plants, 
the  building  of  two  smelters — ^the  Copper  Queen,  and  the  Calumet  &  Arizona — 
M  Douglas,  Arizona,  on  the  northern  frontier,  mark  a  new  era  in  the  history 
of  mining  in  the  State  of  Sonora.  At  least  one  of  these  smelters  will  be  a  custom 
smelter  and  will  purchase  gold  and  silver  ores  in  addition  to  those  of  copper. 
The  extension  of  railroads  from  these  smelters  into  the  heretofore  undeveloped 
mining  camps  in  the  southeastern  part  of  Sonora  is  now  within  measurable 
distance. 

The  Greene  Consolidated  mines  at  La  Cananea  now  produce  daily  approximately 
1,000  tons  of  ore,  assaying  7%  Cu.  The  ore  reserves  opened  up  by  exploration 
work  during  1902  have  been  phenomenal,  and  there  is  more  ore  in  sight  at  pres- 
ent than  at  any  previous  time,  although  extraction  has  been  maintained  at  a  high 
level  throughout  the  year.  The  Cananea  ore  occurs  as  bonanzas,  the  ore  bodies 
being  an  alteration  of  limestone  and  quartzite  and  as  a  general  rule  carrying 
an  excess  of  silica.  Some  of  the  ore  bodies,  especially  in  the  Oversight  mine, 
are  exceptionally  rich,  assaying  in  large  lots  25%  Cu.  A  concentrator  has  just 
been  installed  with  four  jigs  and  52  Wilfley  tables  capable  of  handling  daily 
600  tons  of  ore,  which  will  produce  200  tons  of  concentrates.  According  to  the 
official  report  of  this  company  the  production  during  the  fiscal  year  ending 
July  31,  1902,  was  26,665  short  tons  of  copper  matte,  which  contained  23,991,617 
lb.  copper  and  194,609  oz.  silver,  and  3,862,880  lb.  copper  bullion  containing 
39,120  oz.  silver  and  342  oz.  gold.  The  ore  smelted  comprised  142,968  tons 
copper  ore  and  52,855  tons  iron  ore,  and  the  average  yield  was  98'%  Cu  and 
1*7  oz.  silver  per  ton.  The  income  for  the  year  was  $802,833,  out  of  which 
$200,000  were  paid  in  dividends,  and  $417,671  set  aside  for  depreciation  and 
legal  requirements. 

At  the  Moctezuma  copper  mine  at  Nacosari,  60  miles  southeast  of  La  Cananea, 
the  ore  is  a  mass  of  crushed  porphyry  on  a  fault  plane,  the  interstices  of  which 
have  been  filled  with  copper  and  iron  pyrites.  All  the  ore  is  concentrated  by 
jigs,  the  jig  tailings  being  re-crushed  and  passed  over  Frue  vanners.  A  con- 
centration of  3  to  1  is  effected.  The  sulphide  concentrates  are  smelted  without 
roasting  and  the  resulting  matte  is  Bessemerizea  in  a  converter  having  a  very 
thick  lining  of  low-grade  gold-silver  quartz  rained  from  an  adjacent  property 
of  the  company.  The  Loomis-Pettibone  fuel  gas  installation  at  this  plant  has 
given  great  satisfaction,  the  consumption  of  fuel  being  under  3  lb.  of  inferior 
cordwood  per  H.P.  per  hour.  The  Santo  Nino  copper  mines  near  the  Yaqui 
River,  east  of  Minas  Prietas,  have  received  some  attention  during  1902,  but 
their  importance  as  producers  of  copper  has  probably  been  exaggerated. 

Chihuahua. — On  account  of  the  decline  in  the  price  of  copper,  the  mines  and 
smelter  of  the  Rio  Tinto  Mexicana  Co.  at  Terrazas,  have  suspended  operations, 
and  work  at  the  Magistral  mines,  west  of  the  city  of  Chihuahua,  has  been  car- 
ried forward  on  a  very  limited  scale. 

Durango. — Very  large  quantities  of  basic  silver-copper  ores  have  been  opened 
up  in  the  Descijbridora  copper  mines,  near  Conejos,  and  the  construction  of  the 


COPPER  MINING  IN  FOREIGN  COUNTRIES.  181 

emelter  is  completed.  After  finishing  the  present  contracted  shipments  of  matte 
to  the  American  Smelting  &  Refining  Co.,  a  Bessemer  plant  will  be  operated  and 
converter  bars  produced.  The  Velardena  copper  properties  have  been  acquired 
by  American  Smelting  &  Refining  Co.  interests,  and  a  railroad  and  concentrating 
plant  is  now  under  construction.  The  Promontorio,  a  copper-gold  mine,  has 
attracted  considerable  attention  during  the  year ;  the  ore  bodies  are  large,  and  a 
concentrator  and  matte  smelter  is  under  construction.  The  Jimulco  Copper  Co. 
produces  monthly  1,800  tons  of  ore  assaying  0*2  oz.  gold,  20  oz.  silver  per  ton 
and  from  9  to  10%  copper.  This  property  is  in  an  almost  entirely  unde- 
veloped region. 

Zacatecas. — The  Mazapil  Copper  Co.  has  maintained  its  high  production,  al- 
though somewhat  handicapped  by  the  scarcity  of  water.  The  Mazapil  district 
produces  approximately  7,000  tons  of  ore  per  month. 

Guerrero. — A  deposit  of  cupriferous  pyrites  has  been  opened  up  in  Campo 
Morado  on  the  Balsas  River,  near  the  terminus  of  the  Mexican  Central  Rail- 
w^ay;  the  ore  lies  on  a  contact  between  shale  and  igneous  conglomerate,  and 
assays  0-2  oz.  gold,  6  oz.  silver,  2%  copper,  40%  iron,  5%  silica  and  45%  sul- 
phur. Over  a  million  tons  are  already  demonstrated  to  be  in  sight  in  the  large 
lens,  and  smaller  lenses  of  higher  grade  ore  have  also  been  discovered. 

Augascalientes. — The  Copper  mines  of  Tepezala,  operated  by  M.  Guggenheim 
Sons,  have  maintained  a  steady  production  of  siliceous  silver-copper  pyrites. 

Michoacan. — The  operations  of  the  Inguaran  Copper  Co.  have  not  increased 
during  the  year.  At  Chirangangueo  the  Angang  Copper  Co.  has  opened  up  large 
bodies  of  copper  pyrites,  but  the  low  price  of  copper  has  prevented  very  energetic 
operations. 

Puebla. — The  p3nritic  deposit  of  basic  silver-gold  zinky  copper  ore  at  Tezuitlan 
has  been  actively  worked.  The  ore  is  now  being  smelted  at  the  rate  of  5,000 
tons  per  month,  converter  bars  being  shipped. 

Baja  California. — The  Boleo  Copper  Co.  maintains  its  steady  production, 
which  is  the  remarkable  feature  of  the  operations  of  that  company.  The  ore 
is  a  cuperiferous  impregnation  of  eruptive  breccia.  The  mine  is  famous  for  the 
"Boleos"  or  pockets  of  azurite,  which  are  found  at  irregular  intervals  in  the 
deposit,  near  the  outcrop.  During  1901,  the  Boleo  Co.  produced  10,956  metric 
tons  copper  from  275,635  tons  of  ore,  the  yield  being  3-95%.  The  total  operat- 
ing profits  were  1,206,502  fr.,  showing  a  large  reduction  from  the  previous 
year.  For  improvements  and  new  machinery  there  was  expended  the  sum  of 
1,744,235  fr.,  while  208,844  fr.  were  set  aside  on  account  of  depreciation,  and 
1,191,925  fr.  for  amortization  and  reserve  funds.  The  smelting  works  have  been 
reconstructed  with  eight  modem  furnaces  of  150-ton  capacity,  and  two  addi- 
tional furnaces  are  in  the  course  of  erection.  Under  a  new  agreement  the 
companVs  product  of  matte  and  bars  is  now  shipped  by  rail  from  Quaymas  to 
New  Orleans  where  it  is  trans-shipped  to  steamers  for  Europe.  The  number  of 
workmen  on  the  company's  rolls  at  the  close  of  the  year  was  3,324. 

Newfoundland. — ^The  production  of  copper  ore  in  Newfoundland  in  1902 
amounted  to  71,482  tons,  valued  at  $247,060,  the  metallic  contents  of  which  were 
estimated  to  be  2,586  tons  of  copper  valued  at  $630,326,     This  copper  ore  was 


182  THE  MINERAL  INDUSTRY, 

ail  exported,  35,947  tons  going  to  Great  Britain  and  35,538  tons  to  the  United 
States.  The  ore  is  smplted  at  the  works  of  the  Nichols  Chemical  Co.,  in  the 
United  States,  and  at  those  of  the  Cape  Copper  Co.,  in  England.  The  report  of 
the  Cape  Copper  Co.,  Ltd.,  for  the  fiscal  year  ending  Aug.  31,  1902,  shows  an  in- 
come from  operations  at  Tilt  Cove  of  £75,176,  and  a  net  profit  of  £11,748.  Dur- 
ing the  year  the  East  mine  produced  49,147  tons  of  ore,  averaging  3-20%  Cu,  the 
South  lode  9,417  tons,  averaging  3 -85%  Cu,  the  North  lode  7,119  tons,  averag- 
ing 3-32%  Cu,  and  the  West  mine  1,896  tons.  Of  the  output,  23,388  tons  were 
shipped  to  Swansea,  Wales,  38,578  tons  to  New  York,  and  8,319  tons  to  Garston. 
The  York  Harbor  property  was  sold  in  December,  1902,  to  an  American  company 
for  $400,000. 

Norway. — The  Sulitjelma  mine,  according  to  reports,  produced  about  66,000 
tons  of  copper  ore  and  pyrite  in  1902.  and  the  Roros  mine  about  25,000  tons. 
The  ore  from  these  mines,  averaging  from  5  to  6%  copper  after  roasting,  is 
smelted  in  American  water-jacket  furnaces  to  matte  carrying  about  40%  copper, 
and  the  latter  is  then  treated  by  the  converter  process.  The  total  cost  of  produc- 
ing fine  copper  is  about  6-8c.  per  pound.  The  sale  of  the  Skjangli  properties 
to  American  capitalists  was  reported.  These  properties  are  situated  in  the 
northern  part  of  the  Scandinavian  peninsula  on  both  sides  of  the  Norway-Sweden 
boundary  line,  and  contain  low  grade  ore  carrying  small  quantities  of  gold  and 
silver.     The  properties  are  as  yet  undeveloped. 

Portugal. — The  report  of  Mason  &  Barry,  Ltd.,  for  the  year  1902,  states  that 
the  quantity  of  ore  raised  was  177,563  tons,  while  the  shipments  amounted  to 
405,111  tons.  The  net  profits  on  working  account  were  £90,495;  the  stocks  of 
ore  and  copper  precipitate  at  the  close  of  the  year  were  valued  at  £90,495. 

Russia. — This  country  consumes  annually  about  22,000  tons  copper,  14,000 
tons  being  imported.  About  90%  of  the  domestic  production  was  furnished  by 
the  Ural  and  Caucasus  districts.  Since  the  Trans-Siberian  Railroad  has  been 
completed,  the  copper  deposits  of  the  district  of  Krasnoyarsk  in  Central  Siberia 
have  been  opened.  A  Russian-English  corporation  has  been  formed,  which  is 
reported  to  have  received  a  concession  from  the  Russian  Government  for  the 
exploitation  of  an  area  of  1,200  acres,  110  miles  from  the  Yenisei  River  and 
directly  connected  with  the  Trans-Siberian  Railroad. 

South  Africa. — The  report  of  the  Cape  Copper  Co.,  Ltd.,  for  the  year  ending 
April  30,  1902,  for  South  Africa,  and  August  31,  1902,  for  London,  shows  a  loss 
in  the  yearns  operations  of  £6,494,  which  with  the  balance  brought  forward  from 
the  previous  year  left  a  credit  of  £158,194.  Out  of  this  sum  a  dividend  of 
£138,000  was  paid,  and  the  balance,  after  deducting  income  tax  of  £5,605,  was 
carried  forward  to  1903.  At  Ookiep  14,691  tons  of  ore  were  smelted  and  at 
Nababiep  10,717  tons.  Operations  were  hampered  by  incursions  of  the  Boers,  who 
inflicted  much  damage  upon  the  mining  and  smelting  machinery.  The  Britii^h 
South  African  Co.  has  granted  mining  concessions  aggregating  560  square  miles 
in  northern  Rhodesia  to  the  Northern  Copper  Co.,  who  in  turn  have  conceded  500 
square  miles  to  the  Rhodesia  Copper  Co.  The  area  covered  by  these  grants  has 
been  partially  explored  with  the  result  that  many  promising  prospects  have  been 
located,  some  of  which  bear  evidence  of  having  been  worked  in  ancient  times 


COPPER  MINING  IN  FOREIGN  COUNTRIES,  183 

Assays  of  ore  from  various  localities  range  from  2*6  to  50%  Cu.  Development 
work  has  been  undertaken  on  an  extensive  scale,  and  the  Rhodesia  Railway,  Ltd., 
has  arranged  to  extend  a  line  to  the  territory  from  Victoria  Falls. 

Spain. — The  Rio  Tinto  Co.,  Ltd.,  during  1902,  realized  on  sales  of  copper  and 
other  items,  including  balance  carried  forward  from  1901,  a  total  of  £1,129,662. 
Of  this  sum  the  following  amounts  were  set  aside:  for  a  fixed  charge  on  pyrites 
and  overburden  account,  £19,053;  the  redemption  of  the  4%  bonds,  £68,440; 
plant  out  of  use  and  charged  oflF,  £1,100;  credited  to  reserve  fund,  £50,000; 
credited  to  provident  fund,  £2,000 ;  total,  £198,306.  Out  of  the  balance,  amount- 
ing to  £912,304,  interim  dividends  of  2s.  6d.  on  the  preference  shares,  less  income 
tax  (totaly  £38,171),  and  228.  6d.  on  the  ordinary  shares,  free  of  income  tax 
(total,  £365,625),  were  paid,  and  dividends  of  28.  6d.  on  the  preference  shares 
(total,  £38,086),  and  27s.  6d.  on  the  ordinary  shares  (total,  £446,875)  were 
recommended,  leaving  a  balance  of  £23,547  to  be  carried  forward  to  1903  revenue 
account.  The  total  quantity  of  ore  extracted  during  1902  was  1,865,289  tons, 
with  an  average  copper  content  of  2-517%.  The  pyrite  ore  invoiced  to  consumers 
in  England,  Germany  and  the  United  States  amounted  to  595,092  tons.  The 
sulphur  ore  shipped  was  117,704  tons.  The  p3rrite  shipped  contained  12,819 
tons  of  copper,  which  with  the  21,659  tons  extracted  at  the  mines,  made  a  total 
output  for  the  year  of  34,478  tons  of  copper.  It  was  estimated  that  the  reserve 
heaps  at  the  mines  contained  142,951  tons  of  fine  copper,  while  the  stocks  at  the 
company's  works  at  Cwmavon,  consisting  of  refined  copper,  copper  in  process, 
in  precipitates  and  in  matte,  amounted  to  4,217  tons.  The  Bessemer  plant, 
erected  in  1901,  was  in  full  operation  throughout  the  year,  and  has  caused  a  sav- 
ing to  the  company  both  in  freight  charges  and  ore  treatment.  The  output  of 
the  refinery  at  Cwmavon,  Wales,  was  20,583  tons  copper.  The  Tharsis  Copper 
&  Sulphur  Co.,  Ltd.,  during  1902  mined  342,692  long  tons  of  ore,  and  produced 
6,708  tons  of  fine  copper.  Nearly  all  of  the  ore  was  taken  from  the  Cataiias 
mine,  as  the  Lagunazo  and  Tharsis  workings  have  been  practically  exhausted. 
The  exports  of  pyrite  amounted  to  382,053  long  tons.  The  total  gross  profits 
of  the  yearns  operations  were  £251,268,  from  which  the  sum  of  £81,666  was 
charged  oflf  for  cost  of  management,  interest,  depreciation,  etc.,  leaving  a  balance, 
with  the  sum  carried  forward  from  the  previous  year,  of  £213,389,  out  of  which 
dividends  amounting  to  £187,500  were  distributed,  and  the  balance  carried  for- 
ward to  the  next  yearns  account.  A  large  amount  of  exploratory  work  was  done 
in  the  Catanas  mine,  and  sufficient  ore  opened  up  to  assure  the  continuance  of 
operations  for  many  years.  The  company  is  seeking  to  acquire  copper  properties 
in  other  countries. 

United  Kingdom. — ^The  Ovoca  Copper  Syndicate,  Ltd.,  capitalized  at  £12,000,  is 
preparing  to  develop  the  Cronebane  mines  at  Ovoca,  County  Wicklow,  Ireland. 
Samples  of  the  ore  assay  from  005  to  26-82%  Cu,  and  average  about  2-99% 
Cu.  A  complete  analysis  of  the  ore  gave  the  following  results:  Cu,  2  79%; 
Zn,  1-5% ;  Pb,  0-31% ;  FeA  and  AlA,  3705% ;  S,  30-7% ;  SiO„  17-5% ;  CaO, 
1% ;  As,  COj,  and  HjO,  915% ;  Au,  1  dwt.  6  gr.  and  Ag,  1  oz,  7  dwt.  12  gr. 
per  long  ton. 


184  THE  MINERAL  INDUBTBT. 

The  Copper  Markets  in  1902. 

New  York. — ^The  course  of  the  market  during  1902  was  very  interesting  in  a 
good  many  respects  and  was  again  followed  with  marked  attention  on  the  part 
of  those  directly  and  indirectly  connected  with  the  industry,  as  well  as  by  the 
general  public.  In  view  of  the  erratic  policy  pursued  by  one  of  the  largest  factors 
in  forcing  the  output  of  its  mines  after  having  accumulated  large  stocks,  and  in 
selling  its  copper  in  a  manner  surprising  and  inexplicable  to  the  more  conserva- 
tive business  men  in  the  trade,  the  impression  gained  firm  footing  that  the  policy 
inaugurated  in  December,  1901,  was  to  be  continued  indefinitely,  that  is,  to  bring 
the  price  down  to  a  very  low  level  and  keep  it  there  at  all  hazards.  There  was 
comparatively  slight  resistance  to  this  movement  from  Europe,  where  business 
throughout  1901  was  rather  disappointing,  and  traders  there  took  full  advantage 
of  this  carefully  nursed  specter,  depressing  prices  long  before  our  manufacturers 
awoke  to  the  fact  that  a  further  heavy  decline  was  imminent.  However,  the 
course  of  events  made  it  apparent  to  the  more  e3q)erienced  authorities  in  the 
trade  on  this  side  that  in  view  of  the  very  large  consumption  in  the  United 
States,  the  popular  estimates  of  the  available  supplies  were  wildly  inaccurate, 
all  signs  pointing  to  a  rapid  decline  of  the  stocks  on  hand.  It  is  true,  production 
showed  an  increase,  in  spite  of  the  prevailing  low  prices.  A  number  of  new  mines 
have  started  active  operation.  On  the  other  hand,  all  the  copper  consuming 
industries  have  been  exceedingly  busy  throughout  the  year.  The  brass  as  well 
as  sheet  mills  have  taken  heavy  quantities  of  copper.  The  railroads  had  to  replen- 
ish their  rolling  stock,  which  was  acknowledged  to  be  inadequate.  The  ship- 
building industry  was  very  prosperous,  and  last  but  not  least,  enormous  quantities 
have  been  sold  for  electrical  purposes.  The  use  of  copper  for  traction  purposes 
seems  to  have  only  just  started,  to  say  nothing  of  local  extensions  of  electrical 
lines  that  are  being,  both  in  America  and  Europe,  extended  to  longer  distances 
and  made  to  connect  cities  as  well  as  points  within  cities.  This  is  evidently 
only  a  forecast  of  the  use  of  electricity  for  long  distance  travel,  and  experiments 
in  that  direction  are  continually  being  made  on  both  sides  of  the  Atlantic.  At 
the  beginning  of  the  year  the  greatest  uncertainty  prevailed  in  the  copper  mar- 
ket, and  it  was  evident  that  the  retrograde  movement  which  had  commenced 
in  November,  1901,  had  not  yet  terminated.  Prices  opened  nominally  for  Jjako 
at  12c.,  electrolytic  at  ll-75c.,  but  very  soon  a  further  cut  of  Ic.  was  made,  fol- 
lowed by  quite  large  sales  at  the  parity  of  10-875c.  and  10-625c.,  respectively, 
at  which  figures  consumers  at  last  operated  freely,  and  speculators  were  not  slow 
to  take  an  interest  in  the  markets,  trying  to  contract  for  whatever  they  could 
lay  their  hands  on.  This  enormous  buying  sufficed  to  put  an  end  to  the  forced 
depression  in  prices  which  had  been  systematically  worked  for  the  two  previous 
months,  and  the  moment  it  was  felt  that  prices  had  about  reached  bottom,  con- 
Bumers  who  had  allowed  their  supplies  to  drop  to  the  lowest  ebb,  purchased  very 
largely,  not  only  for  prompt  delivery,  but  also  as  far  ahead  as  they  possibly  could. 
The  interests  which  had  been  instrumental  in  forcing  prices  down  were  evidently 
unable  to  withstand  the  flood  of  orders  pouring  in  from  all  sides.  Quotations 
advanced  quickly  to  12- 5c.  for  Lake  and  12 -260.  for  electrolytic,  ruling  at  these 


THE  COPPER  MARKETS. 


185 


figures  for  several  weeks.  That  this  advance  had  been  too  rapid  was  evident,  and 
as  soon  as  some  speculators  tried  to  realize,  the  market  commenced  to  ease  oflf, 
and  since  that  time  there  have  been  persistent  efforts  on  the  part  of  the  largest 
operators  to  establish  lower  prices  for  copper  wherever  possible.  During  May 
Lake  copper  declined  to  12 -250.  and  electrolytic  to  12c.,  at  which  figures  the 
market  was  fairly  steady  throughout  June,  but  in  July  the  coal  strike  caused 
manufacturers  to  proceed  cautiously  and  to  restrict  purchases.  Consequently, 
values  suffered,  and  by  the  end  of  August  had  declined  to  11  75c.  for  Lake  and 
11  5c.  for  electrolytic  copper.  September  proved  fairly  steady,  but  in  October 
the  flat  tendency  of  the  Stock  Exchange  and  the  unsettled  state  of  affairs  in  the 
coal  regions,  coupled  \fith  renewed  efforts  on  the  part  of  leading  interests  to 
establish  a  lower  range  of  values,  tended  to  influence  the  market  adversely.  With 
the  exception  of  a  short-lived  upward  movement  toward  the  end  of  the  month, 
dullness  reigned  supreme  for  a  considerable  time,  prices  dropping  slowly,  until 
11 -Sc.  for  Lake  and  ll-25c.  for  electrolytic  was  quoted  at  the  end  of  November. 
The  settlement  of  the  coal  strike  and  a  large  inquiry  from  Europe,  where  business 
at  last  showed  signs  of  improvement,  and  a  good  demand  for  home  trade  caused 
a  buoyant  feeling  to  prevail  during  December,  to  which  prices  quickly  responded, 
the  year  closing  with  Lake  selling  at  ll-75@12c. ;  electrolytic  at  11  625@ll*875c. ; 
and  casting  copper  at  11 -50.  The  tendency  was,  moreover,  apparently  to  a  further 
advance. 


AVERAGE  MONTHLY  PRICES  OF  LAKE  COPPER  PER  POUND  IN  NEW  YORK. 


1806 
1800. 
1000. 
1001. 
1000. 


Jan. 


Ctg. 
1000 
14-75 
10-88 
16-77 

n-8ss 


Feb. 


eta. 
11-28 
1800 
1606 
1600 
12'»78 


Mar. 


Cts. 
1106 
17-54 
16-55 
16-94 
12-188 


April 


Cts. 
1814 
18-48 
1604 
16-04 
11-066 


May. 


June. 


Ct«. 
1800 
18-86 
16-55 
16-04 
18-286 


Cts. 
11-80 
1708 
1600 
16-00 
12-860 


July. 


Cte. 
11-68 
18-88 
16- 16 
16-51 
11-92S 


Aug. 


Cts. 
11-80 
18-50 
16-68 
16-50 
11-649 


Sept. 


Cts. 
1881 
18-46 
1609 
16-54 
11-780 


Oct. 


Cts. 
18-41 
17-76 
16-64 
16-60 
11-788 


Not. 


Cts. 
18-86 
1606 
16-80 
16-68 
11-588 


Dec. 


Cts. 
12-98 
16-40 
16-88 
14-89 
I1-69S 


Year. 


Ct««. 
12-OJl 
1761 
16-5-» 

le-.vj 

11-887 


AVERAGE  MONTHLY  PRICES  OP  ELECTROLYTIC  COPPER  PER  POUND  IN  NEW   YORK. 


Year. 

Jan. 

1899 

Cts. 
14-26 

1900 

16-68 

1901 

16-25 

19(B 

11-058 

Jan.    Feb.    Mar.  April  May.  June    July.  Aug.   Sept.    Oct.    Nov.    Dec.  Yenr 


eta. 

17-08 
15-78 
16-86 
12-178 


Ots. 

16-85 
16-29 
16-42 
!1*88S 


Cts. 

17- 18 
16-76 
16-48 
11-618 


Cts. 

17-20 
16-84 
16-41 
11-866 


Cts. 
16-89 
15-75 
16-86 
12-110 


Cts. 
17-10 
15-97 
16-81 
11 -m 


Cts.  Cts, 
17-48  17-84 
16-85  16-44 
1685  ,16-85 
11  •40411 -490 


Cts. 
16-94 
16-87 
16-85 
11*449 


Cts. 
16-49 
16-40 
16-28 
11-868 


Cts. 
15-85 
16-81 
18-88 
11-480 


16-67 
16-19 
16-11 
ll'(S6 


London, — The  year  under  review  opened  rather  unpropitiously.  While  the 
visible  supplies  were  light,  amounting  only  to  22,051  tons,  the  effects  of  the 
disastrous  break  in  December  were  still  felt.  Although  the  market  had  steadied 
itself  a  little,  January  opened  with  standard  at  £48  17s.  6d.  for  spot  and  £49 
10s.  for  three  months.  There  was  a  fair  consumer's  trade  in  tough  and  best 
selected,  but  as  soon  as  the  market  began  to  rise,  Americans  became  free  sellers, 
with  the  apparent  object  of  reducing  the  price.  The  European  companies  gener- 
ally held  out  of  the  market.  In  February  there  was  a  gradual  advance  until  as 
high  as  £57  was  paid  for  standard.  Another  American  bear  onslaught  followed, 
however,  and  prices  were  beaten  down  below  £52.    When  this  passed,  the  market 


186  THE  MINERAL  INDU8TBT, 

showed  renewed  strength,  rallying  to  £55  10s.  spot  and  £56  three  months;  at 
this  point  some  European  companies  made  large  sales  of  tough  copper  at  £60. 

Early  in  March  the  market  was  weaker,  declining  to  £52  2s.  6d.  for  spot,  with 
a  backwardation  of  58.  on  futures,  but  some  large  purchases  made  by  the  British 
Government  rather  improved  matters.  Consimiers  also  made  some  heavy  pur- 
chases on  the  lower  prices.  The  feature  of  the  situation  about  this  time  was 
the  large  shipment  of  electrolytic  copper  from  America  made  by  the  Amal- 
gamated Co.,  in  consequence  of  which  the  price  of  refined  fell  oflf,  sales  of 
that  variety  being  made  at  very  little  above  the  quotation  for  standard. 

In  April  there  was  a  considerable  speculative  movement  for  the  advance, 
which,  however,  failed  in  its  object,  owing  to  continued  heavy  offers  from 
America.  The  market  at  this  time,  as  well  as  earlier,  was  considerably  puzzled 
by  the  tactics  of  the  American  producers,  whose  main  object  seemed  to  be  to 
keep  prices  at  the  lowest  possible  level.  In  May  there  was  a  better  demand 
from  consumers,  who  generally  required  prompt  delivery,  showing  that  their 
needs  were  urgent.  In  June  the  conclusion  of  peace  in  the  Transvaal  was  used 
as  a  bull  point,  but  produced  little  effect,  and  later  this  was  neutralized  by  the 
unfavorable  influence  of  the  King^s  illness.  A  considerable  trade  for  the  Con- 
tinent sprung  up,  however,  and  large  orders  were  placed  for  electrical  work, 
buyers  being  tempted  by  the  narrow  margin  between  standard  and  electrolytic. 

In  July,  heavy  offers  from  the  United  States  continued,  and  consumers  were 
inclined  to  hold  off,  the  reports  from  abroad  indicating  a  further  possible  fall. 
The  month  closed  with  standard  selling  at  £53  for  spot  and  £53  5s.  for  three 
months.  In  August  a  temporary  rise,  caused  by  short  covering,  was  neutralized 
by  further  reductions  offered  from  New  York,  and  prices  slipped  back  to  £51  5s. 
spot  and  £51  10s.  for  three  months.  The  European  producers  were  apparently 
tired  of  waiting,  and  offered  metal  much  more  freely  than  in  the  early  part  of 
the  year.  September  opened  uncertain,  owing  to  the  contradictory  rumors  as  to 
Amalgamated  policy,  but  some  strength  was  lent  to  the  market  by  the  statement 
of  stocks  prepared  by  Dr.  Ledoux  and  printed  in  the  Engineering  and  Mining 
Journal,  Contradictory  rumors  prevailed,  however,  but  they  did  not  prevent 
consumers  from  making  extensive  purchases.  At  the  close  of  the  month,  how- 
ever, it  was  found  that  manufacturers  were  generally  stocked,  and  copper  closed 
rather  flat  at  about  £51  15s.  spot  and  £52,  three  months. 

Many  people  looked  for  some  recovery  in  October,  but  the  heavy  bear  operation 
in  Rio  Tinto  shares,  which  was  engineered  from  Berlin,  had  an  unfavorable 
effect  on  the  metal  market,  and  prices  declined  to  £51  10s.  for  spot.  At  this  level 
a  considerable  demand  from  consumers,  whose  stocks  were  again  exhausted, 
improved  the  tone,  and  there  was  a  hardening  to  between  £52  and  £53.  Novem- 
ber opened  with  the  visible  supplies  reduced  to  the  low  figure  of  16,657  tons. 
There  was  also  a  fair  consumptive  demand.  Rumors  from  America  of  an  increase 
in  stocks  received  some  belief,  however,  while  the  unfavorable  condition  of  the 
stock  markets  and  the  unsatisfactory  position  of  affairs  in  South  Africa  also 
affected  trade,  and  the  market  closed  flat  at  £49  12s.  6d.  for  spot,  with  about  Ss. 
better  for  forward  copper.  The  only  support  to  the  market  at  this  time  was 
from  the  copper  sulphate  trade,  makers  of  that  article  purchasing  rather  heavily 


TBE  COPPER  MAHKET8. 


187 


of  Chile  bars.  This  had  the  effect  of  improving  the  prices  of  tough  and  best 
selected. 

December  was  a  month  of  some  excitement,  prices  opening  flat,  but  early  in 
the  month  renewed  rumors  of  a  working  arrangement  among  American  producers 
brought  about  a  sharp  advance  of  over  £2.  The  break  of  the  operation  for  the 
fall  in  Rio  Tintos,  marked  by  a  very  sharp  advance  in  those  shares,  also  helped 
the  market.  Unexpected  assistance  was  derived  from  free  purchases  made  by 
consumers  at  the  advance.  The  year  closed  with  a  firm  tendency,  standard  being 
quoted  at  £52  15s.  to  £52  17s.  6d.  for  spot,  with  some  10s.  higher  named  for 
forward  copper. 

One  feature  in  the  market  which  was  noted  throughout  the  year  was  the  per- 
sistent bearing  of  certain  producing  interests.  It  has  happened  very  seldom 
indeed  that  sellers  should  thus  work  directly  against  their  own  apparent  advan- 
tage, and  the  London  market  was  for  the  most  part  thoroughly  at  sea"  as  to 
the  cause  of  this  curious  movement.  It  is  also  to  be  noted  that  Germany  was  a 
light  buyer  throughout  the  year,  owing  to  continued  depression  in  manufacturing 
interest  there ;  while  in  France  trade  was  nearly  stationary  at  a  dull  level  through- 
out the  year. 

AVERAOB  MONTHLY  PRIOES  OP  STANDARD  COPPER  (G.   M.  B.'S)   IN  LONDON. 
rin  pounds  pterlini?  per  long  ton  of  2,iM0  lb.) 


Jan. 

Feb. 

Mar. 

April. 

May. 

June. 

July. 

Aug. 

Sept. 

Oct. 

Nov. 

Dec. 

Year. 

1901 

igO0 

71'7» 
48-43 

71 -17 
6616 

60-64 
^-39 

60-61 
68-T9 

60-60 
5408 

68-88 
68-OS 

6760 

se-8e 

66-84 
61  06 

6607 
58-68 

6411 
62-18 

64-61 
61 -OB 

52-84 
50-06 

66-70 
62-46 

188 


THE  MINERAL  INDU8TET. 


Progress  in  the  Metallurgy  op  Copper  during  1902. 
By  Joseph  Struthers  and  D.  H.  Nbwland. 

The  following  notes  on  the  progress  in  the  metallurgy  of  copper  during  1902 
have  been  abstracted  chiefly  from  the  technical  literature  of  the  year,  in  addition 
to  information  and  criticism  which  have  been  obtained  by  direct  correspondence 
or  discussion  with  practical  metallurgists. 

Automatic  Ore  Sampling. — An  illustrated  description  of  automatic  system  of 
sampling  at  the  smelter  of  the  British  Columbia  Copper  Co.,  at  Greenwood,  B.  C, 
will  be  found  in  the  "Review  of  the  Progress  in  Ore  Dressing  during  1902,"  given 
elsewhere  in  this  volume.  The  results  of  practice  at  this  plant  are  fully  dis- 
cussed in  The  Mineral  Industry,  Vol.  X.,  pp.  206-211. 

Smelting  Ore  and  Matte  at  Leadville  and  Robinson,  Colo} — The  following 
data  of  furnace  working  at  the  Bi -metallic  plant,  Leadville,  and  at  the  plant  of 
the  Robinson  Construction,  Mining  &  Smelting  Co.,  Robinson,  have  been  pre- 
pared by  Mr.  C.  H.  Doolittle,  referring  to  practice  during  the  year  1900.  At 
Leadville,  the  Bi-raetallic  plant  was  equipped  with  three  furnaces  having  cross 
sectional  areas  at  the  tuyeres  of  36X163  in.,  36X176  in.,  and  36X215  in., 
respectively.  The  two  smaller  furnaces  were  used  for  concentrating  the  ore 
into  a  low-grade  matte,  and  the  largest  one  for  concentrating  the  low-grade  matte 
with  the  addition  of  oxidized  siliceous  ores  to  matte  of  a  high-grade.  Cold  air  was 
furnished  by  three  No.  7  Root  blowers,  so  connected  to  the  furnaces  that  each  fur- 
nace could  have  its  individual  blower,  an  arrangement  which  was  found  prefer- 
able. Two  fans,  one  9  ft.,  and  one  6  ft.  in  diameter,  were  connected  with  the 
dust  chamber,  and  the  gases,  after  having  traveled  a  distance  of  300  ft.,  were 
forced  through  towers  in  which  a  water  spray  precipitated  a  large  part  of  the 
fume,  rich  in  lead  and  silver.  The  gases  escaping  from  the  towers  were  damp 
and  were  reduced  to  a  temperature  of  100®  P.,  finally  passing  into  the  atmosphere 
through  a  wooden  stack.  The  power  was  furnished  by  a  450-H.P.  Corliss 
engine.  The  furnaces  were  operated  so  that  the  matte  produced  by  the  ore 
furnaces  was  just  sufficient  for  the  reconcentration  furnace,  and  the  slag  from 
the  reconcentration  furnace,  which  had  to  be  re-smelted,  was  not  too  burdensome 
for  the  ore  furnaces,  but  still  sufficient  to  keep  an  open  charge  m  the  ore  furnaces. 
In  this  manner,  the  locking  up  of  capital  in  large  surpluses  of  low-grade  matte 
and  rich  slag  was  avoided. 

The  analyses  of  the  characteristic  ores  treated  are  given  in  the  subjoined  table : 


Name  of  Mine. 

OoQipoDeiits  of  Ore. 

8HV 

Fe. 

CaO. 

Zd. 

Co. 

Iron  Silver 

l 

88 
8 
98 

86 
T7 

98 
18 
88 
98 
8 
6 

0 

s 

0 
9 
9 

\ 

6 
11 

\ 

0 
9 

U 

IbezM.  Co , 

9*7 

New  Monarch 

8*6 

Marian 

0-6 

Vinnie 

8-0 

Commodore 

0-0 

C^ntennlal'ICiireln 

8*0 

During  March,  1900,  the  three  furnaces  were  in  continuous  operation  and 
treated  9,838  tons  of  ore  containing  Au  2,256  oz.,  Ag  159,811  oz.,  and   Cu 


t  BngineMHng  and  Mining  Journal,  April  11, 1908. 


PR0QRE88  IN  THE  METALLURGY  OF  COPPER. 


189 


314,690  lb.,  which  gives  an  average  treatment  for  each  furnace  of  105-8  tons  of  ore 
per  day.  The  matte  shipped  averaged  Au  2-249  oz.,  Ag  146  oz.,  and  Cu  14  328%, 
and  the  recovery  of  metals  was  An  98-5%,  Ag  95%  and  Cn  90%. 

A  charge  for  the  ore  furnace  consisted  of:  Ore  (sulphides)  2,600  lb.;  limo 
rock,  250  lb. ;  bricked  flue  dust,  300  lb. ;  slag,  1,500  lb.  and  wet  coke  (containing: 
20%  water)  325  lb. ;  total,  4,975  lb.  The  apparent  fuel  consumption  was  12-57^ 
on  the  ore  charged,  but  by  deducting  the  water  from  the  wetted  coke,  the  actual 
consumption  was  10%. 

The  flue  dust  was  bricked  and  fed  in  sufficient  quantities  to  prevent  an  ac- 
cumulation of  this  product.  The  slag  was  produced  in  the  reconcentration  fur- 
nace, and  was  fed  in  order  to  keep  the  charge  of  the  ore  smelting  furnace  in  an 
open  condition.  Ordinarily,  each  of  the  ore  furnaces  averaged  120  tons  of 
ore  per  day.  Great  care  was  necessary  in  feeding  the  furnace  on  account  of  the 
fine  ore  and  the  heating  qualities  due  to  the  sulphur.  A  charge  for  the  con- 
centrating furnace  consisted  of :  Matte,  1,000  lb. ;  siliceous  ore,  600  lb. ;  lime  rock, 
100  lb.  and  wet  coke,  125  lb. ;  total,  1,825  lb.  The  consumption  of  fuel  (dry) 
was  16- T%.  Taking  the  total  quantity  of  ore  treated  during  March — 9,838 
tons — and  the  actual  quantity  of  fuel  consumed — 1,417  tons — ogives  a  fuel  con- 
sumption of  14-4%  per  ton  of  ore  smelted. 

During  reconcentration  the  furnace  was  run  with  a  cool  top  to  avoid  losses  of 
precious  metals  by  volatilization,  the  blast  temperature  being  maintained  at 
about  90® F.  The  physical  condition  of  the  ore  was  such  that  the  charge  would 
keep  open  without  the  addition  of  slag. 

The  chemical  conditions  differed  from  the  practice  at  Leadville,  in  that 
copper  appeared  only  as  traces  in  the  ores  mined.  In  addition,  only  a  small 
quantity  of  copper  ore,  containing  not  more  than  4%  Cu,  was  obtainable  on  the 
market,  hence  the  collector  of  precious  metals  was  practically  an  iron  matte.  A 
good  saving  was  made  for  matte,  due  partly  to  the  copper,  and  more  especially  to  a 
heavy  fall  of  matte.  The  specific  gravity  of  the  slag  was  lightened  by  a  higher 
percentage  of  lime  than  at  Leadville. 

The  price  paid  for  matte  was  $9-45  freight  and  treatment,  95%  of  the  silver, 
$19  per  oz.  for  gold,  and  6c.  oflf  New  York  quotation  for  copper.  This  condition 
necessitated  a  high  concentration  of  30  into  1  as  a  final  shipping  matte,  which  was 
accomplished  by  reconcentration. 

The  analyses  of  the  ores  treated  are  given  in  fhe  subjoined  table: — 


Name  of  Wm, 

Componentt  of  Ore. 

810,. 

Fte. 

Cue. 

Cu. 

Wanhtagtoii 

% 

96 
04 
4 

15 
19 
48 

1 
9 
0 

4^. 

Koiiloson 

Tr. 

Pride 

4 

l^Wntergreep 

1 

The  iron  was  in  the  form  of  pyrite,  FeSj,  except  that  from  the  Wintergreen 
mine,  which  was  pyrrhotite,  Fe^Sg. 

Contrary  to  the  opinions  of  several  metallurgists,  the  use  of  pyrrhotite  in  a  raw 
state  gave  no  trouble  whatever,  and  as  it  carried  1%  Cu,  it  was  desirable  to  use 
it.    A  24-hour  run  on  ore  smelting  was  as  follows : — 


190  THE  MINKUAL  INDUSTRY. 

Tons. 

WaahingtoD  mine  ore 7*60 

Robinson  mine  ore 81  '00 

Wintergreen  mine  ore 36*98 

Total  ore 125-58 

Lime  rock 85*66 

Slag 65*50 

Total  charge 906*78 

Coke 16*60 

Percen  t  fuel  on  ore.  18  *  14 

Slag  assay  and  analysis  were : 

SiO, 41-OjK 

FeO 80*8j< 

MnO 6*6j< 

CaO 17*0j< 

ZnO A0% 

Ag lloa. 

Total 98*8)t 

Analysis  of  re-smelting  matte : 

Ag 4807  oa. 

Cu 0*1^ 

A  24-hoiir  run  on  reconcentration  matte  was : 

Tons. 

Robinson  mine  ore 116*60 

Pride  mine  ore 88*42 

Total  ore 144*98 

Matte 181*58 

Lime  rock 81*90 

Total  cliarge 888*84 

Coke. 14*60 

Peraent  fuel  on  ore 10*00 

Analysis  of  matte : 

Ag 900  OS. 

Au O'Sos. 

Cu 6O*03< 

The  average  fuel  consumed  during  the  time  the  smelter  was  in  operation 
was  13*5%,  being  about  1%  less  than  the  fuel  consumption  at  Leadville.  After 
smelting  3,289  tons  of  ore  the  works  were  shut  do\nTi.  The  quantity  of  flue  dust 
produced  was  2  5%  of  the  ore  treated.  The  cost  of  fuel  and  labor  was  $2  per 
ton  of  ore.  Labor  in  this  case  does  not  include  management,  superintendence, 
etc. 

The  capacity  of  the  ore  furnace  was  75  tons  per  day.  The  slag  averaged 
SiOj  36%,  Fe  36%,  CaO  7%  and  Zn  5%.  A  saving  might  have  been  made  by 
the  addition  of  a  larger  proportion  of  lime  and  less  iron,  but  from  a  commercial 
standpoint,  a  $9  rate  on  a  neutral  basis  on  iron  ore  allowed  a  fair  margin  for  tho 
treatment  of  that  class  of  ore.  The  average  cost  for  the  month  showed  $3  645 
per  ton  of  ore  ti-eated,  including  all  expenses  except  new  construction.  The 
matte  was  shipped  to  the  Philadelphia  Smelting  &  Kefining  Co.  at  Pueblo  and 
treated  for  $3-25  (freight  and  treatment),  allowing  $19*25  per  oz.  for  gold, 
95%  of  the  silver,  and  4c.  off  casting  brand  quotation  for  copper. 

The  Robinson  Construction,  Mining  &  Smelting  Co.  was  equipped  with  one 
stack  having  a  cross  sectional  area  of  36X142  in.  at  the  level  of  the  tuyeres.  A 
rx)der  hot  blast  apparatus  was  attached  to  the  furnace  consisting  of  a  series  of 
pipes  carrying  the  air  in  a  chamber  through  which  the  gases  escaping  from 
the  furnace  pass  on  their  way  to  the  dust  chamber.  The  highest  temperature  of 
blast  obtained  was  200^ F. 

To  the  copper  metallurgist  the  results  shown  by  the  data  given  above  will 
undoubtedly  seem  small  in  tonnage,  but  the  ores  are  similar  to  those  handled 


PROGRESS  IN  THE  METALLURGY  OF  COPPER 


191 


by  lead  smelters  and  the  tonnage  is  fully  equal  to  that  of  the  42X146-in.  lead 
furnace  with  a  20-ft.  ore  column  and  blast  at  a  pressure  of  3  lb.  per  sq.  in. 

All  of  the  ores  above  enumerated  carried  lead  and  zinc,  and  notwithstanding 
the  volatilization  of  the  greater  part  of  the  lead  the  resxdtant  matte  contained 
about  3*%  of  that  metal. 

Smelting  Raw  Sulphide  Ores  at  Ducktown,  Tenn} — (By  W.  H.  Freeland.) — 
The  following  facts  and  statistics  of  operations  were  obtained  at  the  works  of 
the  Ducktown  Sulphur,  Copper  &  Iron  Co.,  Ltd.,  at  Isabella,  Tenn.,  covering 
a  period  of  several  months.  At  first,  little  else  than  6%  matte,  '1)reakouts'* 
and  "chills"  resulted,  but  ultimately  the  efforts  were  successful,  and  the  change 
in  practice  is  to  be  permanently  adopted.  The  smelting  consists  of  two  opera- 
tions^ carried  out  alternately  in  the  same  furnace:  (1)  The  smelting  of  raw  ore 
to  a  low-grade  matte,  about  20%  Cu,  and  (2)  the  concentration  of  the  low-grade 
matte  to  one  containing  about  50%  Cu. 

A  HerreshoflE  furnace  was  used,  having  a  total  depth  of  8-5  ft.,  with  a  cross 
sectional  area  at  the  tuyeres  of  21-7  sq.  ft.  The  forehearth,  proving  troublesome, 
was  replaced  by  a  water-cooled,  blast-trapping  spout  and  an  ordinary  brick-lined 
settler  of  5  ft.  X  4  ft.  X  18  in.  internal  dimensions.  A  No.  6  Connersville  blower, 
driven  by  a  direct-connected  engine,  supplied  the  blast.  Several  campaigns  of 
from  two  to  six  weeks  were  made  without  stopping  the  blast,  the  duration  of  time 
being  limited  only  by  the  necessity  of  shutting  down  to  wash  out  the  silt  from 
the  furnace  jacket,  spout,  etc.  In  a  test  run,  hourly  samples  were  taken  of 
each  constituent  of  the  furnace  charge,  as  well  as  of  the  slags  and  mattes  pro- 
duced. These  were  combined  into  daily  samples  and  reduced  to  laboratory  pulps, 
which,  in  turn,  were  combined  in  proportions  corresponding  to  the  daily  ton- 
nages. The  final  samples,  thus  representing  reliable  averages  of  the  entire  run, 
were  carefully  analyzed.  During  a  165  days'  campaign  there  were  treated 
1,120  tons  ore,  89  tons  quartz,  162  tons  slag,  equaling  a  total  burden  of  1,371 
tons,  exclusive  of  38  tons  coke,  the  coke  consumption  being  equivalent  to  3-4% 
of  the  ore,  or  2-77%  of  the  total  burden.  The  Ducktown  ore  is  pyrrhotite,  carry- 
ing less  than  3%  Cu,  and  no  precious  values.  Full  analyses  of  the  ore,  fiuxes 
and  coke  charged,  and  the  matte,  slag  and  flue  dust  produced  are  given  in  the 
following  table  :— 

DATA  PERTAnnKO  TO   THE  FIHST   OPEBATION    (ORE   SMELTING). 


Cu. 

Pe. 

8. 

810,. 

CaO. 

MrO. 

ZnO. 

A1.0.. 

Hn. 

C. 

etc. 

CO., 
etc. 

Loss  on 
Igni- 
tion. 

Total 

Materials 

1,1,  ,_-t.  ■,_if , 

Ore 

% 

«-744 

% 

86-610 
1-45 

flOtO 

aao 

47-16 

l»-64 
80-80 

% 

S4-848 
0-88 

1-75 

1-68 

84-00 

1-74 
16:81 

% 

18-848 
98TO 

80-90 

8-41 

0-44 

8800 
88-99 

% 

7-894 
0-28 

8-51 

Trace 

010 

8-94 
4-46 

% 

2078 
Trace 

9-71 

Trace 

Trace 

8-44 
1-88 

% 

9*666 

8-88 
None 

806 

1*64 
906 

% 

0-911 
0-88 

1-90 

8-66 

0-89 

1-60 
1-94 

% 

0-77 
Tr. 

0-86 

None. 

0-68 

0-80 
0-66 

% 

% 

% 

a8-188 

*  o-to' 

% 
100 

Qmrts.....  r 

88-86 

60-88 
Ml -87 
6100 

99*88 

Coke  .  .  ..... 

O-TO 

100*80 

100-71 

Products! 

MAtt«    . .    .... 

»00 
S-90 

a4-91 

100 

noedmit.'.!!'.. 

(6)  10-88 
to)  IB' 96 

99-96 

100 

(a)  By  difference.    (6)  By  calculation. 


*  JBn/ffineering  and  Mining  Journal^  flLKy  8, 1908. 


192 


THR  MINERAL  INDUSTRY. 


The  matte  produced  is  represented  by  396  hourly  samples.  Ignoring  frac- 
tions, the  variations  in  assays  ranged  from  11  to  32%  Cu,  averaging  numerically 
for  all  the  samples  21  18%  Cu,  which,  however,  corresponds  practically  to  a  range 
of  from  IG  to  26%  Cu;  the  extremes  beyond  these  limits  being  obtained  during 
the  blowing-in  of  the  furnace  and  under  other  special  conditions  of  working. 

SYNTHESIS   OF   CHARGE   AND   ITS    PRODUCTS    (ORE   SMELTING). 


Cu. 

Fe. 

8. 

SiO,. 

CaO. 

C. 

MgO. 

Zn. 

A1.0. 

Mn. 

Difference. 

(a) 

Chaixe. 
Ore 

Lb. 

lOOO 

80 

145 

Lb. 
2r-44 

"i-oe 

Lb. 

3861P 

116 

56-84 

0-78 

Lb. 
248-48 
0-26 
254 
0-54 

Lb. 
185-48 
77-43 
44-81 
2-86 

Lb. 

re-w 

018 
12-84 

Lb. 

Lb. 
26-72 

Lb 
26-66 

Lb. 

911 

026 

8-76 

1-21 

Lb. 

7-70 

"i-M 

Lb. 
81*88 

O'Tl 

fl^fur 

'28-5i 

8-OS 

418 

15-81 

Coke 

0*10 

*           •" 

Totals 

1259 
42805 

28-60 
25-10 

428-97 
65-75 

251-82 
235-88 

810-58 
6-69 

85*46 
1-26 

28-51 
28-51 

ao-66 

0-35 

29-74 
15-68 

18-84 
1-60 

8-98 
0-78 

17*60 

Deductions  (as  below) 

47-60 

Balance  (+**0"  to  Fe,  Zn 
and  Mn)— Slag 

988-24 

8-40 

858-28 

15-94 

806-80 

84:20 

80-30 

14*  11 

11-84 

8-15 

*»0" 

108' 19 

DEDUCTIONS. 


Products. 

Matte  (20]C  Cu) 

Flue  dust  recovered. 
Volatilized 


122-65 
25-71 
280-59 


24-68 
0-57 


sr-83 

7-98 


29-44 
4-24 


Totals  (deducted  above)..   42895  2510  66-75  236-88     669     186  28-51     085   1568     150     0-7847-60 


0-64 
6- 15 


012 
114 


88-51 


0-85 


8-51 
0-77 
18-85 


1-00 
0-50 


0-64 
0-14 


604 
8-96 
87-58 


(a)  Includes  errors  of  analysis  and  undetermined  COj  and  O. 

From  the  foregoing  tonnages  the  average  charge  is  readily  calculated,  and 
based  on  this  and  on  the  tabulated  analyses,  a  synthesis  of  the  charge  and  its 
products  is  constructed,  which,  if  somewhat  empirical,  is  nevertheless  both  in- 
teresting and  useful.  A  comparison  of  the  composition  of  the  slag  calculated 
from  the  materials  charged  and  the  results  obtained  by  analyses  varied  but  very 
little,  the  results  being  as  follows  (the  calculated  perceutages  being  given  in 
parentheses):  Cu  (0-36),  037%;  Fe  (38183),  3884%;  S  (1-70),  1-74%; 
SiO^  (32  39),  32  60%;  CaO  (8-97),  824%;  MgO  (3-23),  344%;  Zn  (I'SO), 
1  54%;  AI2O3  (1-26),  1-50%;  Mn  (087),  0-80%;  0  (11-54),  10-88%.  Totals 
(100),  99-95%. 


DATA    PERTAINIXG    TO    THE    SECOND    OPERATION    (mATTE    CONCENTRATION). 


Materials  smelted. 

Matte 

Ore 

Laboratory) 
sampUuKS  . . .  f 


Quarts. 
Coke... 


Products. 
Matte... 


Slag 

Flue  dust. 


Cu. 


% 

20.00 
2-79 

2-45 


49-63 


0'60 
2-49 


Fe. 


% 

47-16 
48*26 

81-07 

2-80 

2524 

48*99 
24-79 


% 
24-00 
29*18 

14*84 

0*82 
1-68 

2800 

1*19 
8*91 


SiO,. 


% 

0*44 
1001 

22*66 

96-79 
8-41 


83-72 
81*48 


CaO. 


6*10 
6*82 

6-71 

0-28 
Tr. 

Tr. 

2-08 
8*81 


MgO. 


% 

Tr. 
1-39 

9*08 

Tr. 
Tr. 

Tr. 

0-67 

1-18 


ZnO. 


% 

2*06 
2-56 

2*05 


None. 
1*68 


2-12 
8-81 


A1,0. 


% 

0-82 
1*00 

1-16 

0*82 
8*66 

Tr. 

2- 16 
8-98 


Mn. 


% 

0-5.'? 
0-69 

0*75 

Tr. 
None. 

0-89 

0-50 
0*80 


c. 

0, 
etc. 

cp„ 

etc. 

Loss  oil 
Ipi- 
Uon. 

Total 

% 

a  4-91 

% 

% 

J 

a2-80 

100 

017-29 

100 

^-86 

6  0*88 
61*00 

o-» 

90-88 
100-71 

100*06 

(W  12*86 
(a)  19-86 

90*74 

100 

(a)  By  difference.    (6)  By  calculation. 

The  second  operation,  in  which  occurs  the  concentration  of  the  20%  matte 
to  one  containing  50%  Cu,  occupied  a  few  hours  less  than  three  days,  and,  in 
addition  to  the  matte,  34  tons  of  raw  ore  and  discarded  samplings  from  the  labor- 


PBOOBEaa  m  tbe  metallurgy  of  copper. 


193 


SYNTHESIS    OF 

CHARGE    AND 

ITS    PRODUCTS 

(matte 

concentration). 

Cu. 

Fe. 

S. 

SiO,. 

CaO. 

C. 

MgO. 

Zn. 

A1,0, 

Mn. 

Difference, 
(a) 

Charge. 
90%  matte 

Lb. 
1000 
170 

84 
180 
890 

96 

Lb. 

900-00 
4-74 
088 
117 

Lb. 

471-60 

78*64 

10-50 

68-72 

4-78 

S-19 

Lb. 
24000 
49-60 
605 
8-80 
1-06 
1*60 

Lb. 

4-40 
1708 
7-70 
49*44 
819-41 
7-99 

Lb. 

100 
10-74 

1-94 
18-68 

0-78 
Tr. 

Lb. 
'79-67 

Lb. 

Tr. 

8-86 

0-69 

4-84 

Tr. 

Tr. 

Lb. 
90*60 
4*86 
0*70 
4-61 

8-lft) 
1*70 
0*89 
804 
1-06 
8-88 

Lb. 
6*80 
117 
0*96 
1-86 
Tr. 

Lb. 
49-10 

Raw  ore. 

4-78 

Laboratory  samplings. . . 
Slag 

6-88 
16-90 

Quartz 

2-98 

Coke 

0*87 

TbtalB 

DeducttoM  (as  below) 

1789 
788*86 

906-74 
199-61 

686-99 
104-88 

80001 
986-86 

406-96   8806  79*67 
4-81     0-40  79-67 

7-89 
0-14 

80  16 
6-60 

17*77 
0-«7 

8*09  79-86 
1-61  79-86 

BaUttice(+*H3''toFe,Zn 

apd  Mn>=Blag 

1188-18 

718 

580-96 

1416 

401-16  27-66 

7-86 

88*66 

17*80 

6*48 

"O" 
156-64 

DEDUCnONa 


Matte  (49-6^ 

401-60 

18 

849-76 

199-81 
0-80 

101-86 
8-97 

98*18 

1-07 

198*61 

1*04 
8*77 

Tr. 
0*40 

W-67 

Tr. 
0*14 

6*14 
0*46 

"6-47 

1*67 

Flue  dust  recoTered 

Volatilised 

8*88 
77*48 

Totals 

768*86 

199-61 

104-83 

286-86 

4*81 

0-40 

79*67 

0  14 

6*60 

0-47 

1-61 

79*86 

(a)  Includes  errors  of  analysis  and  undetermined  COi  and  O. 

atory  were  smelted,  the  ore  being  added  to  the  charge  to  keep  the  tenor  of  final 
matte  from  rising  too  high  for  comfortable  running. 

A  comparison  of  the  calculated  and  actual  composition  of  the  slags  during 
the  second  operation  is  as  follows  (the  calculated  percentages  being  given  in 
parentheses):  Cn  (0-60),  0*60%;  Pe  (4407),  43*99%;  S  (120),  1*19%; 
SiOa  (33-93),  33-72%;  CaO  (2*34),  20a%;  MgO  (0-61),  0*67'%;  Zn  (2*00), 
212%;  AI3O3  (1-46),  2ie%;  Mn  (0*66),  0*60%;  0  (13-24),  12-86%.  Totals 
(100),  99*74%. 

The  average  daily  capacity  of  the  furnace,  including  both  operations,  was  60 
tons  raw  ore,  or  116  tons  of  roasted  ore.  In  the  former  case  granulated  slag  was 
used  throughout  the  test  run,  and  a  daily  average  equivalent  to  80  tons  raw  ore, 
has  been  repeatedly  attained  when  lump  slag  was  available.  Hot  blast  would 
probably  increase  the  smelting  capacity,  but  with  a  HerreshoflE  furnace  of  the 
dimensions  of  the  one  used,  the  additional  tax  for  fuel,  coal  heavers  and  firemen 
was  found  to  be  economically  prohibitive. 

The  average  volume  of  the  blast  was  4,500  cu.  ft.  of  air  per  minute  at  a  pressure 
of  17  oz.  per  sq.  in.  Some  incrustation  forms  around  the  furnace  top,  but  not 
in  sufficient  quantity  to  be  troublesome.  At  the  region  of  the  tuyeres,  however, 
a  porous  friable  accretion  bridges  the  furnace  from  wall  to  wall.  Light  is  rarely 
discernible  on  punching  the  tuyeres.  It  may  seem  unreasonable,  but  it  is  never- 
theless true,  that  a  bar  has  been  driven  through  the  furnace,  entering  a  tuyere 
an  one  side,  and  withdrawn  from  the  opposite  tuyere  by  the  naked  hand. 

It  is  my  belief  that  this  condition,  alarming  as  it  would  seem  in  ordinary  smelt- 
ing practice,  is  essential  to  satisfactory  concentration.  The  condition  encountered 
in  barring  the  tuyeres  leaving  no  doubt  that,  for  a  certain  area  surrounding  each 
tuyere,  the  furnace  is  bridged  from  wall  to  wall  and  the  molten  matte  and  slag 
must  find  its  passage  into  the  crucible  through  channels  between  the  tuyeres.  The 
vertical  and  horizontal  sections  of  the  furnace  during  the  operation  would  prob- 
ably appear  as  shown  in  Figs.  1  and  2,  on  the  following  page. 

Granting  the  condition  described,  the  effect  is  that  the  column  of  charge  rest- 


194 


THE  MINERAL  INDUSTRY. 


ing  upon  boshes  and  bridge,  undergoes  a  partial  roasting  in  its  descent^  and  & 
rapid,  fierce  oxidation  as  it  reaches  and  is  held  in  the  constricted  channels.  The 
charge  sinks  evenly  and  uniformly,  rarely  showing  a  hot  top.  The  slags  run  hot 
and  fluid ;  in  fact,  the  furnace  gives  less  trouble  throughout  than  those  smelting 
roasted  ore. 

The  concentrations  eflfected  were  7  3  into  1  in  the  first  operation,  and  2*6  into  1 


i/iriicai ^fUicn  of  J^urnacc  (furnace.. 

Figs.  1  and  2. — Probable  Vertical  and  Horizontal  Sections  of  Furnace 

WHILE  IN  Operation. 

in  the  second,  but  these  by  no  means  represent  the  limits  attainable.  Contrary 
to  the  experience  of  many,  the  reconcentration  of  the  first  matte  presents  no  diffi- 
culties at  Ducktown.  There  is  no  limit  within  the  range  of  matte  to  the  second 
operation.  A  6%  matte  may  be  brought  up  to  a  50%  one  quite  as  successfully  as 
an  initial  matte  of  higher  grade. 

Occasional  samples  of  70%  matte  have  been  assayed  from  the  reconcentration 
of  a  10%  initial  matte,  but  such  conditions,  if  permitted  to  continue,  would 


PB00RE88  IN  THE  METALLURGY  OF  COPPER.  195 

speedily  result  in  a  "chill/*  particularly  with  the  scanty  flow  of  a  small  furnace. 
The  degree  of  concentration,  whether  in  the  first  or  in  the  second  operation  is, 
for  the  most  part,  proportionate  to  the  speed  at  which  the  furnace  is  driven,  and 
is  controlled  by  the  proportion  of  quartz  in  the  charge,  or  the  manipulation  of  the 
blast,  or  both.  But  on  these  seemingly  simple  measures  hinge  not  only  the  grade 
of  the  matte,  but  the  life  of  the  campaign. 

Calculating  the  percentage  of  coke  on  copper  bearing  burden  only,  the  regular 
charge  of  1,000  lb.  ore  carries  30  lb.  coke,  a  quantity  which  is  occasionally  doubled 
for  an  hour,  or  perhaps  two,  on  a  shift.  It  is  due  to  these  causes  that  the  average 
coke  percentage  on  test  run  is  raised  from  3  to  3-4%  in  the  first  operation. 

During  the  second  operation,  the  coke  averaged  8%  on  matte,  etc.  Calculating 
the  coke  of  both  operations  back  to  the  original  ore,  the  total  coke  consumption 
is  4-4%  thereof. 

The  losses  of  copper  in  the  slag  are  0*3?%  in  the  first,  and  0-6%  in  the  second 
operation.  Calculating  both  to  a  basis  of  the  slag  of  the  first  operation,  the 
equivalent  is  0-45%  of  copper,  a  loss  that  should  claim  the  attention  of  all 
familiar  with  the  high  concentration  of  a  low-grade  ore,  particularly  where  settler 
area  is  limited  by  a  small  matte  flow. 

The  flue  dust  recovered  from  both  operations  (almost  wholly  confined  to  the 
first)  was  equivalent  to  53  lb.  per  ton  of  original  ore. 

Despite  the  greatly  reduced  tonnage  capacity  per  furnace,  the  economical 
result  of  raw  ore  smelting  gave  extremely  satisfactory  results. 

New  Copper  and  Lead  Smelters  at  Salida,  Colorado. — The  new  smelting  plant 
of  the  Ohio  &  Colorado  Smelting  Co.  at  Salida,  Colo.,  is  designed  to  treat  600 
tons  of  lead  ores  and  500  tons  of  copper  ores  daily.  The  ore  bins  have  a  capacity 
of  50,000  tons.  .The  copper  furnace  building  is  120X40  ft.  and  contains  two 
furnaces  of  the  ordinary  type,  180X38  in.,  with  flanged  steel  jackets.  These 
furnaces  will  treat  ores  from  various  camps  in  Colorado  and  also  the  rich  cuprifer- 
ous slags  from  the  lead  furnaces  at  this  plant,  of  which  there  are  four. 

Smelting  Practice  at  Santa  Fe,  Mexico. — ^The  special  problems  encountered 
in  the  smelting  of  a  cuperiferous  garnet  ore  are  discussed  by  Henry  P.  Collins.** 
The  ore  mixed  with  10%  of  lime  and  from  1  to  2%  of  wood  ashes,  is  briquetted 
and  smelted  in  a  furnace  of  standard  type,  except  for  an  unusual  angle  of  bosh. 
In  the  first  campaign,  the  separation  of  matte  from  slag  proved  perfect.  The  slag 
averaged  Cu  037%,  gold  0-37  oz.,  and  silver  0-85  oz.  per  ton.  Of  the  copper 
in  the  ore  96-5%  was  recovered,  of  the  gold  95-6%  and  of  the  silver  96%.  The 
quantity  of  ore  smelted  was  1,808  tons,  of  which  706  tons  were  bricked  middlings, 
625  tons  coarse  garnet  middlings,  and  476  tons  selected  garnet  ore.  The  aver- 
age assay  was  Cu  8-58%,  gold  0-677  oz,  and  silver  13-57  oz.  per  ton.  The  quan- 
tity of  matte  produced  was  301,229  tons,  which  averaged  Cu  50-5%,  gold  3-9  oz., 
and  silver  82-65  oz.  per  ton.  The  ratio  of  concentration  was  about  6  to  1.  The 
average  quantity  of  ore  smelted  per  24  hours  was  62-36  tons.  Of  the  ore  charged, 
34-6%  was  garnet  sand,  which  had  all  passed  a  5-mm.  screen.  As  a  rule,  no 
trouble  was  experienced  by  the  sifting  down  of  this  fine  material.    The  average 


••  Abstract  in  th^  Engineering  and  Mining  Journal,  Not.  16, 1909,  of  a  paper  rmd  before  tbe  InstituUon 
of  mntogaiid  Metanurgy,  Oct.  19,1008. 


196  THB  MINERAL  INDUSTET. 

composition  of  the  slag  was  as  follows:  SiO,  41-50%^  AljO,  8-429{?,  FeO  19  28%, 
CaO  29  23%,  MgO  0  3%,  Cu^O  0  45%. 

The  Trail  Sme/<er.— (Through  the  courtesy  of  W.  H.  Aldridge.)— This  plant, 
known  as  the  Canadian  Smelting  Works,  situated  at  Trail,  B.  C,  has  a  capacity 
of  about  1,300  tons  of  copper  and  lead  ores  per  day.  It  is  operated  by  electrical 
power  from  a  station  on  tiie  Kootenay  River,  30  miles  distant.  The  current  of 
20,000  volts  is  transformed  at  the  smelter  to  550  volts,  and  used  to  drive  16 
motors  aggregating  1,000  H.P.,  besides  a  lighting  plant  which  furnishes  the 
smelter  and  the  town  of  Trail.  The  ores  are  purchased  from  all  parts  of  British 
Columbia  and  are  of  such  varying  character  that  great  care  must  be  exercised 
in  handling  and  sampling.  The  copper-gold  ores,  which  are  furnished  mostly 
by  mines  in  the  Rossland  district,  carry  the  chief  values  in  gold,  the  tenor  in 
copper  being  low.  These  ores  are  delivered  at  the  smelter  in  30-ton  hopper 
bottom-dumping  cars,  which  discharge  directly  into  large  receiving  bins  in  front 
of  the  copper  sampling  mill.  The  ore  is  drawn  from  the  bins  into  transfer  cars, 
dumped  into  a  No.  6  Gates  crusher,  having  a  capacity  of  100  tons  per  hour,  and 
crushed  to  3-in.  size;  the  ore  is  then  elevated  by  a  large  bucket  elevator  to  the 
first  automatic  Vezin  sampler.  This  sampler  takes  17  samples  per  minute, 
an  amount  equal  to  one-tenth  of  the  entire  lot.  The  sample  from  this  machine 
is  then  crushed  to  1-5  diameter  by  a  No.  3  Gates  crusher,  after  which  it  passes 
to  No.  2  Vezin  sampler,  which  takes  34  samples  per  minute,  or  one-fifth  of  the 
original  sample,  being  one-fiftieth  of  the  original  lot.  This  sample  is  again 
reduced  by  crusher  and  rolls  to  0-25  in.,  after  which  it  passes  to  the  third  sampler, 
taking  42  samples  per  minute,  and  one-tenth  of  the  second  sample,  or  one-five- 
hundredth  of  the  original  lot.  This  sample  is  further  rolled  and  divided  by 
Jones  riffles,  until  it  weighs  about  20  lb.  It  is  then  taken  to  the  assay  office  for 
further  crushing  and  reducing.  The  ore  from  the  mill  is  either  taken  to  the 
roasting  yard  and  roasted  in  heaps  of  3,000  tons  each,  or  transferred  direct  to  the 
blast  furnace  charge  bins.  There  are  three  large  copper  furnaces,  aggregating 
900  tons  capacity.  The  ores  and  fluxes  are  fed  directly  from  cars  into  the 
furnaces,  hand-feeding  having  been  discontinued.  As  the  plant  is  built  on  a 
sloping  site,  every  advantage  is  gained  by  gravity,  which  reduces  elevating  and 
shoveling  to  a  minimum,  leaving  nothing  but  final  products  to  be  elevated.  All 
transferring  and  hauling  is  done  by  electrical  locomotives  of  10  H.P.  each.  A 
description  of  the  methods  used  in  handling  and  treating  the  lead  ores  will  be 
found  under  "Lead,"  elsewhere  in  this  volume. 

The  Oranby  Smelter. — The  capacity  of  this  plant  is  to  be  increased  by  the 
construction  of  two  new  furnaces — ^making  six  in  all — ^which  will  enable  it  to 
handle  2,200  tons  of  ore  daily,  or  about  800,000  tons  per  annum.  The  furnaces 
are  to  be  of  the  standard  type,  built  by  the  AUis-Chalmers  Co.,  and  will  be  sup- 
plied with  automatic  charging  devices.  New  electrical  equipment  will  also  be 
installed  to  provide  the  extra  power  needed  in  the  enlarged  works. 

New  Copper  Smelter  at  Crofton,  B.  C. — The  construction  of  the  copper  smelt- 
ing works  at  Crofton,  Vancouver  Island,  was  completed  late  in  1902.  The  plant 
is  situated  on  Osborne  Bay,  about  40  miles  by  rail  from  Victoria,  and  is  owned 
by  the  Northwestern  Smelting  &  Refining  Co.     The  furnace  building,  which 


PROGRESS  IN  THE  METALLURGY  OF  COPPBH.  197 

is  73X45  ft.,  contains  one  ordinary  water-jacket  furnace  of  350  tons  daily  ca- 
pacity, one  Qarretson  furnace  of  the  same  capacity  and  a  small  cupola  furnace 
for  remelting  the  matte.  In  the  converter  building  there  are  two  converters  of 
50  tons  daily  capacity,  a  60-ton  electric  crane,  and  a  hydraulic  elevator.  Ample 
facilities  for  sampling  and  assaying  have  also  been  provided. 

Smelting  Practice  at  Greenwood,  B.  C. — The  furnace  results  obtained  at  the 
Greenwood  smelter  of  the  British  Columbia  Copper  Co.  are  discussed  by  Mr. 
Paul  Johnson,"  who  also  makes  some  interesting  observations  and  comparisons 
on  blast  furnace  work  in  general.  The  furnace  operated  at  Greenwood  is 
42X150  in.  at  the  tuyeres,  giving  a  sectional  area  of  43-7  sq.  ft.,  and  is  supplied 
with  a  No.  7-6  Connersville  blower,  which  furnishes  80  cu.  ft.  of  air  for  each 
revolution,  and  averages  150  r.  p.  m.,  showing  an  average  pressure  at  the  furnace 
of  about  14-15  oz.  per  sq.  in.  During  1901  this  furnace  gave  a  daily  average 
output  of  380-5  tons  of  ore,  or  8-7  tons  per  sq.  ft.  of  furnace  area;  the  highest 
monthly  run  showed  a  daily  average  of  428-6  tons,  or  9-8  tons  per  sq.  ft.  of 
furnace  area,  and  the  highest  run  for  a  single  day  was  460  tons,  or  10-5  per  sq.  ft. 
of  furnace  area.  For  a  period  of  six  months  the  slags  gave  an  average  analysis 
as  follows:  SiO^  398%,  CaO  19-6%,  Fe  23  6%,  Cu  0  321%,  while  the  mattes 
for  the  same  period  showed  a  daily  average  of  50- 1%  Cu.  Thus  the  slags  con- 
tained only  00064'%  Cu  for  every  10%  Cu  in  the  matte.  With  an  average  daily 
tonnage  of  422-5  tons,  which  was  maintained  for  several  months,  and  with  a 
staff  of  47  men — including  those  employed  at  the  blast  furnace  works  proper,  as 
well  as  sample  mill  crew,  engineers,  firemen,  blacksmiths,  masons,  carpenters  and 
foremen — an  average  of  9  tons  of  ore  was  handled  for  every  man  employed.  Mr. 
Johnson  advocates  the  use  of  ordinary  blowers  in  copper  smelting  in  preference 
to  blowing  engines  on  the  ground  of  economy  in  first  cost  and  cost  of  running, 
and  the  smaller  percentage  of  flue  dust  produced.  He  favors  also  feeding  by 
hand  in  preference  to  mechanical  feeding,  especially  when  dealing  with  refractory 
ores,  and  claims  that  with  the  former  method,  cleaner  slags  are  made  and  a 
larger  tonnage  can  be  handled.  An  instance  is  cited  where  hand  feeding,  as 
compared  with  mechanical  feeding,  showed  an  average  saving  of  30c.  per  ton  of 
ore  from  cleaner  slags  alone,  which,  with  an  average  daily  output  of  350  tons, 
amoimts  to  $105  per  day. 

Blast  Furnace  Capacity. — ^The  relative  capacity  of  furnaces  of  varying  width, 
working  on  the  same  or  different  ores,  has  been  discussed  by  Messrs.  W.  Randolph 
Van  Liew,*  William  A.  Heywood,*^  James  W.  Neill,®  and  George  W.  Metcalfe.'' 
Mr.  Van  Liew,  referring  to  blast  furnace  operations  in  Montana,  compares  the 
relative  elBBciency  of  two  furnaces  working  on  the  same  ores,  the  one  furnace 
measuring  44X100  in.  and  the  other  56X180  in.  at  the  hearth.  The  56-in.  fur- 
nace was  much  higher  from  the  tuyeres  to  the  charging  floor,  but  the  burden  on 
the  tuyeres  was  kept  as  nearly  as  possible  at  the  same  height.  This  furnace  was 
fed  by  charging  cars  while  the  44-in.  furnace  wps  fed  by  charging  wheelbarrows, 
dumping  directly  into  the  furnace.     The  slags  produced  were  nearly  of  the  same 


*  Engineering  and  Mining  Journal,  Aug.  2S,  1902. 

•TWd.,  March  W.1M8. 

»  JWd..  April  4, 1908.  •  /b  d.,  April  4,  1908.  »  /Wd.,  April  85,  1908. 


198  THE  MINERAL  INDU8TBT, 

composition^  although  those  made  by  the  larger  furnace  not  uncommonly  con- 
ained  from  2  to  3%  more  of  iron.  A  monthly  average  of  the  44-in.  furnace  was 
about  216  tons  per  day,  of  the  56-in.  furnace,  420  tons,  with  a  range  for  the 
latter  of  from  400  to  600  tons.  As  the  former  had  30*6  sq.  ft.  of  hearth  area, 
its  average  was  7  06  tons  per  sq.  ft.  of  hearth;  the  latter  had  70  sq.  ft.  of  area, 
and  its  average  was  6  tons  per  sq.  ft.  of  hearth.    The  44-in.  furnace  required 

19  oz.  blast,  the  66-in.  furnace  required  27  oz.  blast  and  about  10%  more  fuel. 
A  comparison  of  these  results  seems  to  show  that  the  advantage  lies  with  the 
narrower  type  of  furnace,  both  in  regard  to  the  tonnage  smelted  per  sq.  ft.  of 
hearth  area  and  the  economy  of  power  for  blast  pressure.  This  conclusion  is 
substantiated  by  the  results  obtained  from  a  trial  run  with  a  still  narrower  type 
of  furnace,  measuring  35X122  in.  at  the  tuyeres.  This  furnace  showed  a  maxi- 
mum capacity  of  344  tons,  or  11*26  tons  per  sq.  ft.  of  hearth  area,  while  consum- 
ing 7%  coke. 

Mr.  William  A.  Heywood  states  that  the  two  56X180-in.  furnaces  of  the  Ten- 
nessee Copper  Co.  during  a  run  of  28  days,  smelted  a  total  charge,  not  including 
coke,  of  30,096  tons,  or  1,074  tons  per  day  for  the  two  furnaces.  The  total  ore 
smelted  was  36,767  tons,  and  the  coke  used  was  3,269  tons.  The  slags  contained 
an  average  of  0-44  Cu.  There  were  64  men  and  boys  employed  in  the  blast  fur- 
nace department  per  day  of  24  hours,  so  that  the  charge  smelted  daily  was  about 

20  tons  for  each  person  employed.  Mr.  Heywood  is  not  in  favor  of  using  the 
factor  of  tonnage  per  sq.  ft.  of  hearth  area  as  a  standard  for  gauging  the  efficiency 
of  a  furnace,  and  he  states  that  the  results  on  this  basis  throw  the  advantage 
to  the  smaller  furnace  without  regard  to  the  factor  of  economy.  The  best  size  of 
a  furnace  must  be  determined  by  actual  experiment  in  each  case,  and  tonnage  is 
only  one  of  the  elements  to  be  considered.  Experience  in  copper  as  well  as  in 
iron  smelting  appears  to  indicate  that  the  larger  furnaces  are  the  more  economical. 

Mr.  James  W.  Neill  expresses  the  opinion  that  the  width  of  the  furnace  should 
conform  to  the  physical  conditions  of  the  ore ;  that  for  coarse  ore,  which  has  been 
previously  roasted,  the  width  is  limited  only  by  the  penetrating  power  of  the 
blast,  while  fine  material  charged  in  a  wide  furnace  results  in  a  heavy  mass, 
through  which  the  blast  penetrates  only  with  difiiculty.  In  such  a  case,  blow- 
holes" are  formed  with  the  production  of  large  quantities  of  flue  dust  and  conse- 
quent losses. 

The  results  reported  by  Mr.  Metcalfe  have  reference  to  the  new  smelting  plant 
of  the  Anaconda  Copper  Co.  The  furnaces  as  originally  constructed  were 
66X180  in.  at  the  tuyeres,  72X180  in.  at  the  top  of  the  jackets,  and  18  ft.  from 
tuyeres  to  charging  floor.  They  are  charged  by  hand  dumping  of  coke  barrows 
and  mechanical  dumping  of  large  tram  cars  containing  approximately  6,000  lb. 
each. 

The  materials  used  are  Butte  ores,  coarse  concentrates  and  briquettes  of  flue 
dust  and  slimes  fluxed  by  converter  slag  and  limestone.  On  first  starting  up  con- 
siderable trouble  was  experienced  from  heavy  crusts  forming  on  the  ends  and 
sides  of  the  jackets.  Much  of  the  end  crusting  was  done  away  with  by  cutting 
off  the  end  tuyeres — originally  there  were  12  tuyeres  in  front,  14  at  the  back, 
and  3  at  each  end — ^but  the  side  crusts  seemed  to  be  due  to  improper  distribution 


PROGRESS  m  THE  METALLURGY  OF  COPPER.  199 

of  the  charge  owing  to  the  partial  separation  of  the  coarse  and  fine  components 
while  sliding  from  the  car  over  a  sloping  charging  plate  and  falling  three  or  four 
feet  into  the  furnace.  The  tendency  was  for  the  larger  and  heavier  fragments 
to  fall  in  the  center,  the  finer  materials  remaining  at  the  sides.  The  higher  this 
drop  the  more  pronounced  the  sorting  action;  and,  as  the  natural  expedient  of 
keeping  the  furnaces  full  was  found  to  make  even  worse  crusts,  the  experiment 
was  tried,  in  building  two  new  furnaces,  of  making  them  respectively  3  ft.  and 
6  ft.  lower  than  the  original  five  fumacefl.  At  the  same  time,  as  it  was  the  in- 
tention to  run  with  less  depth  of  charge  and  lower  blast  pressure,  the  jackets 
were  drawn  in  at  the  bottom  so  as  to  make  these  furnaces  48  in.  instead  of  66  in. 
wide. 

The  blast  used  on  the  original  five  furnaces  was  28  to  30  oz.,  on  the  No.  6  (15 
ft.  deep)  26  oz.  and  on  the  No.  7  (12  ft.  deep)  24  oz.  Other  blast  pressures  were 
used  at  times,  but  these  were  finally  settled  on  as  yielding  the  best  results. 

During  a  six  weeks'  run  No.  7  furnace  (12  ft.  deep)  averaged  352  tons  of 
charge  per  day  on  10-2%  of  coke,  while  the  four  furnaces  of  the  original  type  in 
that  time  averaged  397  tons  of  charge  per  day  on  9-8%  coke.  During  this  period 
a  constant  attempt  was  made  to  run  No.  7  on  the  same  charge  and  coke  per  unit 
as  the  other  furnaces,  but  it  invariably  became  crusted  badly,  and  had  to  be  put 
on  a  more  fusible  and  ferruginous  charge  with  a  higher  proportion  of  coke  until 
the  crusts  were  burned  out.  As  expected,  however,  it  made  a  higher  matte  than 
the  others,  which  averaged  404%  Cu.  The  average  slag  of  all  the  furnaces 
assayed:  Cu,  019% ;  SiOj,  43-3% ;  FeO,  260% ;  CaO,  21-8%,  and  Al^O.^  80%, 

During  another  six  weeks'  run  No.  6  furnace  (15  ft.  deep)  averaged  383  tons 
per  day  on  97%  coke,  while  the  four  furnaces  of  the  original  type  averaged  407 
tons  per  day  on  9  6%  coke,  all  the  furnaces  being  practically  on  the  same  charge. 
Furnace  No.  6  made  matte  averaging  42*6%  Cu,  the  average  of  the  others  being 
39-7%  Cu.  The  slags  of  all  the  furnaces  averaged:  Cu,  018%;  SiO,,  440%, 
FeO,  260%,  CuO,  21-8% ;  AljO,,,  6-8%.  During  four  of  the  six  weeks  of  this 
latter  experiment  the  jackets  of  No.  3  furnace  were  drawn  in  to  make  the  size 
48X180  in.  at  the  tuyeres,  though  remaining  as  before  18  ft.  in  depth.  Dur- 
ing that  time  it  averaged  397  tons  per  day  on  9-3%  coke,  while  the  three  unal- 
tered 18-ft.  furnaces  averaged  409  tons  on  9-6%  coke.  The  matte  from  No.  6 
averaged  0-5%  less  Cu  than  that  from  the  56X180-in.  furnaces.  Fed  high  and 
blown  the  same  as  the  others  this  furnace  would  nearly  keep  up  in  tonnage,  but 
it  would  make  the  lower  grade  of  matte  with  less  blast,  even  down  to  20  oz.,  and 
fed  low  it  still  made  0&%  poorer  matte,  and,  of  course,  fell  still  further  behind 
in  tonnage. 

None  of  the  changes  seemed  to  have  any  appreciable  effect  in  lessening  the 
crusts  in  the  upper  part  of  the  furnaces,  although  the  18-ft.  furnace  contracted 
to  48X180  in.,  at  the  tuyeres  kept  hotter  and  in  better  shape  at  the  bottom. 
As  the  feeders  became  more  accustomed  to  the  system  of  charging,  however,  it 
has  been  possible  to  prevent  the  formation  of  such  crusts  as  would  seriously  retard 
their  running.  In  the  experiments  on  No.  6  and  No.  7  furnaces  the  differences 
in  depth  interefer  somewhat  with  drawing,  a  conclusion  as  to  the  effect  of  the 
narrower  width  per  se;  while  the  results  on  No.  3,  though  showing  a  decided 


5J00  THE  MINERAL  INDUSTRY, 

increase  in  tonnage  per  sq.  ft.  of  hearth  area,  certainly  do  not  indicate  that  the 
narrower  width  is  in  itself  a  commercial  advantage  in  smelting  such  materials. 
The  resxdts  with  No.  6  which  show  a  slightly  decreased  tonnage  but  an  increased 
grade  of  matte,  and  a  slightly  decreased  power  expense  owing  to  the  lower  blast 
pressure,  may  be  held,  however,  to  indicate  a  commercial  advantage  for  the 
48X180-in.  furnace  of  15  ft.  depth  in  a  plant  where  cost  of  converting  is  an  im- 
portant item. 

Reverberatory  Furnaces  for  Smelting  Copper. — (By  E.  P.  Mathewson.) — ^Prob- 
ably the  largest  installation  of  reverberatory  furnaces  built  in  recent  years  for 
the  smelting  of  copper  is  that  of  the  Washoe  Copper  Co.,  at  Anaconda,  Mont. 
The  plant  consists  of  14  furnaces,  originally  20X50  ft.  hearth  measurement,  set 
)ack  to  back  in  two  rows  and  housed  in  two  steel  buildings  substantially  built 
and  well  ventilated.  Between  these  buildings  is  a  chimney  225  ft.  high,  20  ft. 
internal  diameter,  constructed  of  steel  and  lined  with  brick,  the  connections  to 
the  furnaces  being  made  by  four  main  flues.  One  feature  of  the  original  construc- 
tion was  an  arrangement  for  pre-heating  the  air  by  the  heat  of  the  escaping 
gases  and  the  heat  radiated  from  the  bottom  of  the  hearth.  The  air  was  ad- 
mitted first  to  a  brick  chamber  built  around  the  brick-lined  steel  pipe,  which 
carried  the  waste  gases  to  the  main  flue;  thence  the  partially  heated  air  passed 
beneath  the  bottom  of  the  furnace  in  a  narrow  channel,  passing  from  the  front 
o  the  back  four  times  before  rising  in  a  cast  iron  box  to  the  top  of  the  furnace ; 
thence  to  a  sheet  steel  box  above  the  bridge  wall,  being  finally  admitted  to  mix 
with  the  gases  from  the  fire  box,  through  checker  work  in  the  roof  above  the 
bridge  wall,  the  draft  of  the  furnace  being  sufficient  to  draw  in  the  hot  air. 
In  remodeling  the  furnaces  this  arrangement  was  omitted,  as  it  was  considered 
more  important  to  retain  the  heat  in  the  bottom  of  the  furnaces  than  to  use  it 
for  pre-heating  the  air  furnished  to  the  top  of  the  charge,  more  rapid  smelting 
being  accomplished  by  keeping  the  matte  in  the  furnace  as  hot  as  possible. 

In  building,  the  plant,  every  convenience  to  facilitate  the  handling  of  materials 
was  arranged  for.  The  ashes  from  ash  pits  are  sluiced  away  by  waste  water 
from  the  concentrating  department,  and  the  slags  are  granulated  and  washed 
away  to  the  dump  by  the  same  means.  The  matte  is  tapped  from  time  to  time 
into  large  ladles  holding  11  tons  and  drawn  by  compressed  air  locomotives  to  the 
converting  department,  where  the  still  molten  matte  is  dumped  from  ladle  to 
converter  to  be  blown  to  copper.  The  air  necessary  for  the  combustion  of  the 
fuel  was  forced  under  the  grates  by  fans,  the  ash  pit  being  closed  by  cast  iron 
doors.  Each  furnace  had  an  average  daily  smelting  capacity  of  100  tons  of 
calcines.  The  fuel  used  was  obtained  from  Diamondville,  Wyo.,  and  consisted  of 
"run-of-mine^*  coal  of  the  following  composition:  Water,  1*6%;  volatile  com- 
bustible, 38*7% ;  fixed  carbon,  49-2%,  and  ash,  10-5%.  This  coal  gives  very 
satisfactory  results  under  natural  draft,  but  with  forced  draft,  it  does  not  act 
so  well. 

In  the  former  practice,  the  time  lost  in  grating  the  furnace  averaged  three 
hours  per  day  per  furnace,  and  during  the  grating  (which  occupied  one-half 
hour  at  a  time)  the  front  of  the  furnace  became  cooled  and  the  slag  frequently 
set  near  the  skimming-door.    At  the  suggestion  of  Capt.  W.  M.  Kelly,  Furnace 


PR0QRE8B  IN  THE  METALLURGY  OF  COPPER. 


201 


No.  9  was  remodeled  on  the  lines  of  the  best  furnace  at  the  old  Anaconda  works, 
and  an  extra  large  fire  box  was  constructed  in  order  to  give  every  chance  possible 
for  the  furnace  to  work  without  forced  draft.  *  The  grates  were  ordinary  bar  iron 
with  open  ash  pit.  The  flues  were  changed  to  permit  of  a  more  direct  connection 
without  sharp  bends,  and  the  down-takes  for  escaping  gases  were  enlarged.  The 
results  obtained  in  the  modified  furnace  were  excellent  at  the  start,  and  the  good 
record  has  been  satisfactorily  maintained. 

In  consequence  of  the  improvements  in  Furnace  No.  9,  the  other  furnaces  were 
altered  accordingly,  and  the  work  under  the  new  conditions  made  a  very  ex- 
cellent showing,  as  set  forth  by  the  following  data:  Average  tonnage  of  calcines 
treated  per  furnace  per  day  was:  January,  1903,  106-6;  February,  115-7  tons; 
March,  123-84  tons,  and  April,  133-53  tons.  The  fuel  consumption  averaged 
one  ton  of  coal  to  three  tons  of  calcines  treated,  and  it  may  be  stated  that  this 
good  average  will  be  still  further  improved.    The  total  supply  of  coal  delivered 


Is  I  in  |I 


&    3   11    I  as 


Note: 


Time 
The  time  of  stoldng  is  indicated  thus:  ou 


^lUaena  ladwtcjs.  VoL  XI 


Fig.  3. — Chakt  showing  Variation  op  Temperatube  during  Smelting. 


to  the  plant  is  charged  up  as  weighed,  and  during  the  months  under  review 
(January  to  May,  1903)  much  of  this  coal  was  consumed  in  starting  up  new 
furnaces  and  in  tapping  out  old  ones.  The  best  record  for  fuel  consumption 
yet  obtained  on  a  single  furnace  is  1  ton  of  coal  to  407  tons  of  calcines,  the 
output  of  the  furnace  being  171  tons.  Under  the  present  conditions  the  fur- 
naces carry  an  even  heat  and  no  time  is  lost  in  grating.  The  materials  sent 
to  the  furnaces  are  carefully  weighed  in  charge  cars  (20  tons  to  the  charge) 
which  are  weighed  back  when  empty  each  trip.  The  weighing  and  tramming 
are  done  by  a  set  of  men  entirely  separate  from  the  furnace  crew  and  under 
a  separate  foreman.  The  coal  weights  are  checked  monthly  by  the  railroad 
car  weights  and  check  within  1-5%  of  the  latter — ^the  variation  being  over- 
weight. All  material  for  the  furnaces  is  handled  by  compressed  air  locomotives 
and  is  loaded  in  hopper-^bottom  cars  which  discharge  into  the  hoppers  above 
the  furnaces. 


202 


THE  MINERAL  INDUSTRY. 


Under  the  improved  conditions  of  working,  the  aggregate  cost  of  coal,  labor 
and  repairs  has  been  reduced  by  more  than  $1,000  per  day.     The  following  de- 


_L 


GTTTMl^ITr 


^SgkF 


=.  I  -%T 


^0:^,j^.^txb$^^^^^^ 


'^^7=^^M^^^^^=^i 


us^i^ 


les 


*»- 


^^Ti&d  Brick 
BZI  CI*/  Fin?  Bricic 
ES  auica  Brlclc 


Irrglt 


Pig.  4. — Plan  of  Original  Furnace. 


IUmmI  JMimj.  Tgl. » 


^^W 


5^^^ 


^^^^^^S^S 


EI3    Hed  Brick 
C~~J    Ony  Fire  BriEk 
1:1:3    flUlea3rlek 


Fig.  5. — Plan  of  Remodeled  Furnace. 


tails  of  furnace  operations  are  of  interest:  Draft  in  Down-take=l-5  in.  of  water: 
Analysis  of  material  charged.— Cu,  lOS^o  ;  SiOo,  33  2%  ;  FeO,  39-5% ;  S,  "i^Jo. 


PBOQUEsa  TiV  TUB!  METALLURGY  Oil'  COPPSH. 


203 


Analysis    of    slag    produced.— Cu,    0-39% ;    SiOj,  41-4% ;  FeO,    45-8% ;    and 
CaO,  31%.     Copper  content  of  matte  produced,  47-44%. 

During  March,  1903,  three  of  the  old  style  furnaces  were  still  in  operation, 
which  reduced  the  average  tonnage.  The  modified  furnace  treated  on  the  average 
135  tons  of  calcines  per  day,  and  each  of  the  old  furnaces  when  re.modeled  will 
have  a  capacity  of  140  tons  per  day,  with  fuel  consumption  of  1  ton  of  coal  to 
3-5  tons  of  calcines  smelted.    Another  important  change  now  being  installed 


^      H  m^H\  iLlustrj,  VoLU 

Fia.  6. — Longitudinal  Section  op  Obioinal  Purnaob. 


ij]^4i;ijt[^p.|i;[;s.i 1^ 


iMi^||S^^Sl»^^H^ 


Jlli«r^  tniliutr^,  VdL  XI 


Fig.  7. — Longitudinal  Section  of  Remodeled  Furnace. 


is  the  placing  of  a  300-H.P.  Stirling  boiler  between  each  reverberatory  furnace, 
and  the  main  flue,  the  idea  being  to  utilize  the  waste  heat  of  the  gases  escaping 
from  the  furnaces.  These  boilers  had  been  tried  once  before  at  the  plant,  but 
they  were  then  installed  in  the  same  manner  as  for  direct  coal  firing,  and  al- 
though the  boilers  themselves  made  excellent  records,  the  output  of  the  furnaces 
to  which  they  were  attached  fell  20%  below  those  that  had  no  boilers.  In  the 
new  setting,  the  idea  has  been  to  give  free  passage  through  the  boiler,  and  ample 


204  THE  MINERAL  INDV8THT. 

down-take  beyond,  in  order  to  facilitate  the  escape  of  gases  as  nuich  as  possible. 
Furnace  No.  11,  which  was  arranged  in  this  manner,  has  given  excellent  results, 
the  draft  on  each  side  of  the  boiler  corresponding  to  16  in.  of  water.  The  tem- 
perature of  the  gases  at  the  inlet  of  the  boiler  was  2,380°  F.,  while  at  the  outlet 
,t  was  1,100°F.  Allowing  34  5  lb.  of  water  per  horse  power  hour  from  and  at 
^12°F.,  and  feeding  the  water  at  47-2°F.,  the  boiler  tested  340  H.P.,  which  cor- 
responded to  a  saving  in  coal  alone  of  $70  per  boiler  per  day.  The  steam  pressure 
was  155-7  lb. 

The  chart  (see  Fig.  3)  prepared  by  6.  A.  Hutchinson  from  readings  of  a  Le 
Chatelier  pyrometer,  shows  the  variation  in  the  temperature  during  the  smelting 
of  the  20-ton  charge  in  Furnace  No.  11.  The  changes  made  in  the  furnace 
are  clearly  shown  in  Figs.  4,  5,  6  and  7,  from  which  it  is  noted  that  the  improved 
furnace  has  a  higher  roof,  and  that  the  hearth,  which  is  19X49  ft.  in  area,  is 
contracted  toward  the  front  of  the  furnace;  in  addition,  a  few  minor  changes 
lave  been  made  about  the  fire  box,  and  the  connections  between  the  furnace  and 
the  main  flue  have  been  altered  so  as  to  provide  a  more  direct  passage  for  the  exit 
of  the  furnace  gases. 

Cost  and  Profit  in  Pyritic  Smelting  of  Low-Grade  Copper  Ores, — F.  H.  Pren- 
tiss* gives  a  number  of  tables  and  charts  from  which  may  be  estimated  the  cost 
of  producing  copper  by  pyritic  smelting.  A  series  of  11  type  copper  ores  are 
taken  ranging  in  composition  as  follows:  SiOj,  from  36  to  67%,  Fe,  from  7  to 
22%,  S  from  10  to  25%,  CaO  10%  and  Cu  3%,  and  the  various  smelting  factors 
of  quantity  and  cost  of  fuel,  flux  and  labor,  both  for  cold  blast  smelting  and  hot 
)last  smelting,  the  loss  of  silver  and  copper  and  the  power  required  have  bet^n 
calculated  for  each  type. 

Another  set  of  tables  is  given  which  assumes  a  certain  cost  for  mining  and 
general  expenses,  and  shows  the  profit  per  ton  by  direct  smelting,  the  loss  in  con- 
centration that  would  offset  gain,  and  the  extra  profit  made  by  using  sulphides 
to  reduce  barren  flux  under  concentration  losses  of  30,  25  and  20%.  A  diagram- 
matic chart  has  been  prepared  on  which  are  plotted  the  t}T)e  of  ores  with  refer- 
ence to  silica  content,  the  matting  value  in  dollars  per  ton  of  ore,  and  the  profit 
per  ton  derivable  by  smelting,  as  well  as  by  concentration  prior  to  smelting.  From 
these  data  it  is  an  easy  matter  to  ascertain  at  once  the  relation  of  the  process  to 
be  followed  with  reference  to  the  composition  of  the  ore.  Other  diagrammatic 
charts  are  given  concerning  the  quantity  of  flux  required  per  ton  of  each  type 
ore  and  the  quantity  of  slag  resulting  therefrom  modified  by  the  type  of  slag  to 
be  produced,  also  the  cost  of  mining,  and  that  of  smelting  with  both  hot  blast 
and  cold  blast.  Charts  are  also  given  showing  the  limit  of  concentrating  and 
smelting  and  other  factors  of  treatment  under  special  conditions.  Absolute  fac- 
tors cannot  always  be  determined  from  these  charts  as  it  has  been  impracticable 
to  include  all  the  variables  of  smelting  and  concentration  practice,  yet  they  are 
interesting  and  valuable  as  the  graphical  presentation  of  complex  problems  facili- 
tates greatly  the  study  of  the  various  factors  involved. 

Heated  Blast  in  Copper  Smelting. — C.  A.  Grabill*  gives  a  few  notes  of  the 
smelting  of  copper  ores  in  the  furnace  of  the  Val  Verde  Copper  Co.  at  Val  Verde. 

•Mining  and  Scientific  iV«M,  May  10  to  June  14, 1902.  •  Engineering  and  Mining  Journal,  April  18, 1902. 


PROGRESS  m  THE  METALLURGY  OF  COPPER, 


205 


The  ore  and  concentrates  were  smelted  in  a  round  shaft  furnace,  48  in.  in  diame- 
ter, having  attached  a  Bretherton  hot-blast  stove.  A  daily  average  of  52,000  lb. 
of  ore  and  45,000  lb.  of  slag  and  flux  (mostly  slag)  were  treated  with  a  fuel  con- 
sumption of  4,950  lb.  of  ordinary  coke  from  Colorado.  The  iron  for  the  slag 
was  derived  entirely  from  sulphide  ores  and  concentrates,  the  latter  containing 
from  7  to  11%  of  arsenic.  The  lime  necessary  was  fortunately  available  in  a 
copper  ore  from  the  mines  of  the  company.  Calculations  showed  a  daily  com- 
bustion of  7,380  lb.  of  arsenic  and  18,000  lb.  of  sulphur.  A  concentration  of  12 
to  1  was  made  in  one  operation  with  a  practical  elimination  of  all  of  the  arsenic 
contained  in  the  charge.  On  account  of  the  stated  economy  of  the  Bretherton  hot- 
blast  stove,  the  fuel  consumption  was  reduced  to  4  6%  calculated  on  the  net  quan- 
tity of  ore  smelted ;  the  high  efficiency  being  aided  to  some  extent  by  running  the 
furnace  with  a  cool  top  and  the  utilization  of  the  heat  generated  by  the  combus- 
tion of  a  part  of  the  volatile  sulphur  and  a  part  of  the  arsenic.  The  ores  in  the 
vicinity  of  Prescott  are  generally  siliceous  in  character,  a  factor  which  aids  ma- 
terially in  their  treatment  by  pyritic  or  allied  smelting. 


Pig.  8. — Cross-  and  Longitudinal  Section  op  Furnace,  showing  the 
Truck  Support.     (Mather.) 

The  Herreshoff  Roasting  Furnace, — Mr.  J.  B.  F.  Herreshoff  has  patented^®  and 
arrangement  of  the  shelves  of  his  circular  calcining  furnace  whereby  the  ore 
is  passed  toward  the  apertures  of  the  shelves,  and,  in  combination  with  spouts 
extending  between  the  shelves,  is  directed  in  its  passage  from  one  shelf  to  the 
next  shelf  below  in  such  a  manner  that  it  is  protected  from  the  influence  of  the 
draft  through  the  furnace. 

Furnace  Construction. — H.  A.  Mather,  in  a  paper  read  before  the  American 
Institute  of  Mining  Engineers,  1902,  described  a  truck  support  for  furnace  bot- 
toms. 

While  this  device  is  not  new,  it  failed  to  be  of  practical  utility  until  the  upper 
and  lower  water-jackets  were  supported  by  hanging  them  from  an  I-beam  frame, 

«•  United  states  Patent  No.  729,170,  May  86,  1908.  ' 


Jtod  TBE  MINERAL  INDUSTRY. 

independently  upheld  by  iron  columns^  instead  of  resting  the  entire  weight  of 
the  structure  on  the  bottom  of  the  furnace^  as  in  former  construction.  The  Col- 
orado Iron  Works  installed  this  device  at  two  furnaces  for  the  Westinghouse  in- 
terests near  Ely,  Vt,  and  the  furnace  of  the  Grand  Prize  Copper  Co.,  of  Gila 
County,  Ariz. 

The  jack-screw  supports  (Pig.  8)  and  the  familiar  iron  bottom  of  former  prac- 
tice are  retained  as  integral  parts  of  this  new  furnace  bottom.  The  jack-6crews 
are  supported  on  and  bolted  to  two  I-beams  extending  the  length  of  the  furnace 
and  placed  immediately  beneath  and  parallel  to  its  sides.  These  I-beams  are 
bolted  to  and  supported  by  three  steel  axles  equipped  with  small  flanged  wheels, 
the  whole  constituting  a  carriage  which  runs  freely  on  a  track.  The  entire  ap- 
paratus is  movable  or  rigid  at  will,  for  the  wheels  are  easily  braced  if  the  tension 
of  the  tightened  jack-screws  does  not  serve  to  hold  it  in  position.  The  jack-screws 
have  a  play  of  10  in.,  and  the  false  bottom  is  9  in.  deep,  including  the  firebrick 
cover. 

The  time  occupied  in  cleaning  and  preparing  a  frozen  furnace  for  active  service 
is  lengthened  by  the  necessity  of  working  in  a  confined  place  where  the  tempera- 
ture is  uncomfortably  high  and  the  debris  must  be  removed  from  the  bottom  of  the 
furnace  before  the  false  bottom  of  fire  clay,  coke-breeze,  etc.,  can  be  repaired  or 
replaced;  furthermore,  the  superimposed  bottom  is  almost  invariably  destroyed 
when  the  iron  plate  is  pried  from  the  supporting  jack-screws,  and  no  renewal  is 
practicable  until  the  plate  is  once  more  installed  beneath  the  furnace.  These  dis- 
advantages are  for  the  most  part  removed  by  the  use  of  the  truck  support.  Work- 
ing results  have  shown  a  reduction  of  at  least  50%  of  the  time  lost  by  the  freezing 
up  of  a  furnace.  The  work  of  barring  down  and  renewing  the  false  bottom  pro- 
ceeds simultaneously. 

The  Oarretson  Furnace. — Oliver  S.  Garretson,  assignor  to  Garretson  Furnace 
Co.,  Pittsburg,  Pa.,  has  patented"  a  process  of  matte  or  pyrite  smelting  which 
consists  in  subjecting  the  molten  matte  to  a  converting  or  Bessemerizing  blast 
underneath  a  column  of  material  which  contains  a  flux,  removing  the  slag,  and 
subjecting  the  slag  to  the  action  of  a  blast  underneath  a  column  of  sulphur-bear- 
ing material. 

The  Treatment  of  Low-grade  Siliceous  Copper  Ores. — (By  Edward  D.  Peters.)  ** 
— ^The  processes  which  appear  economically  applicable  to  the  treatment  of  low 
grade  siliceous  copper  ores  are:  (1)  Direct  smelting;  (2)  mechanical  concentra- 
tion, followed  by  the  smelting  of  the  concentrates  and  the  lixiviation  of  the  tail- 
ings; (3)  lixiviation  of  the  ore  direct  with  a  solution  of  ferrous  chloride  and  salt; 
(4)  lixiviation  of  the  ore  direct  with  hydrochloric  and  sulphuric  acids,  which  are 
regenerated  in  the  solution  by  the  precipitation  of  the  copper  from  a  chloride  solu- 
tion  by  means  of  sulphurous  acid ;  (5)  lixiviation  of  the  ore  direct  with  sulphuric 
acid;  and  (6)  the  Rio  Tinto  method  of  gradual  lixiviation  in  heaps. 

1.  Direct  Smelting. — ^Wherever  it  is  in  any  way  practicable,  the  American  met- 

»  United  states  Fat«nt  No.  728.701,  May  10,  lOOS. 

>*  Abstracted  In  the  Engineering  and  Mining  Journal,  June  6. 1903,  from  a  paper  and  diacuflBfon,  read  he- 
ton  the  Institution  of  Mlnins:  Enfclneera,  Newcastle-upon-Tyne,  England,  May  and  December,  1V».  Mr. 
Peters'  paper  is  a  contribution  to  the  discussion  of  an  article  by  Mr.  E.  J.  Mnir,  In  which  the  latter  gave  resalts 
of  tests  nuide  upon  an  Australian  olliceous  copper  ore.  For  the  interpolations,  glTen  within  parmthesea,  the 
Editor  of  the  Engineering  and  Mining  Journal  is  responsible,  and  not  Dr.  Peters.  The  dlscuasion  is  repro- 
duced because  it  concerns  a  practical  subject  and  giTes  the  views  of  an  authority. 


PBOQRKSa  m  THJS  METALLUROT  OP  COPPER.  JO? 

allurgist  prefers  smelting  to  any  form  of  wet  process.  The  perfect  continuity  of 
the  operation,  the  ease  and  simplicity  with  which  the  unpnlverized  ore  pursues  its 
steady  course  from  the  mine  to  the  blast-furnace,  from  the  blast-furnace  to  the 
converter,  and  from  the  eonverter  to  the  refinery,  lend  themselves  to  operations  on 
a  very  large  scale,  and  permit  the  substitution  of  mechanical  appliances  for  hand 
labor  to  an  extent  unapproachable  in  any  other  method.  Another  great  advantage 
of  smelting  is  the  almost  complete  recovery  of  the  precious  metals  present,  with 
but  little  extra  cost.  Direct  smelting  may  also  be  used  with  ores  containing  a 
very  considerable  excess  of  silica,  and  a  corresponding  deficiency  of  iron  in  the 
ore.  This  was  most  clearly  pointed  out  by  Mr.  P.  R.  Carpenter  in  the  Deadwood 
&  Delaware  Smelter  in  S.  D.,  who  demonstrated  conclusively  that  highly  siliceous 
ores,  containing  a  little  pyrite,  and  with  extremely  expensive  coke,  could  be 
smelted  direct  in  the  blast-furnace,  with  the  production  of  slags  containing 
50%  SiO„  30%  CaO  and  MgO,  and  only  16%  PeO.  The  lime  and  magnesia 
were  added  to  the  ore  in  the  form  of  barren  dolomite ;  20  to  30  tons  of  ore  pro- 
duced 1  ton  of  matte;  the  slags  were  exceedingly  clean,  and  the  precious  metals 
and  copper  (very  little)  that  were  contained  in  the  ore,  were  almost  entirely 
recovered  in  the  matte. 

The  most  interesting  features  of  this  unusual  type  of  smelting  are  the  fusi- 
bility of  the  very  acid  silicate  of  lime  and  magnesia  with  but  little  iron,  and 
the  high  rate  of  matte  concentration.  The  latter  result  is  due  to  the  very  acid 
slag,  which  decomposes  the  pyrites  present,  carrying  their  iron  contents  into 
the  slag  as  ferrous  oxide.  It  is  not  always  understood  by  blast  furnace  smelters 
that,  other  things  being  equal,  an  acid  slag  means  a  high  grade  matte,  while  a 
basic  slag  is  accompanied  with  a  low-grade  matte.  Mr.  Peters  has  only  gone  into 
this  detail  in  regard  to  the  direct  smelting  of  very  siliceous  ores  in  the  blast- 
fumaoe  in  a  raw  state,  in  order  to  call  the  attention  of  metallurgists  to  possi- 
bilities that  may  solve  certain  difficult  metallurgical  problems.  In  the  case 
of  an  absence  of  silver  and  gold  in  the  ores,  and  the  non-existence  of  limestone 
ores  for  fluxing  purposes,  with  a  high  cost  of  fuel,  the  metallurgist  would  be 
compelled,  most  reluctantly,  to  give  up  the  idea  of  direct  smelting. 

2.  Mechanical  Concentration,  PoUowed  by  the  Smelting  of  the  Concentrates 
and  the  Lixiviation  of  the  Tailings. — ^Mr.  Peters  has  met  with,  or  been  cognizant 
of,  so  many  diflBculties  and  failures  in  attempting  to  concentrate  low-grade,  dis- 
seminated copper  sulphide  ores,  that  he  has  always  advised  exhaustive  mill  tests 
on  a  large  scale  before  venturing  to  use  this  method.  It  is  only  suitable  for  ex- 
ceptional ores  and  conditions.  In  reference  to  the  results  of  tests  quoted  in  this 
discussion  by  Mr.  Muir,  it  is  obvious  that  the  results  themselves  are  stronger 
arguments  against  the  employment  of  this  process  than  any  that  the  writer 
could  advance.  (The  experiments  of  Mr.  J.  J.  Muir  were  made  on  an  Australian 
ore  containing  Cu  3-94%^  Pe  9-55%,  SiO^  50  15%,  AlA  16-85%,  S  19-51%, 
and  alkalies  undetermined.  A  concentration  test  yielded  a  product  representing 
7-277%  of  the  original  ore,  but  the  assay  gave  only  1112%  Cu,  with  28-40%  Pe 
and  14-40%  SiO^.  The  tailings  carried  3-37%  Cu,  so  that  the  recovery  was  only 
81%  of  the  copper  content.*") 

>•  TranmctionM  of  th€  Imtitution  of  Mining  Xngineert,  190S,  Vol.  XXm.,  pp.  620  and  581. 


208  THE  MINERAL  INDUSTRY. 

Without  attempting  to  analyze  his  experiments  in  detail,  Mr.  Peters  would 
simply  point  out  that  the  results  of  Mr.  Muir's  concentrating  tests  show  a  saving 
in  the  concentrates  amounting  to  about  20%  of  the  original  copper  contained  in 
the  ore,  and  a  loss  of  nearly  80%  in  the  tailings.  This,  of  course,  means  no  con- 
centration whatever,  and  there  must  be  some  reason,  not  apparent,  why  Mr.  Muir 
attempted  to  concentrate  at  all. 

If  a  portion  of  the  copper  in  the  ore  were  present  in  the  shape  of  some  mineral 
that  would  exercise  an  injurious  effect  upon  the  subsequent  lixiviation,  and  if 
this  mineral  had  a  higher  specific  gravity  than  the  remainder  of  the  sulphides 
present,  there  might  be  some  question  of  attempting  to  remove  it  by  concentra- 
tion. But,  as  the  20%  of  the  copper  that  was  removed  by  concentration  had,  as 
Mr.  Peters  underetands,  exactly  the  same  chemical  composition  as  the  80% 
left  in  the  tailings,  he  fails  to  see  the  use  of  employing  concentration ;  nor  does 
he  believe  that  these  ores  should  be  subjected  to  concentration.  (It  will  be 
understood  that  Mr.  Peters  is  referring  solely  to  the  ordinary  methods  of  wet- 
concentration  in  making  this  statement,  and  that  he  is  not  expressing  any  opinion 
as  to  the  results  that  might  be  obtained  by  one  or  two  novel  patented  methods 
of  which  he  has  no  personal  experience.) 

It  seems  to  Mr.  Peters  most  advantageous,  therefore,  to  subject  the  entire 
mass  of  ore  to  lixiviation,  rather  than  to  complicate  matters  and  increase  ex- 
penditure by  any  preliminary  concentration. 

3.  Lixiviation  of  the  Ore  Direct  with  a  Solution  of  Ferrous  Chloride  and  Salt 
(old  Hunt  &  Douglas  Method). — Considerable  quantities  of  ore  have  been  suc- 
cessfully worked  by  this  process  in  the  Ignited  States.  The  method  depends  upon 
the  fact  that  copper  oxide  is  decomposed  by  ferrous  chloride  solutions,  forming 
insoluble  ferric  oxide,  while  the  copper  goes  into  solution  as  cuprous  and  cupric 
chlorides.  It  is  precipitated  in  a  very  pure  metallic  form  by  iron,  the  ferrous 
chloride  solution  being  thus  also  regenerated,  and  requiring  only  the  addition 
of  a  little  salt  to  fit  it  for  further  use.  The  consumption  of  metallic  iron  in 
this  method  is  very  small,  since  much  of  the  copper  is  in  solution  as  cuprous 
chloride.  As  the  copper  must  be  in  an  oxidized  form  in  order  to  go  into  solu- 
tion quickly  and  thoroughly,  the  ore  will  require  a  preliminary  roasting  of 
sufficient  thoroughness  to  convert  most  of  the  copper  present  into  oxide  or  sul- 
phate. This  means  that  the  ore  must  be  crushed  dry,  though  not  to  nearly  so 
fine  a  state  as  would  be  required  for  its  concentration.  Therefore,  instead  of 
wet-crushing  followed  by  concentration,  the  writer  would  suggest  dry-crushing 
followed  by  roasting. 

It  is  impossible  to  make  a  comparison  of  the  costs  of  these  two  different  plans 
of  operation  without  being  accurately  acquainted  with  the  physical  and  chemical 
character  of  the  ore  under  consideration.  By  the  use  of  modem  high-speed 
rolls  of  great  diameter  and  weight,  and  of  the  automatic  reverberatory  roasting- 
furnaces  so  general  in  use  in  the  Ignited  States  and  elsewhere,  the  cost  of  dry- 
crushing  and  roasting  should  not  exceed  the  cost  of  wet-crushing  and  concentra- 
tion, while  the  condition  of  the  pulp  for  lixiviation  is  incomparably  better  when 
produced  by  the  former  treatment.  Apart  from  the  advantage  gained  by  the 
coarser  condition  of  the  pulp,  and  tlie  much  lesser  proportion  of  very  fine  powder. 


PROGRESS  m  THE  METALLURGY  OF  COPPER.  209 

the  ore  undergoes  a  physical  change  in  roasting,  which  makes  it  much  like  sand 
and  gravel,  and  enables  the  solutions  to  permeate  it  with  a  completeness  and 
rapidity  that  are  quite  surprising.  The  advantages  thus  gained  will  only  be 
fully  appreciated  by  those  who  have  had  experience  in  leaching  the  same  ore, 
both  before  and  after  roasting.  They  are  so  great  that,  in  several  instances  in  this 
country,  tailings  are  roasted  previous  to  lixiviation,  solely  for  the  purpose  of 
improving  theil*  physical  condition,  and  of  increasing  the  thoroughness  and 
rapidity  of  the  latter  operation. 

Mr.  Peters  desires  to  emphasize  this  dry-crushing  and  roasting  as  being,  in 
his  opinion,  the  most  important  step  toward  a  successful  leaching  of  these  ores 
by  the  methods  that  he  has  called  Nos.'3,  4  and  5. 

4.  Lixiviation  of  the  Ore  Direct,  with  Hydrochloric  and  Sulphuric  Acids, 
which  are  Regenerated  in  the  Solution  by  the  Precipitation  of  the  Copper  from 
a  Chloride  Solution  by  Means  of  Sulphurous  Acid  (new  Hunt  &  Douglas 
Method). — By  this  method  the  copper  is  precipitated  from  its  chloride  solution, 
by  means  of  sulphurous  acid  gas,  which  throws  down  the  copper  as  a  very  heavy 
white  cuprous  chloride,  that  settles  almost  instantaneously.  Sulphuric  and  hydro- 
chloric acids  are  generated  in  the  solution,  which  only  requires  the  addition  of 
salt  to  make  it  ready  for  further  use.  One  great,  advantage  of  this  method 
is  the  rapid  dissolving  of  the  oxidized  copper  present  by  the  strongly  acid  solu- 
tion, which  even  attacks  sulphides  with  considerable  energy.  Any  lead  and  silver 
present  remain  undissolved.  The  ores  require  to  be  roasted,  as  in  the  previous 
process.  A  supply  of  pyrite  is  essential  to  the  ec»jnomical  working  of  this  method, 
and,  of  course,  it  is  very  advantageous  if  these  pyritic  ores  contain  some  metal 
of  value. 

5.  Lixiviation  of  the  Ore  Direct,  with  Sulphuric  Acid. — ^Mr.  Muir  has  al- 
ready considered  this  method  in  his  paper,  though  he  confined  it  to  the  treat- 
ment of  the  tailings  after  concentration.  Mr.  Peters  can  only  add  that,  if  lixivia- 
tion is  at  all  suited  to  the  fine  tailings  and  slimes  from  the  concentrating  process, 
it  is  still  more  feasible,  and  much  more  economical,  when  employed  upon  the 
coarsely  crushed  and  roasted  ore;  and,  that  instead  of  taking  11  weeks  for  the 
extraction  of  the  copper,  it  is  probable  that,  with  roasted  ore  an  equally  perfect 
extraction  would  be  accomplished  within  2  or  3  days. 

(In  this  connection  reference  may  be  made  to  the  process  patented  by  Mr. 
James  W.  Neill.  Sulphurous  acid  is  used  to  leach  the  copper.  This  method 
was  described  in  the  Engineering  and  Mining  Journal,  May  30.  1901,  from 
which  the  following  is  now  quoted:  The  native  copper  oxides  and  carbonates 
are  readily  soluble  in  sulphurous  acid  with  the  formation  of  cuprous  sulphite 
(CuaSOg).  This  salt  is  insoluble  in  water,  but  soluble  in  water  containing 
sulphurous  acid,  from  which  the  copper  can  be  precipitated  by  driving  oflf  the 
excess  of  sulphurous  acid  by  heat.  The  precipitate  is  cupro-cupric  sulphite 
(CuSOg,  CU2SO3+2H2O),  and  contains  491%  Cu.  This  salt  is  a  heavy,  crystal- 
line compound,  of  a  dark  red  color,  which  settles  readily  from  the  solution,  and 
can  be  washed  by  decantation,  dried  and  reduced  to  metallic  copper  by  fusing  on 
the  hearth  of  a  reverberatory  furnace.  The  process  is  suitable,  both  for  sulphide 
and  oxidized  ores,  the  former  being  first  roasted  to  expel  the  sulphur  and  con- 


210  THE  MINERAL  INDUSTRY, 

vert  the  copper  compounds  into  oxides^  as  sulphurous  acid  does  not  attack  sul- 
phides. The  ideal  ore  is  one  carrying  copper  oxides  or  carbonates  in  a  siliceous 
gangue ;  lime  and  magnesia  are  objectionable,  as  they  dissolve  in  sulphurous  acid 
and,  while  they  do  not  materially  interfere  with  the  reactions,  they  consume  a 
certain  amount  of  sulphur  and  so  increase  the  cost  of  the  process.) 

Sulphurous  acid  produced  by  roasting  pyrite  is  the  cheapest  chemical  procur- 
able in  the  western  country,  and  the  plant  is  much  simpler  than  that  used  in 
making  sulphuric  acid.  A  unit  of  copper  converted  into  cuprous  sulphite  requires 
but  half  the  sulphur  that  would  be  required  to  convert  it  into  cupric  sulphate. 
Cuprous  sulphite  is  precipitated  from  the  solution  without  the  use  of  scrap  iron, 
which  is  a  great  advantage  in  remote  districts.  In  southern  Utah,  for  instance, 
scrap  would  cost  from  $40  to  $50  per  ton,  and  from  2-5  to  3*5  lb.  iron  are 
required  to  precipitate  1  lb.  of  copper  from  sulphuric  acid  solutions,  owing  to 
the  large  amount  of  basic  salts  formed.  Sulphurous  acid  dissolves  very  small 
amounts  of  other  metals  that  may  be  in  the  ore,  and  the  precipitated  cupro- 
cupric  sulphite  is  practically  pure  and  furnishes  pure  copper  by  a  simple  smelt- 
ing operation. 

6.  The  Rio  Tinto  Method  of  Gradual  Lixiviation  in  Heaps. — ^Mr.  Peters  agrees 
with  Mr.  Eissler  in  having  a  strong  leaning  toward  this  process  of  slow,  but 
inexpensive,  lixiviation,  in  cases  where  the  climate  is  suitable,  and  where  the 
chemical  and  physical  condition  of  the  ore  favors  the  gradual  and  persistent 
formation  of  sulphates.  (In  the  Rio  Tinto  method  the  poor  coarse  ore  is  built  up 
in  the  form  of  large  conical  heaps,  10  to  15  ft.  high  and  about  20  to  30  ft.  apart. 
A  fire  is  then  lighted  in  each  of  these  and  the  mixed  lump  and  fine  ore  is  filled  in 
between  them.  The  gas  produced  by  combustion  mixes  with  the  steam  generated 
from  the  moistened  mass  and  permeates  the  whole  mass  of  4,000,000  tons  of  ore. 
After  burning  slowly  for  a  period  of  four  to  six  months,  water  is  turned  on  so  as 
to  dissolve  out  the  copper  sulphate.  This  percolation  and  leaching  process  con- 
tinues for  about  five  years,  the  liquor  being  caught  below  in  dams  or  large  reser- 
voirs built  of  masonry,  the  copper  being  precipitated  on  scrap  iron.^*) 

At  certain  Portuguese  mines,  such  as  the  San  Domingo  works,  a  slow  process 
by  weathering  was  formerly  employed  on  pyrites  containing  copper.  For  thi^ 
treatment  the  soft,  more  permeable  ores  are  begt  adapted.  Heaps.,  containing 
from  100,000  to  250,000  tons  of  material,  are  built  up,  their  assay  content  rang- 
ing from  1-5  to  2%  Cu.  About  88%  of  the  total  copper  is  extracted  in  the  course 
of  six  years,  the  remaining  12%  being  recoverable  only  by  a  long  and 
unprofitable  continuance  of  the  same  treatment.  At  San  Domingo  as  much  as 
3,000,000  tons  have  been  under  treatment  at  a  given  period.  Plenty  of  stone  flues 
are  distributed  on  the  surface  of  the  ground  and  the  mineral  is  dumped  over 
them.  These  flues  are  connected  one  with  another  longitudinally  and  trans- 
versely, and  at  intervals  they  communicate  with  the  outer  air  by  vertical  stone 
shafts.  The  object  of  this  arrangement  is,  of  course,  to  provide  a  plentiful  supply 
of  air  in  order  to  prevent  the  heaps  taking  fire.  This  last  is  detrimental  because 
the  sintering  of  the  material  obstructs  the  subsequent  leaching  of  the  copper. 

Before  precipitating  the  copper  it  is  necessary  to  reduce  the  ferric  salts  present 

>«  Tbs  Minbral  Ikdubtrt,  VoL  n.,  p.  896. 


PR00RE88  IN  THE  METALLURGY  OF  COPPER.  211 

in  the  solution.     This  is  done  by  filtering  the  liquor  through  copper  sulphide 
ores.    The  operation  takes  place  in  large  dams,  by  a  prolonged  contact  in  the 
course  of  which  the  reduction  takes  place  as  presented  by  the  formula: — 
Cu,S+6Fe2(SOj3=2CuSO^+10FeS04+4S08. 

The  liquors  are  then  run  through  a  series  of  settlers  and  then  pass  to  the  pre- 
cipitating plants,  where  the  copper  is  caught  on  scrap  iron.^*^ 

Mr.  Peters  fears,  from  the  description  of  the  ore  given  by  Mr.  Muir,  that,  in 
the  present  instance,  the  percentage  of  sulphides  might  not  be  large  enough  to 
maintain  the  energetic  and  persistent  chemical  action  necessary  for  the  gradual 
decomposition  of  tiie  chalcopyrite,  and  the  formation  of  soluble  salts  of  copper. 

There  is  another  very  serious  objection  to  the  Kio  Tinto  method  that  does  not 
always  weigh  sufficiently  with  the  metallurgist,  who  confines  his  attention  too 
closely  to  the  perfection  of  his  technical  results,  namely:  The  time  and  money 
required  to  demonstrate  on  a  large  and  safe  'scale  that  any  given  ore  will  evicntu- 
ally  yield  up  its  copper  to  this  slow  and  tedious  process.  There  is  also  great  dif- 
ficulty in  finding  reliable  deposits  of  sufficient  size  to'  yield  the  enormous  quanti- 
ties of  ore  of  a  nearly  identical  composition  that  are  required  for  the  profitable 
installment  of  this  method,  as  well  as  in  raising  capital  willing  to  wait  so  long 
for  returns. 

Becapitulation. — After  enumerating  the  six  methods  of  treatment  that  seem  to 
Mr.  Peters  to  be  best  suited  to  these  ores,  he  has  eliminated  the  first  two,  namely : 
(1)  Direct  smelting,  and  (2)  mechanical  concentration  and  lixiviation  of  the 
tailings.  The  slow  Rio  Tinto  method  of  leaching,  \vhich  he  has  called  No.  6,  de- 
mands most  careful  consideration  in  the  few  cases  where  the  magnitude  of  the 
ore  bodies  and  of  the  financial  resources  will  permit  of  its  application.  This 
leaves  only  the  three  methods  of  direct  and  rapid  lixiviation  of  the  ore  without  any 
previous  mechanical  concentration.  An  intimate  knowledge  of  local  conditions 
and  costs,  wide  technical  experience  with  modem  lixiviation  methods,  and  long 
and  careful  experiments  on  an  extensive  scale,  on  the  ore  to  be  treated,  can  alone 
decide  the  method  to  be  chosen.  Mr.  Peters  is  pretty  well  convinced,  however, 
that  if  the  choice  should  fall  upon  any  one  of  these  three  methods,  it  will  be  found 
advantageous  to  crush  the  ore  dry  and  to  roast  it,  before  lixiviation. 

Proposed  Process  for  the  Extraction  of  Copper  from  Low-grade  Ores. — 
G.  D.  Van  Arsdale**  proposes  to  extract  copper  from  low-grade  ores  by  means 
of  a  hot  copper  sulphate  solution  acidified  with  sulphuric  acid.  After  the  copper 
has  been  extracted  from  the  ore,  the  solution  is  allowed  to  drain  through  a  tower 
packed  with  coke  or  other  materials,  at  the  same  time, allowing  sulphur  dioxide 
gas  to  pass  up  from  below,  so  that  the  gas  is  absorbed  by  the  solution.  The  sul- 
phur dioxide  gas  may  be  obtained  either  by  using  converter  flue  gases,  or  by  roast- 
ing sulphide  ores.  The  solution  is  drawn  off  from  the  bottom  of  the  tower  and 
run  into  a  lead-lined,  steel  pressure  tank  and  heated  to  100°C.,  whereby  a  pressure 
of  about  30  lb.  per  sq.  in.  is  obtained.  As  a  result  of  this  treatment,  50%  of  the 
copper  is  precipitated,  the  reaction  taking  place  in  two  stages  as  follows : 

>•  ** Treatment  of  Cupreous  Iron  Pyrites  as  Carried  on  at  the  Portuguese  Mines,'*  by  J.  Henry  Brown; 
Journal  of  the  Soeiety  of  Chemical  indu»iry.  Vol.  XIII.,  pp.  478  and  478. 
t«  United  States  Patent  No.  7»,940,  March  8, 1906. 


212  TEE  MINERAL  INDU8TBT. 

3CuS04+3SO»+4H,0=Cu,S03.CuS03+4H,SO, ;  Cu,S08.CuS0,+4H2S0^= 
Cu+2CuSO^+2HjSO^+2SOa+2H,0.  By  neutralizing  the  solution  and  reheat- 
ing, 50%  of  the  copper  remaining  in  the  solution  may  be  precipitated.  Instead 
of  neutralizing,  the  solution  may  be  used  to  leach  fresh  ore,  and  the  process  re- 
peated. The  precipitated  copper  may  be  directly  melted  and  cast,  or  if  impure, 
it  may  be  added  to  the  furnace  charge.  The  solution  used  to  leach  the  ore 
dissolves  iron  and  other  metals  present,  as  well  as  copper ;  these  impurities  accu- 
mulate in  it  and  must  be  removed  from  time  to  time,  which  can  be  done  easily  by 
neutralizing  the  solution,  heating,  and  injecting  air,  whereupon  the  iron  is  pre- 
cipitated, carrying  down  the  other  impurities.  Before  leaching  the  ore,  any  sul- 
phur dioxide  present  in  the  solution  must  be  removed,  which  is  accomplished  by 
heating. 

Proposed  Process  of  Extracting  Copper  from  Its  Ores. — ^Adolf  von  Gemet 
has  patented*'  a  process  of  extracting  copper  from  its  ores,  which  consists  in  slowly 
passing  the  ore  in  the'form  of  pulp  through  a  current  of  sulphurous  acid  passed 
in  a  direction  opposite  to  that  of  the  travel  of  the  pulp. 

Elimination  of  Impurities  from  Copper  Matte.^''^ — (In  connection  with  the  fol- 
lowing experiments  on  the  relative  rates  and  points  of  elimination  of  impuri- 
ties during  the  Bessemerizing  process,  reference  may  be  made  to  the  article  on 
"The  Elimination  of  Impurities  from  Copper  Mattes,*'  which  appeared  in  The 
Mineral  Industry,  Vol.  IX.) — According  to  W.  Randolph  Van  Liew,  a  con- 
verter was  selected  which  was  starting  on  its  second  charge.  The  first  charge 
after  lining  had  finished  its  copper  ^Tiot,*'  and  consequently  no  copper  was  adher- 
ing to  the  sides  of  the  lining.  All  the  copper  and  granulated  slag  from  the  pre- 
vious charge  were  dumped,  thus  removing  any  possibility  of  "salting**  the  matte 
to  be  tested.  The  converter  worked  fast  and  well  during  the  entire  test.  Periods 
of  ten  minutes  were  selected.  The  converter  was  brought  from  the  stack  to  se- 
cure each  sample  of  matte  to  be  analyzed,  and  only  that  time  counted  during 
which  air  was  being  forced  through  the  charge. 

At  the  end  of  40  minutes*  actual  blowing,  the  matte  was  up  to  white  metal, 
the  point  at  which  the  last  skimming  takes  place;  that  is,  matte  of  approxi- 
mately 76-4%  Cu.  From  this  point,  of  course,  average  samples  of  the  contents  of 
a  converter  are  impossible,  since  from  this  skimming  point  up  to  finished  copper, 
the  contents  of  a  converter  consist  of  constantly  varying  proportions  of  matte 
and  copper,  which,  when  a  converter  is  brought  from  the  stack  and  the  blast- 
pressure  turned  off,  settle  according  to  their  specific  gravity.  When  the  charge 
is  completed,  a  granulated  sample  of  finished  copper  is  obtained  and  assayed. 
Accurate  chemical  analyses  of  these  equal-period  samples  of  matte  and  copper 
are  given  in  the  table  on  the  following  page. 

The  accompanying  illustration  (Pig.  9)  shows  graphically  the  course  of  the 
process  of  elimination.  In  this  figure,  the  line  of  abscissa  represents  the  10- 
minute  periods  of  blowing,  and  the  ordinates  represents  percentages  of  copper, 
etc.,  from  0  to  100.  The  ordinates  of  the  figures  at  the  bottom  are  the  same, 
but  on  a  larger  scale  (from  0  to  1-2%),  to  show  better  the  impurities  in  the  matte 

17  United  States  Patent  No.  717,666,  Jan.  0, 1908. 

"•  This  article,  which  appeared  in  the  Engineering  and  Mining  Journal,  June  iTT,  IMS,  is  to  be  read 
before  the  autumn  meeting:  of  the  American  Institute  of  Mining:  Engineers. 


PROORESa  IN  THE  METALLURGY  OF  COPPER, 


218 


carried  to  the  extent  of  but  a  few  tenths  of  1%.    The  upper  diagram  shows  that 
the  silver  almost  parallels  the  enrichment  of  the  matte  in  copper. 


Fig.  9. — Diagram  showing  the  Elimination  of  Impurities  from  Copper 

Mattes. 


Tlma 


Cupola  tap 

10  minutes 

20  minutes 

JW  minuten 

40  mlnuten  (XnM.  nklm) 

70  minutes  (blister  capper) 


Iron. 

% 

Sulphur. 

Zinc. 

Arsenic. 

AnU- 
mony. 

Silver. 

Gold. 

% 

% 

% 

% 

Oz. 

Oz. 

28-81 

21-28 

1-19 

Oil 

014 

44-20 

0-16 

28*15 

20-96 

1-20 

0-09 

0-12 

42-90 

0-14 

17'85 

19-74 

0-84 

0-08 

0-10 

61-40 

0-20 

10-59 

18-88 

0-70 

008 

0-18 

86-80 

0-24 

2-40 

l«-30 

0-45 

0-08 

0-18 

70-00 

0-82 

0-038 

0159 

0-09 

0  0012 

0006 

90-80 

0-86 

214  THE  UmERAL  INDUaTRT. 

The  lines  showing  the  relative  elimination  of  the  iron  and  the  sulphur  are 
the  most  interesting.  For  the  first  10  minutes  of  the  blow,  and  while  the  matte 
is  heating  up,  the  iron  and  sulphur  lines  are  parallel.  From  this  point  there 
is  a  marked  change;  the  sulphur  line  is  very  gradual  in  its  drop,  showing  that 
but  little  is  being  burned  in  comparison  with  what  is  taking  place  with  the  iron, 
whose  line  takes  a  sudden  drop.  The  iron  decreases  during  30  minutes  from 
2315%  to  2*4%  at  the  skimming  point,  while  at  this  point  there  still  remain 
16-3%  of  sulphur  in  the  matte.  From  this  point,  however,  to  blister  copper,  it 
is  the  sulphur  that  bears  the  brunt  of  elimination,  the  iron  dropping  only  from 
2-4%  to  00038%  at  blister  copper,  while  the  sulphur  decreases  from  16-3%  to 
015%.  This  is  of  great  interest,  as  it  shows  that  up  to  the  skimming  point,  it 
is  the  oxidation  of  the  iron  to  ferrous  oxide,  and  the  union  of  the  ferrous  oxide 
with  the  silica  of  the  lining,  that  affords  the  source  of  heat  to  carry  on  the  opera- 
tions within  a  converter;  while  from  the  skimming  point  (76*4%  copper)  to  the 
finished  blister  copper  it  is  chiefly  the  burning  of  the  sulphur  that  gives  the  heat 
supply  to  finish  the  work  started  by  the  oxidation  of  the  iron.  The  zinc  is 
scarcely  affected  during  the  *Tieating-up"  period ;  while  after  that  its  elimination 
is  gradual.  The  arsenic  and  antimony  curiously  enough,  are  but  slightly  affected 
during  the  whole  of  the  slag-forming  period,  or  as  long  as  enough  iron  remains 
to  be  slagged  off.  At  the  cupola-tap  of  matte  into  the  converter,  the  arsenic 
amounted  to  011%,  and  the  antimony  to  014%^  while  at  the  end  of  the  slag- 
forming  period  the  arsenic  amounted  to  0  08%  and  the  antimony  013%.  When 
the  iron  in  the  matte  had  been  oxidized  and  slagged  off  the  arsenic  and  antimony 
began  to  be  oxidized  and  driven  off,  until,  at  the  point  of  blister  copper,  but 
00012%  of  arsenic  and  0006%  of  antimony  remained. 

Process  for  Treating  Copper  Matie}^ — ^A  patent  has  been  issued  to  Messrs. 
Herman  Thofem  and  B.  D.  St.  Seine  for  a  process  of  treating  copper  matte 
by  blowing  into  the  furnace  a  mixture  of  superheated  steam,  air  and  fine  sand. 
This  idea  of  simultaneously  oxidizing  and  scorifying  the  metallic  substances 
to  be  eliminated  is  not  new,  as  it  has  been  incorporated  previously  in  patents 
issued  in  the  United  States  and  Great  Britain.  With  matte  containing  30%  Cu, 
a  rather  large  proportion  of  silica  is  used  at  first  in  the  blast,  and  the  oxidation 
and  soorification  proceeds  very  rapidly.  The  fusible  slag  collects  on  the 
surface  of  the  bath  outside  of  the  blast  zone,  so  as  to  protect  the  walls  of  the  fur- 
nace. From  a  charge  of  50  tons,  most  of  the  iron  is  slagged,  and  the  sulphur 
driven  off  as  dioxide  in  about  six  hours,  the  product  being  a  matte  of  80%  Cu. 
At  this  stage  in  the  operations,  the  proportion  of  sand  in  the  blast  is  reduced, 
or  the  same  proportion  is  used  intermittently  to  slag  the  remainder  of  the  iron 
and  to  bum  off  the  last  of  the  sulphur ;  while  antimony,  arsenic,  phosphorus  and 
similar  impurities  are  converted  by  the  hydrogen  of  the  steam  into  volatile  com- 
pounds and  are  thus  eliminated.  There  is  obtained  finally  a  copper  bath  with 
about  99%  Cu  which  can  be  cast  into  anodes,  or  further  refined  in  the  usual 
manner. 

In  this  connection  it  is  interesting  to  note  the  method  patented**  by  George 
Mitchell  of  converting  copper  matte  into  metallic  copper,  which  consists  in  feed- 

IB  United  Statee  Ftttent  No.  783^600,  March  94, 1906.         >•  United  State«  latent  No.  718,438,  Feb.  8. 1908. 


PROGRSaa  IN  THE  METALLURGY  OF  COPPER,  216 


^!ro. 


ing  pure  or  practically  pure  silica  in  a^moil-Jh  condition  into  the  molten  matte 
during  the  operation  of  blowing. 

Copper  Residues,  Precipitates  and  Scrap. — (By  H.  A.  Mather.) — Copper  resi- 
dues, precipitates  and  scrap  are  in  some  instances  still  reworked  in  graphite  cruci- 
bles, but  the  wear  and  tear  on  them  has  been  so  excessive  and  costly,  that  they  are 
being  rapidly  supplanted  by  the  Schwartz  melting  furnace.  The  furnace  is  shaped 
similar  to  a  copper  converter,  hung  on  tnmnions  and  may  be  tilted  to  any  angle. 
The  air  blast  and  oil  for  fuel  are  supplied  under  pressure  through  pipes  universally 
jointed,  which  are  attached  at  the  top  of  the  furnace.  The  oil  and  air  blasts  are 
directed  downward  on  the  molten  met^l  at  such  an  angle  that  a  continuous  agi- 
tation of  the  molten  mass  is  maintained  until  the  proper  conditions  of  the  charge 
are  obtained,  the  furnace  is  then  tilted  forward  and  the  charge  blown  out  rather 
than  calmly  poured  through  the  spout.  The  cover  or  lid  is  removed  for  charging 
and  luted  into  place  when  the  furnace  is  in  operation.  The  linings  used  are 
highly  siliceous  material  molded  into  shapes  to  conform  to  the  shell.  These  fur- 
naces are  used  for  a  variety  of  melting  purposes  other  than  that  of  copper  wastes, 
especially  by  brass  founders,  and  while  somewhat  expensive  to  install,  they  are 
reported  to  be  extremely  economical  in  time,  labor  and  fuel  consumption. 

Brass  turnings  containing  little  or  no  aluminum  are  readily  purchased  for  re- 
melting.  Turnings  containing  much  heavy  oil  are  washed  with  an  alkaline  solu- 
tion and  dried  before  being  remelted  into  metal  or  directly  alloyed  in  the  kettle. 
Standard  grades  of  brass  scrap,  such  as  old  wire  cloth  from  paper  mills,  skeleton 
brass  sheets,  etc.,  are  melted  directly  for  casting  furniture  trimmings  and  sundry 
articles  of  hardware.  The  addition  of  aluminum  up  to  1%  appears  to  add  to  the 
soundness  of  brass  or  other  alloys  when  cast  in  sand  molds,  but  if  cast  in  iron 
molds,  the  presence  of  003%  of  aluminum  will  cause  the  casting  to  be  dirty 
and  full  of  dross. 

Analysis  of  Copper  Slags. — ^An  action  of  interest  to  copper  metallurgists,  and 
in  fact  to  all  engaged  in  the  smelting  of  base  metals,  has  been  instituted  by  Mr. 
Thorn  Smith,*®  with  the  object  of  ultimately  obtaining  uniformity  in  the  meth- 
ods of  analysis  used  by  chemists  for  copper  slags.  Samples  of  a  slag  were  sent 
to  40  chemists  and  a  report  of  analysis  were  received  from  23  of  them.  A  col- 
lation of  the  figures  showed  difiFerences  so  great  that  the  necessity  of  having 
uniformity  of  method  of  analysis  is  strongly  evident.  The  following  differences 
were  not«d:  SiO^  3-88%,  Fe  1-87%,  AlA  3-92%,  CaO  2  8%,  MgO  201%,  Zn 
2-38%,  Mn  1-42%,  CuO  0-2©%  and  S  0-53%.  The  article  referred  to  concludes 
with  a  discussion  of  the  methods  used  by  the  various  chemists  for  the  determina- 
tion of  the  component  parts  of  the  slag.  This  subject  has  attracted  so  much  atten- 
tion that  the  New  York  section  of  the  Society  of  Chemical  Industry  has  decided  to 
discuss  the  whole  matter  before  a  meeting  of  its  members  and  to  publish  the  re- 
sults of  their  proceedings  in  the  Journal  of  the  Society  of  Chemical  Industry. 

M  Sngineering  and  Mining  JoumoZ,  Feb.  81, 190IL 


216  THE  MINERAL  IND  U8TR  T. 

Progress  in  the  Electrolytic  -Refining  of  Copper  in  1902.* 
By  Titus  Ulke. 

Electrolytic  Copper  Refineries. — The  world's  average  daily  production  of  elec- 
trolytic copper  at  the  close  of  1902  was  about  883  short  tons,  of  which  764  tons, 
or  86-5%^  were  supplied  by  the  United  States.  Of  the  balance  amounting  to 
119  tons  daily  production,  or  approximately  13-5%,  Great  Britain  furnished  a 
little  over  8-8%,  Germany  about  2-75%,  and  France  a  little  over  1-6%.  The 
United  States  now  produces  at  the  enormous  rate  of  278,860  tons  of  electrolytic 
copper  per  annum  valued  approximately  at  $72,503,600.  The  by-product  re- 
covered daily  contains  about  74,100  oz.  silver  and  948  oz.  gold,  which  equals  an 
annual  output  of  over  27,000,000  oz.  .of  silver,  valued  at  nearly  $13,000,000,  and 
more  than  346,020  oz.  of  gold,  valued  at  $7,152,233.  According  to  the  United 
States  Treasury  Bureau  of  Statistics,  the  copper  exports  from  this  country  con- 
sist chiefly  of  electrolytic  copper,  and  for  the  year  1902,  they  represented  a  value 
of  $45,485,598,  as  compared  with  $33,534,899  in  1901.  The  value  of  the  ex- 
ports  of  copper  was  exceeded  only  by  the  value  of  the  exports  of  manufactured 
iron  and  steel  and  of  mineral  oils. 

There  are  now  in  active  operation,  or  ready  to  be  placed  in  commission,  33 
electrolytic  copper  refineries  in  the  world,  not  including  the  plant  of  the  Osaka 
Electrolytic  Refining  Co.  now  being  constructed  at  Osaka,  Japan. 

During  the  past  year  there  has  been  a  notable  increase  in  the  quantity  of  con- 
centrates from  the  Michigan  copper  mines  cast  into  anodes  and  treated  electroly- 
tically,  and  for  several  years  a  large  part  of  both  the  Tamarack  and  the  Calumet 
&  Hecla  output  has  been  refined  electrolytically  at  Buffalo.  The  Quincy  Mining 
Co.  casts  certain  grades  of  argentiferous  "mineral,"  and  ships  the  metal  East  for 
electrolytic  refining.  The  Isle  Royale  Copper  Co.  has  found  that  it  more  than 
pays  to  save  the  silver,  with  the  small  difference  between  the  price  of  Lake  and 
electrolj'tic  copper.  It  is  reported  that  the  copper  from  the  Mass  mine  frequently 
carries  $65  in  silver  per  ton  of  ingots.  As  all  Lake  copper,  judging  from  numer- 
ous analyses,  carries  noticeable  quantities  of  silver,  it  is  only  a  question  of  time, 
in  my  opinion,  when  all  the  fine  copper  produced  in  the  United  States  will  be  made 
electrolytically,  and  only  minor  distinctions  of  brand  will  remain. 

It  is  probable  that  an  electrolytic  refiner}'  for  treating  the  converter  copper 
produced  on  the  Pacific  Coast  will  be  built  on  Puget  Sound ;  water  power  in  large 
units  is  available  here  at  a  price  per  horse-power-year  considerably  lower  than  its 
equivalent,  generated  from  coal,  at  the  large  refineries  on  the  Atlantic  seaboard, 
and  lumber  also  is  much  cheaper.  Even  though  the  cost  of  labor  and  of  most 
supplies  is  60%  greater  in  Seattle  or  Tacoma  than  in  New  York  or  Baltimore, 
there  would  still  be  a  margin  in  favor  of  refining  on  Puget  Sound.  The  refinery, 
if  established,  should  be  operated  in  conjunction  with  a  plant  for  turning  out  the 
main  part  of  the  metal  in  the  form  of  sheet  copper  and  wire  to  supply  the  grow- 
ing demand  for  these  materials  in  the  Orient,  Australia  and  the  west  coast  of 
South  America,  as  well  as  that  of  the  western  part  of  the  United  States. 

*  The  growth  and  technique  of  the  electrolytic  copper  Industry  has  heen  fully  discussed  hy  Mr.  Ulke  in  hte 
work.  Modem  Electrolytic  Copper  Refining,  New  York,  1908.  Much  of  the  information  contained  in  U^ifl  hook 
has  appeared  in  previous  volumes  of  The  Mineral  Industry. 


PROORSaa  IN  THE  ELECTBOLTTK}  REFINING  OF  COPPER.  217 

It  seems  very  strange  that  not  a  single  electrolytic  copper  refinery  in  the  East 
is  located  at  the  great  water-power  centers,  such  as  Niagara  Falls,  Sault  Ste. 
Marie,  Massena,  Lachine  Bapids,  Shawinigan  Falls,  etc.,  where  large  units  of 
power — ^the  chief  item  of  expense  in  electrolytic  refining — are  obtainable  at  a 
much  lower  figure  than  at  the  places  where  the  seven  Eastern  refinpies  are  sit- 
uated. 

Output,  Cost,  etc.,  of  Copper  Refineries. — ^Caxl  Hering^  states  that,  "A  good 
process  may  readily  be  a  commercial  failure  if  it  is  not  properly  carried  out  from 
the  industrial  standpoint,  while  on  the  other  hand,  a  poor  process  may  sometimes, 
by  good  design  of  the  installation  and  good  management,  be  made  a  commercial 
success.  In  the  first  place,  the  cost  of  the  power  plant  should  approximately 
be  proportional  to  the  product  of  the  annual  output  of  refined  copper  and  the 
current  density,  and  in  the  second  place,  the  approximate  area  of  the  refinery 
buildings  for  a  given  yearly  output  should  be  inversely  proportional  to  the  cur- 
rent density .'' 

Starting  with  these  fundamental  propositions,  Philip*  finds  that  in  England 
the  cost  of  offices  in  poimds  sterling  may  be  stated  by  formula  as  150X(0'lXNo. 
of  tons  refined  per  year) .  Secondly,  that  the  area  of  the  refinery  buildings  for  a 
given  yearly  output  equals  SOX  (No.  of  tons  refined  per  year-^current  density  in 
amperes  per  sq.  ft.) .  The  constant  30  is  an  average  value ;  in  six  different  plants 
it  varied  between  219  and  31-5.  Thirdly,  that  the  cost  of  the  buildings  in  pounds 
sterling  equals  7-5X  {Jto.  of  tons  refined  per  year-r-current  density  in  amperes  per 
sq.  ft.). 

When  the  above  special  formulas  are  applied  without  modification  to  the  elec- 
trolytic copper  refineries  in  the  United  States,  I  find  that  they  lead  to  erroneous 
results,  and  that  the  respective  factors,  i.e.,  150,  30  and  7-5,  in  formulating  similar 
equations  holding  true  in  the  United  States,  would  have  to  be  largely  increased, 
and  in  most  cases,  made  fully  twice  as  large  as  those  employed  by  Philip. 

Current  Densities  in  Refining. — The  very  high  current  densities  employed  by 
some  American  electrometallurgists  must  surprise  European  refiners,  who  seldom, 
if  ever,  use  current  densities  exceeding  10  amperes  per  sq.  ft.  of  cathode  surface. 
The  average  density  employed  in  the  23  European  refineries  is  less  than  6  amperes 
per  sq.  ft.  At  Great  Falls,  Mont.,  with  anodes  comparatively  low  in  silver, 
arsenic  and  antimony,  and  with  electricity  cheaply  generated  by  water  power, 
current  densities  up  to  45  amperes  seem  to  jdeld  good  copper  at  a  profit.  Under 
otherwise  favorable  conditions,  therefore,  the  profitable  use  of  high-current  den- 
sities, in  order  to  enable  the  refiner  to  turn  out  copper  at  a  very  rapid  rate,  is 
seemingly  limited  solely  by  the  excessive  losses  of  current  through  heating,  or 
boiling  of  the  electrolyte,  which  occurs  with  currents  above  45  or  50  amperes  in 
density. 

Use  of  Heavy  Anodes. — ^Notwithstanding  the  fact  that  much  more  capital  is 
tied  up  in  employing  heavy  anodes  than  when  light  anodes  are  used,  several  cus- 
tom refiners  are  now  casting  the  anodes  very  thick  and  heavy,  about  400  lb.  in 
weight,  as  compared  with  180  or  200  lb.  in  former  years.     This  is  partly  due  to 

1  EUctrochemieal  htdugtry,  September,  1902. 
)  Snffineering^  London,  August,  1908. 


218 


THE  MINERAL  INDUSTBT. 


the  fact  that  the  percentage  of  scrap  copper  produced  with  the  heavy  anodes  is 
only  about  one-half  that  made  with  light  anodes,  say,  7%  as  compared  with  about 
15%,  the  weight  of  the  scrap  falling  being  approximately  the  same  in  both  cases. 
Regeneration  of  Fovl  Solutions, — ^The  American  Smelting  &  Befining  Co. 
is  introducing  at  its  Perth  Amboy  plant  the  essential  features  of  the  Ottokar 
Hof mann  method*  for  the  purification  of  foul  electrolytic  solutions.    This  process 


ELECTROLYTIC    COPPER   REFINERIES    IN    THE   UNITED   STATES   OPERATED   IN    1902. 


Name  of  Company 

and 
Location  of  Works. 


Kind  of  Material 
Chiefly  Treated. 


Approximate 
Daily  Copper 

Output  in 
Tons(8,0001b.) 


Number  and  Ca- 
pacity of 
Generators. 
Kw.= Kilowatts. 


No.  ot 
Tanks 
inKe- 
finery. 


Arrange- 
ment'of 
Electrodes. 


Approximate 
Daily  Output 
of  Gk>ld  and 
Silver  from 
Slimes. 


1  Raritan  Copper  Works 
(United  Metals  SeU- 
Ing  Co.),  Perth  Am- 
boy. N.  J. 


SGhiflxenheim  Beflnery. 
Perth  Amboy  plant 
of  Amer.  8.  ft  R.  Co. 
Perth  Amboy,  N.  J. 

Anaconda  Mining  Co. 
Anaconda,  Mont. 

Baltimore  Smelting 
&  RoUing  Co.  (Baf- 
timore  Copper 
Works),  Baltimore, 
Md. 

Boston  &  Montana 
Cons.  Copper  and  Sil- 
ver Mining  Co.,  Great 
Falls.  Mont. 

Nichols  Chemical  Co. 
Laurel  Hill,  N.  T. 


Balbach  Smelting  & 
Refining  Co.,  New- 
ark, N.  J. 

De  Lamar  Copper  Re- 
fining Works,  Cart- 
eret, N.  J. 

Buffalo  Smelting 
Works,  Black  Rock. 
N.Y. 

Chicago  Copper  Refin- 
ing Co.,  Blue  Island, 

m. 


10 


Converter  Copper 
from  Boston  & 
Montana,  Butte 
ft  Boston,  Old 
Dominion,  Ari- 
EonaCopperCo., 
Copper  King, 
Ltd.,  United 
Verde.  Bing- 
ham, Greene 
Cons,  and  High 
land  Boy. 

Anodes  and  pig 
copper  from 
Mexico,  Utah 
and  Colorado. 

Anaconda  anodes. 

Converter  copper 
from  Anaconda, 
Mi.,  I^eU  and 

8 art   of  the 
e  r  m  an  ia 
Works   output. 
Boston    ft    Mon- 
tana anodes. 


Converter  copper 
from  the  Moun- 
tain Copper, 
United  Copper, 
Copper  Queen 
and  Qranby  Co. 
and  metel  from 
Canadian  and 
Spanish  pyrites 
cinders. 

Orford  anodes 
and  miscella- 
neous. 

Blister  copper 
from  Bully  llill 
mines,  Cal. 

Lake  Superior, 
argentiferous 
native  copper 
"  mineral." 

By-products  and 
miscellaneous 
pig  copper. 


IBO  to  19001 
(Cap.a)0)r 


100      I 
(Cap.  ICO)  f 

]  (Cap.  160)] 


(Cap.  100)  f 


190 

^  (Cap.  BO)  1 
60 

30        I 

6 


Five  ^  000  Kw. 


Three  &  620  Kw. 

Three  (^  240  Kw. 
Two  eaOOKw. 
Four  ®  290  Kw. 


Eleven  (^  80  Kw. 


Two  ®  810  Kw. 


Biz  ^  75  Kw. 


One  ^  800  Kw. 
Two  ®  126  Kw. 

One  ®  620  Kw. 


One  (^  610  Kw. 
Two^  48  Kw. 


Two  (^  64  Kw. 


1,000 

816 
-1,480 


640  j 
884 

190 

[  480 
408 


270 
490 


850 


Multiple. 

Multiple.  ] 
Multiple.  I 


L.  p.  series. 
8.  p.  multl. 


MulUple.  j 


Series.  { 

Multiple.  ] 

Multiple.  ] 

MulUple.  I 

Multiple.  \ 


8,000  to 

10,000  OS.  Ag: 

175  to 

2Q0OS.  Au. 


96,000  OS.  Ag. 
9Q0  OS.  Au. 


4,907  OS.  Ag. 
85os.Au. 


0,400  OS.  Ag. 
88  ox.  Au. 


6,000  OS.  Ag. 
70  OS.  Au. 


6,000  OS.  Ag. 
904OS.  Aa. 


8,001  OS.  Ag, 
16ox.  Au, 

10,000  OS.  Ag. 
900  OS.  An. 

e00os.Ag. 
—  OS.  An. 


lOOos.  A|r* 
8  0S.  An. 


requires  the  electrolytic  to  be  first  neutralized,  which  is  done  by  adding  to  it  cupric 
oxide  (roasted  copper  matte),  the  bulk  of  solution  obtained  being  increased. 
This  increase  may  be  worked  oflP  in  two  ways.  (1)  By  treating  the  surplus 
solution  in  a  separate  system  of  tanks  in  which  lead  anodes  and  cathodes  are  used, 
copper  being  recovered,  while  sulphuric  acid  is  set  free  and  used  to  acidify  that 
part  of  the  electrolyte  which  is  returned  to  the  refinery.     (3)  By  making  blue 


»  Ths  MiifSRAL  Industry,  Vols  Vin.  and  X. 


PROGRESS  m  THE  ELEOTROLYTIC  REFINING  OP  COPPER, 


219 


vitriol,  in  which  case,  of  course,  sulphuric  acid  must  be  bought  for  addition  to 
the  refined  neutral  electrolyte. 


ELECTROLYTIC  COPPER  REFINERIES  IN  EUROPE. 


CouDtiy. 


Great  Britain. 


Aoftrla-Hiiiifeary 


Name  of  Companj 

and 
Location  of  Worka. 


Bolton  &  Sons,  Ltd., 
Froghall,  England. 

Pembrey  Copper 
Worka(Elliott*BHet' 
al  CoA  Burry  Port 
Soaih  Wales. 

Bolton  &  Sons,  Ltd., 
Widnes,  England. 

Leeds  Copner  Works, 
Hunslet,  Leeds,  Eng. 

H.  H.  Vivian  &  Sons. 
Swansea,  Wales. 

McKechnie  Bros.,  WId- 
nes,  England. 

Norddeutsche  AiBner- 
ie,  Hamburg,  Ger- 
many. 

Slansf eld  Knpf erstihief • 
erbauende  Qewerk- 
soliaft,  Bisleben. 

Communion  Huetten- 
werk,  Oker. 

Borchers  Bros.,  Goslar 

Elmore  Metall-Aotien- 
raellschaft,  Schla- 
oem  an  der  Sleg. 

Stadtberger  Huette, 
Niedermarsberg. 

▲Itenau  Kupf erhuette, 

Altenau,  Bars. 
C.  Sdureiber,  BoriMwdi, 

Slesen. 
Allg.     Elektro- Metal- 

lurgiscbe    Gesell 

sduut,  Pispenburg  a. 

d.  "* 


Bergbau  u.  Elsenhuet- 

ten  -  Gewerkschaft, 

Wttkowits. 
Berg   u.   HuetteuTer 

waltung,     Brixiegg. 

TypoL 

8oci6t«  d^Eleetro-Met. 

allurgie,  DItos, 

France. 
8oci6t6  Anonyme  des 

Fonderies  et  Lami- 

noirs,  Biache   St. 

Vaast. 
Orammont,    Afllnerie, 

Pont  de  Cheruy. 
Hflarion,  Rous  et  Cie, 

Uarseflles. 

Kalakeni  Copper 
Works  (Von  Siemens 
ft  heirs),  Kalakent, 
Caucasus. 

NikolajaT  Works,  Nij- 
ni  Novgorod.    


Gold  and  silTer- 
bearing  ''bot- 
toms.'^ 

Gold  and  silyer 
bearing  "bot- 
toms.'^ 

Gold  and  sIlTer 
bearing  "bot- 
toms.'*^ 

Chile  bars(96)( 
Cu.). 

Gold  and  sUyer 
bearing  *'bot' 


Miscellaneous 
crude  copper. 

MIseellaneous 
crude  copper. 

Gold  and  silver- 
bearing  **bot- 
toms.'*^ 


Chile  bars. 


Kind  of 

Material 

Chiefly  Treated 


Argentiferons 
cement    oop- 


Ni+Cn  matte. 


Pyrites  dnders 
from  acid 
works. 

Black  copper 
(Q09(  Cu.). 


Chile  bars. 


Blister  copper 


Apnrozimate 

Daily  Copper 

Output  in 

Tbns  (8,000 

Lbs.). 


18  to  90 
(C5ap.  «4) 

18  to  90 


10  to  19 


10  to  18 

(Capacity) 

8  to  10 


10 

6 

6 
1 
!• 

0-9  to  1 

0*8  to  1 

0«9* 
0-9* 

0-86  to  0*8 
0-19  to  0-14 

10  to  18 
8* 

l-l* 
0*88^ 

1*8  to  1-4 
0-76 


Three  ^  75  Kw.* 
Tte^8Kw.« 


Sixteen^  4  Kw.« 


Number  and 

(Opacity  of 

Generators. 

Kw.sKilowatts. 


Eight  ^  75  Kw. 
886  Kw. 

Four  ^  75  Kw. 
Four  ^  170  Kw. 


OneSlKw. 
One  11  Kw. 


Two  (^  4  Kw. 
Two  O  6  Kw. 

Four  ^  170  Kw. 
FiveeOKw.^ 


One  ^  8  Kw.« 
Two^MKw. 


No.  of 
Tanks 
in  Re- 
finery. 


660 

1,065 

910 
816 


984* 
600 


600* 


78 
60 

816 
100* 


40 
108 


Arrange- 
ment of 
Elec- 
trodea 


Multiple. 
Multiple. 

Multiple. 

Elmore. 
Multiple. 

Multiple. 

Multiple. 

Multiple. 

Multiple. 
Multiple. 
Elmore. 

Multiple. 

Multiple. 
Multiple. 
Hoepfnei 

Multiple. 
Multiple. 

Elmore. 
Multiple. 

Multiple. 
Multiple. 

Multiple. 
Multiple. 


•  Doubtful. 


lietallurgicdl  Crane. — ^David  W.  Blair,*  of  Perth  Amboy,  N.  J.,  has  patented 
a  metallnrgical  crane,  comprising  a  member  to  be  disposed  over  a  metallurgica] 


«  United  States  Patent  No.  697,788,  April  16, 1908. 


320  THB  MINERAL  INDUSTRY. 

bath  and  adapted  to  be  lifted,  a  plurality  of  longitudinal  shafts  connected  with 
this  member  and  free  to  shift  endwise,  hooks  connected  with  the  shafts  and 
adapted  to  engage  electrodes,  the  arrangement  being  such  that  the  hooks  are  free 
to  engage  the  electrodes  when  the  shaft  is  shifted  endwise. 

Electrolytic  Dissolution  of  Copper  Anodes. — Woolsey  MeA.  Johnson**  assumes 
that  ordinary  copper  anodes  may  be  considered  as  being  mixtures  of  pure  copper 
and  copper-silver  alloys,  cuprous  oxide,  antimony  oxide  and  arsenic  oxide,  or 
solutions  of  these  alloys  and  oxides  in  pure  copper,  and  states  that,  in  his  opinion, 
because  the  electrical  resistance  of  copper-silver  alloys  and  of  the  oxides  is  higher 
than  that  of  pure  copper,  the  silver  alloy  and  oxides  would  tend  to  "slime,"  under 
normal  conditions,  and  thus  tend  to  keep  the  solution  in  a  pure  condition.  To 
explain  these  views,  which  have  been  more  or  less  well  recognized  since  1885, 
when  Dr.  KilianiV  pioneer  investigations  were  published,  Johnson  has  recourse  to 
the  following  known  facts:  (1)  Every  metal  has  a  certain  specific  electrolytic 
tension  or  voltage  depending  upon  its  temperature,  physical  condition  and  the 
solution  in  which  it  dips.  (2)  Every  metal  has  a  specific  electrical  conductivity. 
(3)  These  two  properties  are  profoundly  modified  by  alloying  with  other  metals. 

On  these  properties  of  the  resulting  alloys  segregated  in  the  anode,  depends  the 
selective  electrochemical  dissolution.  Metals  unite  with  one  another  to  form 
alloys,  in  most  cases  with  the  evolution  of  heat,  and  the  atoms  are  then  united 
with  a  firmer  bond.  In  other  words  the  free  energy  is  diminished,  and  as  the 
electrolytic  solution  tension  is  measured  by  the  free  energy  of  the  metal,  in  normal 
solution  of  its  ions,  it  also  must  decrease.  The  resultant  product  is  harder  and 
has  less  tendency  to  dissolve.  That  most  alloys  of  any  two  metals  show  a  poorer 
conductivity  than  the  mean  conductivity  of  the  metals  composing  such  alloy,  and 
in  many  cases,  than  the  conductivity  of  either  metal  alone,  is  well  known. 

These  facts  have  an  important  bearing  in  electrolytic  refining,  in  determining 
the  behavior  of  alloys  and  oxides  contained  in  ordinary  copper  anodes.  For 
instance,  if  it  is  considered  that  a  particle  of  silver-copper  be  surrounded  by  pure 
copper  crystals,  the  effect  of  the  great  difference  in  electrical  conductivity  is  cer- 
tain to  shunt  the  current  around  this  silver-copper  alloy  and  finally  dissolve  its 
copper  backing.  It  then  can  be  brushed  off  into  the  slime.  This,  of  course, 
applies  to  all  the  alloys  (and  oxides)  that  have  a  lower  conductivity.  Arsenic 
and  antimony,  if  present  as  metals,  have  a  greater  tendency  to  dissolve  than 
copper,  because  of  their  high  electrolytic  solution  tension.  Fortunately  for  the 
electrolytic  refiner,  however,  the  larger  portion  of  these  elements  are  thoroughly 
oxidized,  either  in  the  converter  or  reverberatory  furnace.  The  copper  is  then 
brought  to  "set**  in  the  refining  furnace,  before  casting,  if  it  is  not  cast  direct 
from  the  receiver,  mixer  or  converter.  The  heats  of  oxidation  of  arsenic  or  anti- 
mony being  many  times  larger  than  that  of  copper,  the  oxides  of  the  former 
metals  are  not  reduced  to  any  extent  in  the  "poling**  operation,  as  long  as  any 
cuprous  oxide  is  left.  These  oxides  are  thus  present  in  the  anodes  as  insulators 
and  as  such  pass  into  the  slimes  directly  from  "oxidized"  anodes. 

•  Pftper  roAd  before  the  American  Electrochemical  Society,  Sept.  16, 1008. 


COPPERAS. 

By  Joseph  Struthers. 

The  production  of  copperas  in  the  United  States  during  1902  amounted  to 
19,784  short  tons,  valued  at  the  works  at  $118,474,  as  compared  with  23,586 
short  tons,  valued  at  $112,366  in  1901.  These  figures  do  not  include  the  quan- 
tity calcined  for  the  manufacture  of  iron  pigments,  which  is  reported  elsewhere 
in  this  volume  under  the  caption  "Ocher  and  Iron  Oxide  Pigments/' 

Ferrous  sulphate  (FeS04,7H20),  or  '^copperas,'*  as  it  is  called  in  the  trade, 
is  produced  chiefly  as  a  by-product  of  the  wire,  tin  plate  and  sheet  steel  industries 
of  the  country.  Briefly,  the  usual  method  of  manufacture  (see  The  Mineral 
Industry,  Vol.-  X.,  pp.  243  and  244)  is  to  conduct  the  waste  acid  liquor  from 
the  "pickling"  tanks  in  which  the  wire,  rods  or  sheet  steel  have  been  cleansed,  to 
a  lead-lined  vat  where  the  proper  strength  and  composition  of  the  liquor  is 
adjusted  by  the  suitable  addition  of  acid  or  iron.  The  liquor  is  then  trans- 
ferred to  boiling  tanks  and  the  excess  of  water  is  expelled  by  evaporation  for 
three  or  four  days,  until  the  solution  becomes  of  proper  strength,  when  it  is 
removed  to  the  crystallizing  vats  and  cooled.  The  crystals  of  copperas  form  in 
from  three  to  ten  days  and  after  drWng  are  packed  in  barrels  and  shipped. 

Copperas  is  used  for  a  variety  of  purposes,  principally  in  the  manufacture  of 
inks  and  blues,  in  dyeing  cotton  and  woolen  goods,  in  polishing  plate  glass  (as 
it  hardens  the  rouge  paste  which  is  used  for  this  purpose)  and  in  various  branches 
of  the  chemical  trade.  To  a  minor  extent  it  is  used  as  a  fertilizer,  as  a  disin- 
fectant, as  a  purifying  agent  in  gas  works,  as  a  coagulent  in  water  purification, 
and  as  a  precipitant  for  sewage.  Several  towns  have  replaced  the  more  cosily 
coagulent  alum  by  copperas  for  water  purification.  This  latter  demand  has 
developed  during  the  past  year,  due  to  experiments  carried  on  at  Quincy,  111., 
which  have  resulted  verv  successfully.  In  addition  to  this  city.  Bock  Island,  111. ; 
Vicksburg,  Miss. ;  Sandusky,  0. ;  Little  Falls,  K".  J.,  and  several  other  communi- 
ties are  using,  or  arranging  for  the  use  of  copperas  in  water  purification,  and  the 
list  will  probably  be  largely  increased  during  1903.  Copperas  is  also  used  in  the 
treatment  of  sewage  at  Providence,  R.  I.,  and  at  several  smaller  places.  The 
impure  settlings  at  the  bottom  of  the  tank  are  sometimes  utilized  to  manu- 
facture Venetian  reds,  Indian  reds  and  iron  oxide  pigments. 


2?2  TMB  MtlTERAL  tNDXTSTBT. 

The  largest  producer  of  copperas  is  the  American  Steel  &  Wire  Co.,  whose 
plants  are  operated  in  connection  with  the  manufacture  of  wire  at  Worcester, 
Mass.;  Cleveland,  0.;  Joliet,  De  Kalb  and  Waukegan,  111.  Among  the  other 
producers  are  the  Pennsylvania  Salt  Mfg.  Co.,  Natrona,  Pa.;  C.  K.  Williams 
&  Co.,.Easton,  Pa.:  S.  P.  Wetherill  &  Co.,  Newcastle,  Pa.;  The  Atlantic  Dyna- 
mite Oc.,  Dover,  N.  J.;  The  American  Nickel  Works,  Camden,  N.  J.;  Charles 
Lennig  &  Co.,  Philadelphia,  Pa. ;  The  American  Tin  Plate  Co.,  Ellwood,  Ind., 
and  the  Stauflfer  Chemical  Co.,  of  San  Francisco,  Cal.  Shipments  of  natural 
copperas  from  Steubenville,  0.,  where  it  is  formed  by  atmospheric  oxidation  of 
pyrite,  has  been  discontinued,  as  it  was  found  to  be  unprofitable.  The  price  of 
copperas  at  New  York  at  the  commencement  of  1902  was  about  $8  per  ton, 
against  an  average  of  $10  per  ton  for  the  previous  year.  The  price  early  in 
1903  was  $9  per  ton.  These  quotations  are  for  carload  lots,  an  additional  $2 
per  ton  being  asked  for  lots  of  smaller  size.  There  is  no  opportunity  for  ex- 
port of  copperas,  for  the  reason  that  England,  Prance  and  Germany  also  produce 
it  as  a  by-product  in  larger  quantities  and  at  a  lower  cost  than  it  can  be  manu- 
factured in  the  United  States. 


PROGRESS  IN  ELECTROCHEMISTRY  AND 
ELECTROMETALLURGY  IN  1902. 

By  John  B.  C.  Kershaw. 

Introductwn, — The  year  1902  has  not  been  marked  by  any  striking  advance 
in  the  electrochemical  or  electrometallurgical  industries,  and  the  chief  features 
of  the  year  have  been  the  consolidation  and  improvefitent  of  existing  industries 
rather  than  the  development  of  new  ones. 

The  alkali  industry  is  now  practically  stationary  in  Europe,  although  still 
expanding  in  America.  The  fall  in  the  selling  value  of  bleaching  powder  is 
likely  to  be  severely  felt  by  some  of  the  older  works.  The  aluminum  industry 
is  likewise  stationary  in  Europe,  and  further  progress  would  seem  to  depend 
upon  cheapened  production  of  the  metal.  In  America,  however,  this  industry 
is  in  a  more  healthy  condition.  The  incubus  of  unwise  company  promotion  and 
overcapitalization  still  weighs  upon  the  calcium  carbide  industry.  The  stocks 
of  carbide  accumulated  in  the  years  1899-1901  are  only  being  slowly  disposed 
of  and  at  greatly  diminished  prices.  The  industry  is  now  established  on  a 
firmer  financial  basis  and  sales  bureaus  control  the  output  and  price  in  all  the 
leading  producing  countries.  The  electrolytic  chlorate  industry  is  another 
stationary  manufacture,  and  at  the  low  prices  which  rule  at  present  there  is 
little  inducement  for  manufacturers  to  extend  their  works  or  to  build  new  ones. 

Perhaps  the  most  striking  developments  of  1902  have  been  the  attempts  to 
utilize  electricity  on  a  large  scale  for  the  production  of  glass  and  for  the  smelt- 
ing of  iron  and  steel.  Details  of  these  industrial  trials  will  be  found  under  the 
respective  headings  later  in  this  section.  In  my  opinion  the  prospects  of  per- 
manent success  are  not  hopeful.  The  regenerative  gas  furnace  and  the  blast 
furnace  are  the  most  efficient  heating  appliances  known,  and  so  long  as  fuel 
remains  plentiful  and  cheap,  it  will  be  practically  impossible  for  the  electric 
furnace  to  com,pete  with  them. 

At  Niagara  Palls  two  new  industries  are  now  passing  through  their  experi 
mental  stages,  and  barium  hydrate  and  nitric  acid  and  nitrates  are  being  manu- 
factured by  aid  of  the  electric  current.  The  direct  production  of  nitric  acid 
by  high  tension  discharge  is  a  most  interesting  attempt  to  realize  the  dream 
of  Prof.  Crookes,  as  set  forth  in  the  presidential  address  delivered  before 
the  British  Association  at  Bristol  in  1898.  If  these  trials  to  obtain  nitric  acid 
from  the  air  should  prove  a  success  financially,  one  of  the  great  problems  of 
agriculture  (the  continued  supply  of  nitrates  to  the  soil)  will  have  been  solved, 
and  Niagara  Falls  in  years  to  come,  may  provide  the  world  with  one  of  the 
necessaries  for  the  maintenance  of  its  staple  industries,  the  growth  of  corn  and 
wheat. 


224  THE  MINERAL  INDUaTRT. 

Alkalies  and  Bleach. — In  The  Mineral  Industry,  Vol.  X.,  the  electrolytic 
alkali  and  bleach  industry  was  described  at  considerable  length  and  the  two 
latest  additions  to  the  rank  of  industrial  processes — ^the  Acker  fusion  process  and 
the  *T)eH"  gravity  process — were  illustrated  and  described.  The  most  important 
event  during  the  year  1902  was  the  failure  of  the  negotiations  for  the  renewal 
of  the  arrangement  between  the  United  Alkali  Co.,  of  Liverpool,  and  the 
Elektron  Co.,  of  Frankfort,  regarding  the  output  and  price  of  bleaching  powder 
in  1903.  For  the  past  three  years  these  two  firms,  representing  the  chemical 
and  electrolytic  manufacturers,  respectively,  have  maintained  the  price  of  bleach- 
ing powder  in  Europe  at  the  comparatively  high  level  of  $28-80@$31-20  per 
ton.  The  failure  to  renew  the  agreement  signifies  that  a  period  of  open  com- 
petition is  now  to  be  entered  upon,  and  very  large  sales  of  bleaching  powder  for 
delivery  over  the  entire  year  1903  are  reported  to  have  been  made  at  the  low 
prices  of  $16-80@$18  per  ton. 

That  some  of  the  electrolytic  alkali  works  will  be  heavily  handicapped  by  the 
fall  of  nearly  50%  in  the  selling  value  of  the  product  upon  which  they  have 
relied  chiefly  for  profits  is  certain,  and  it  is  equally  certain  that  some  of  tiie 
smaller  and  less  well-equipped  works  will  be  compelled  to  suspend  operations. 
In  a  recent  series  of  articles^  I  have  discussed  at  considerable  length  the  present 
position  of  the  electrolytic  alkali  industry,  and  have  attempted  to  forecast  its 
future  in  view  of  this  fall  in  the  price  of  bleaching  powder.  The  following 
extracts  summarize  the  position  and  prospects  of  the  various  processes  and 
companies  now  in  operation  in  Europe  and  America. 

America. — The  total  power  now  available  for  the  manufacture  of  caustic  alkalies 
and  bleaching  powder  by  electrolytic  methods  is  11,500  H.P.,  and  this  will  be 
increased  at  an  early  date  to  14,000  H.P.  On  the  assumption  that  the  whole 
of  the  chlorine  liberated  by  this  process  is  absorbed  in  the  manufacture  of 
bleaching  powder,  we  find  that  40,000  tons  and  49,000  tons  are  the  present 
and  prospective  totals,  respectively,  manufactured  by  the  American  electrolytic 
alkali  works.  This  is  certainly  a  large  proportion  of  the  home  consumption, 
and  the  striking  growth  of  the  new  industry  in  America  accounts  for  the  con- 
siderable fall  in  the  British  exports  of  bleaching  powder. 

United  Kingdom. — ^The  total  available  power  at  Middlewich  and  Weston 
Point  for  the  production  of  alkalies  and  chlorine  products  is  now  between  5,000 
and  6,000  H.P.  When  the  additions  to  the  first-named  works  are  completed  over 
7,000  H.P.  will  be  devoted  to  the  electrolytic  decomposition  of  salt,  which  will 
equal  an  aggregate  production  of  about  35,000  tons  bleaching  powder  per  annum. 

Germany. — The  maximum  output  of  the  group  of  works  at  Oriesheim,  Bitter- 
feld  and  Rheinfelden  is  stated  to  be  25,000  tons  of  caustic  potash  and  40,000 
tons  of  bleaching  powder  per  annum.  The  electrolytic  works  of  the  Solvay  Co., 
at  Ostemienberg,  add  about  5,000  tons  to  the  latter  total.  The  home  demand  for 
bleaching  powder  is  therefore  more  than  met  by  the  output  of  the  electrolytic 
works. 

Prance. — The  position  of  the  electrolytic  industry  in  France  is  not  encour- 

•  EUctridan,  Not.  14, »,  and  Dee.  IS,  190& 


PR0QBB88  IN  ELBGTR0CHEMI8TRY. 


225 


aging.  Of  five  works  planned  or  actually  erected,  only  one  appears  to  be  in  regu- 
lar operation  for  the  production  of  caustic  alkalies  and  bleaching  powder,  and 
the  output  of  this  works  (Lamotte)  is  not  large.  The  greater  portion  of  the 
bleaching  powder  produced  in  Prance  is  still  supplied  by  the  old  Leblanc  works. 
The  total  supply  largely  exceeds  the  home  consumption,  and  one-third  of  the 
aggregate  output  is  exported. 

Switzerland. — The  position  of  the  electrolytic  alkali  industry  in  Switzerland 
is  no  more  satisfactory  than  in  France,  and,  although  only  two  works  have  been 
erected,  neither  is  applying  all  the  power  available  to  the  manufacture  of  caustic 
alkalies  and  bleaching  powder. 

Other  Countries  of  Europe. — Russia,  Austria,  Italy  and  Spain  are  all  pro- 
vided with  electrolytic  alkali  works,  operating  under  more  or  less  favorable  con- 
ditions of  local  supply  and  demand.  In  these  outlying  countries  of  Europe 
some  development  of  the  industry  may  be  expected,  for  hitherto  they  have  drawn 
their  supplies  of  caustic  alkalies  and  bleaching  powder,  chiefly  from  Prance, 
Gemiany  and  the  United  Kingdom. 

The  three  tabular  statements  of  efficiency  and  costs  which  are  given  below 
are  based  upon  the  most  reliable  figures  for  the  various  processes,  and  are  re- 
printed from  my  article  in  the  Electrician  of  Dec.  12,  1902. 


CUHRENT    AND   BNEROie 

•    EFFICIENCIES    OP    THE    VARIOUS    ELECTROLTTIO 
ALKALI   PROCESSES. 

E.M.F. 
Rdquired 
inTolts. 

Actual  Yield  in  Grams. 

TumHfnfirm, 

Pvooeti. 

Per  Amp.  Hour. 

Per  Kw.  Hour. 

Percent 

NaOH. 

CI. 

NaOH. 

CL 

Current. 

Energy. 

fF«f  PnC€t969, 

Oastner-KellDAr 

40 
8-4 
60 
40 
9-8 

70 
4*2 

1-886 
1196 
1-849 

i-ane 

1-496 

1-870 
1*496 

1-1.96 
1-067 

840 
851 
809 
966 
660 

196 
8S6 

8B4 
810 

01 
80 
90-2 
87-6 
100 

01-6 
100 

62-8 
64 

41-4 
40-0 
100 

640 

100 

HwgnwiyBfrBird 

SflSTivlT.  .V.;:::;::::::::::;;:.:: 

AnasU  "Bell" 

1-8S8 

F^uicn  ProeeMtM. 
Acker 

T|ieoratieal  flipiNB 

1-828 

Using  the  above  figures,  we  find  that  to  obtain  1  metric  ton  of  72%  caustic 
soda  by  the  various  processes,  the  following  numbers  of  kilowatt  hours  are  re- 
quired, and  that  the  relative  costs  of  power  for  the  processes  are  as  stated  in 
column  3  of  the  table. 


KILOWATT   HOURS   REQUIRED   TO   OBTAIN    1    METRIC   TON   OF    72%    CAUSTIC   SODA 

BY  VARIOUS  ELECTROLYTIC  ALKALI  PROCESSES,   WITH  THE  RELATIVE 

COSTS  FOR  POWER  AT  0'25d.   PER  KILOWATT  HOUR. 


FlmeM. 

Kilowatt  Hours. 

Cost  at  0.26d.  per  Kw.  Hour. 

Cietner-KeOner 

2,786 
8,649 
8,467 
8.496 
4,789 

£2  17   0 
8  16   2 
8  12   0 
8  12  10 
4  19   4 

HargfOTea-Btrd 

KhMUn 

Auflsls^BelP^ 

Acker  (fniion  prooefls) 

In  comparing  the  above  costs,  it  must  be  remembered  that  the  processes  yield 
the  caustic  soda  solution  in  various  degrees  of  concentration  and  pnrity.  The 
Acker  process,  in  fact,  is  stated  to  yield  solid  77%  caustic  direct  from  the 


226 


THE  MINERAL  INDUSTRY. 


decomposing  vessel  attached  to  the  cell,  and  thus,  in  the  case  of  this  process, 
no  additional  costs  are  entailed  for  evaporating  the  cell  solutions. 


ESTIMATE    OF    CHIEF   ITEMS   OF    COST    FOR   PRODUCING    1    TON    OF    t2Jo    CAUSTIC 

SODA  AND  21   TONS   35%    BLEACHING  POVTDER  BY  TYPICAL 

VITET  AND  DRY   PROCESSES. 


Castner-Kelliier. 

Acker. 

£8  17   0 
1    7   0 
18    0 

£4  10   4 
17   0 

1  10    0 

1  10   0 

£7    8    0 

£7  16   4 

Power 

Raw  materials  (salt  and  lime) 

Fuel  (for  evaporaUog) 

Packages 

Totals 

The  year  1902  in  the  electrolytic  alkali  industry  has  been  marked  by  unwonted 
freedom  from  patent  litigation.  The  patent  case  referred  to  in  The  Mineral 
Industry,  Vol.  X.,  as  pending  between  the  Commercial  Development  Corpora- 
tion and  the  Castner-Kellner  Alkali  Co.  did  not  come  into  the  courts.  The  ex- 
planation of  this  ma}'  be  found  in  the  fact  that  the  plaintiff  company  is  in  finan- 
cial difficulties,  and  in  November,  1902,  the  shareholders  decided  upon  liquidation. 

Aluminum, — See  the  special  article  elsewhere  in  this  volume. 

Antimony, — Izart  has  described*  an  electrolytic  process  for  obtaining  anti- 
mony from  its  ores,  which  is  reported  to  be  working  at  Nakety,  in  New  Cale- 
donia. A  diaphragm  type  of  cell  is  used,  with  the  antimony  in  solution  as  poly- 
sulphide.  With  an  E.M.F.  of  1-6  volts  and  a  current  density  of  0-80  ampere 
per  gq.  d.c.m.  a  current  of  76%  efficiency  is  said  to  be  obtained.  The  Siemens 
&  Halske  process  is  reported  to  be  at  work  at  Banya,  in  Hungary,  and  at  Vienna, 
while  a  new  process,  of  which  no  details  are  published,  is  stated  to  be  in  use  at 
Cassagna,  in  France. 

Arsenic, — The  Westman  process*  for  extracting  arsenic  from  arsenical  ores 
was  briefly  referred  to  in  The  Mineral  Industry,  Vol.  X.  No  further  details 
relating  to  the  operation  of  the  process  by  the  Arsenical  Ore  Reduction  Co.,  of 
Newark,  N.  J.,  have  been  publishecl.  The  process  has  been  criticized  unfavor- 
ably by  the  Electrical  Times  (London),  which  points  out  that  it  would  yield  the 
arsenic  in  the  form  of  metal,  not  of  oxide,  and  that  this  metal  would  be  contami- 
nated with  zinc,  sulphur  and  antimony,  which  are  volatile  at  a  red  heat. 

Barium  Hydrate. — A  wet  method  for  producing  barium  hydrate  from  barium 
sulphide  has  been  patented  in  Brussels  and  London,  and  an  experimental  plant 
has  been  erected  in  the  former  city.  The  process  depends  upon  the  use 
of  a  mixed  solution  of  chlorides  and  sulphides  as  electrolyte  in  a  diaphragm  type 
of  cell.  Barium  hydrate  separates  at  the  cathode,  and  sulphur  at  the  anode,  the 
former  being  separated  from  the  electrolyte  by  a  centrifugal  machine.  So  far  the 
attempts  to  introduce  this  process  into  England  have  not  been  successful.  (For 
the  Bradley  &  Jacob  process,  see  under  the  section  ^^Barytes,"  elsewhere  in  this 
volume.) 

Bullion  Refining. — The  Deutsche  Gold-  und  Silberscheide  Anstalt,  of  Frank- 
fort, one  of  the  pioneer  firms  in  electrolytic  refining,  has  increased  its  capital  bv 


»  VEUctriden,  July  19, 1908. 


«  EngliBh  Patent  No.  17.(»7,  UOB. 


PROGRESS  IN  ELECTROCHEMISTRY.  227 

$360,000  during  1902,  and  has  paid  a  dividend  of  16%.  This  company  is,  how- 
ever, interested  in  several  subsidiary  undertakings  connected  with  the  cyanide 
industry,  and  this  profit  has  not  been  earned  solely  by  bullion  refining.  Accord- 
ing to  Danneel'  the  Norddeutsche  Affinerie  at  Hamburg,  is  producing  100,000  kg. 
silver,  3,000  kg.  gold  and  12  to  15  kg.  platinum  per  annum  by  the  Wohlwill 
processes.  The  Wohlwill  gold  refining  process  has  recently  been  adopted  by  the 
Freiburger  and  Halsbergen  Huettenwerken. 

Calcium  Carbide, — The  calcium  carbide  industry  during  1902  has  continued 
to  suffer  from  the  effects  of  the  overcapitalization  and  overproduction  which 
marked  the  "boom"  years  of  1897-1900,  and  a  large  number  of  the  works 
erected  for  the  production  of  carbide  in  Europe  are  still  closed,  or  are  applying 
the  power  available,  to  the  manufacture  of  other  electrometallurgical  products. 
The  position  as  regards  patents  is  gradually  becoming  simplified  by  the  decisions 
of  the  courts  in  the  various  countries.  In  the  United  Kingdom  during  1902  the 
holder  of  the  Wilson  patents: — the  Acetylene  Illuminating  Co.,has  lost  its  appeal 
case  against  the  United  Alkali  Co.,  and  therefore  the  manufacture  of  calcium  car- 
bide is  now  an  open  industry,  as  in  Germany.  In  France  and  the  United 
States  the  manufacture  is  still  controlled  by  the  Bullier  and  Willson  patents  re- 
spectively ;  but  it  is  possible  that  during  1903  an  attempt  will  be  made  to  upset 
the  monopoly  held  by  the  Union  Carbide  Co.  in  America.  Tlie  ground  of  the 
decision  against  the  validity  of  the  Willson  patents  in  the  United  Kingdom,  was 
the  prior  publication  by  Moissan  in  the  Comptes  rendvs,  of  the  method  of  calcium 
carbide  production  in  the  electric  furnace. 

Carborundum. — There  is  little  that  is  new  to  report  concerning  the  manu- 
facture of  carborundum.  The  outer  micro-crystalline  portion  of  each  charge 
formerly  wasted,  is  now  utilized  in  the  manufacture  of  a  fire-proof  stone.  Ac-. 
cording  to  Hutton  and  Petavel,  the  present  output  of  carborundum  amounts  to 
2,690  tons  per  year,  and  over  one-third  of  this  total  is  used  instead  of  ferro- 
silicon  in  the  steel  industry.* 

Chlorates, — The  electrolytic  chlorate  industry  is  reported  to  be  slowly  expanding 
in  America ;  but  in  Europe  it  is  in  a  stationary  position,  and  prices  of  sodium  and 
potassium  chlorate  have  fallen  to  a  level  which  leaves  little  margin  of  profit  for 
the  producer.  During  1902,  Messrs.  Gall  and  Montlaur,  the  pioneers  in  this 
industry,  have  been  awarded  the  Kastner-Bonnsalt  premium  by  the  French 
Academie  des  Sciences,  for  their  work  in  developing  this  new  manuafacturing 
process.  In  France,  6,000  tons  of  chlorate  are  reported  to  be  now  produced  per 
annum  by  the  electrolytic  process,  but  this  total  evidently  includes  the  output  of 
the  factory  at  Valorbes  in  Switzerland.  The  most  important  patent  granted  dur- 
ing 1902  is  British  Patent  No.  14,387,  in  which  protection  is  claimed  for  the  con- 
tinuous addition  of  dilute  hydrochloric  acid  to  the  electrolyte.  Foerster  &  Miiller 
have  published  papers  relating  to  several  important  investigations  during  1902. 
Limits  of  space  will  not  allow  of  an  abstract  of  these  valuable  and  important 
addition*)  to  the  knowledge  of  the  theory  of  the  electrolytic  process.'' 

•  ZHfichHft  fner  Elektrochemie,  March  6, 1902. 

•  Electrical  Review,  \jom\on,  Dec.  12. 1W2. 

f  ZeiUchrift  fuer  Elektrochemie,  Jan.  2,  July  81,  Aiipr.  28,  and  Sept.  4,  1902. 


228  THE  MINBRAL  INDUSTRY, 

Copper. — The  output  and  price  of  raw  copper  during  1902  have  been  dealt  with 
at  length  in  The  Engineering  and  Mining  Journal,  1903,  and  it  is  only  necessary 
to  point  out  here  that  the  break  in  price  which  occurred  13  months  ago,  has 
caused  serious  financial  loss  to  the  electrolytic  refineries,  which  had  accumulated 
large  stocks  of  ingot  copper  at  the  higher  figure,  or  had  delivery  contracts  running 
for  ingot  copper  at  the  date  of  the  collapse  in  value.  The  French  and  German 
Elmore  companies  appear  to  have  been  among  the  most  unfortunate  sufferers  in 
this  manner.  Both  companies  have  been  obliged  to  report  serious  losses  to  their 
shareholders  during  1902,  whereas,  if  there  had  been  no  break  in  price,  satisfactory 
dividends  would  have  been  paid.  The  continuance  of  the  slump  in  price  is  also 
causing  many  of  the  new  mining  and  smelting  companies,  floated  during  the 
boom,  to  cease  operations,  and  my  prophecy  concerning  these  companies  (see  The 
Mineral  Industry,  Vol.  X.,  p.  256)  is  rapidly  being  fulfilled.  With  regard  to 
the  work  of  the  English  Elmore  Co.,  at  Hunslet  Leeds,  the  reorganized  plant 
is  now  in  operation,  and  according  to  the  report  presented  to  the  shareholders  in 
May,  1902,  an  output  of  25  tons  of  tubes  per  week  was  being  attained  in  the  early 
part  of  the  year.  The  maximum  capacity  of  this  plant  is  60  tons  per  week. 
There  is  nothing  new  to  report  concerning  the  ordinary  electrolytic  refining 
process  in  Europe,  and  no  figures  of  any  value  have  been  published  during  1902 
for  the  output  of  the  electrolytic  refineries  in  either  Prance  or  the  United 
Kingdom. 

Danneel,  in  an  article  upon  electrometallurgy  in  Germany,*  gives  the  following 
figures  for  the  production  in  that  country:  Norddeutsche  (1900),  800  tons; 
Mansf elder  Qewerkschaft  (1900),  965  tons;  Altenau,  220  tons;  Niedermarsberg, 
1,000  tons;  Schladern,  1,200  tons.  The  total  copper  production  of  Germany  is 
stated  to  have  increased  in  the  last  ten  years  from  24,700  tons  to  32,000  tons, 
but  these  figures  evidently  refer  to  crude  copper  and  not  to  electrolytic  copper,  A 
new  refinery  is  being  erected  by  the  Cape  Copper  Co.,  at  Briton  Ferry,  Wales. 
The  Dessolle  method  of  depositing  copper  is  in  use  at  the  small  works  of  Levallois- 
Perret  in  Prance.  This  method  depends  upon  the  use  of  a  jet  for  forcing  the 
electrolyte  against  the  surface  of  the  cathode.  The  rapid  circulation  obtained 
in  this  manner  enables  a  current  density  of  750  amperes  (presumably  per  sq. 
d.c.m.)  to  be  used,  and  a  deposit  1  mm.  in  thickness  can  thus  be  obtained  in 
15  hours.*  It  is  questionable  whether  this  patent  could  be  maintained  either  in 
the  United  Kingdom  or  in  America,  since  in  both  countries,  previous  trials  of  this 
method  have  been  made.  With  regard  to  the  Hoepfner  process  for  extracting  cop- 
per from  its  ores,  no  new  information  is  available  for  publication ;  presumably  the 
Papenburg  works  are  still  operating  this  process.  The  Keith  extraction  process, 
which  was  worked  for  a  time  at  the  mines  of  the  Arlington  Copper  Co.,  New 
Jersey,  has  been  very  fully  described  by  the  inventor  in  a  paper  read  during  1902." 
Pinancial  difficulties  are  reported  to  have  caused  the  temporary  suspension  of 
work  at  these  mines.  An  illustrated  description  of  the  Raritan  Copper  Works  at 
Perth  Amboy,  has  been  published  in  the  paper  named  below.**  This  is  practically 
a  brief  summary  of  the  detailed  description  which  was  published  in  The  Mineral 

•  ZeiUchrift  fuer  EUktrochemie,  March  6, 1908.  >•  EJecMcal  Review,  New  York,  March  tt.  IWft 

•  VEteetrocKemie,  Novemher,  1908.  "  Scientifte  American,  March  15, 1908. 


PBOORESa  IN  ELECTB0CHBMI8TR7.  229 

Industby,  Vol.  IX.    The  Karitan  refinery  possesses  1,600  depositing  vats,  and  its 
monthly  output  averages  11,000,000  lb.  of  copper. 

Ferrochromium  and  Similar  Alloys, — ^At  Holcombe  Rock,  Virginia,  the 
Willson  Aluminum  Co.  is  reported  to  be  producing  150  tons  of  ferrochromium 
per  month,  in  a  modified  form  of  the  Willson  electric  furnace.  The  Carnegie 
and  Bethlehem  steel  companies  are  believed  to  be  using  practically  the  whole  of 
the  American  output  of  this  alloy  for  the  manufacture  of  the  hardened  chrome- 
steel  for  armor-plates.  According  to  Krull,  the  crystalline  product  is  preferred 
by  the  steel  makers,  possibly  because  it  is  purer  than  the  other  variety.**  The 
erection  of  a  works  is  planned  at  Orlu  in  the  French  Pyrenees,  for  the  production 
of  ferromanganese  by  the  Simon  process.  In  principle  this  process  resembles 
the  Heroult  process  for  aluminum  reduction.  Manganese  dioxide  containing  iron 
as  an  impurity  is  dissolved  in  a  bath  of  molten  calcium  fluoride,  and  the  mixture 
is  electrolyzed  at  a  temperature  of  1,300** C.  The  reduction  which  occurs  is 
partly  chemical  and  partly  electrolytic.  The  cost  of  the  product,  which  con- 
tains 84%  Mn,  8%  Fe,  and  about  7%  C,  is  reported  to  be  $38'40  per  ton." 
The  alloys  or  compounds  of  iron  and  silicon  have  been  examined  by  Touve  and 
by  Lebeau.  The  product  obtaiYied  by  heating  iron  with  excess  of  silicon  in  the 
electric  furnace,  is  reported  by  the  latter**  to  have  the  formula  FeSi^. 

Ferrotitanium  and  similar  alloys  are  being  produced  at  Niagara  Falls,  N.  Y., 
by  A.  J.  Bossi,  in  a  furnace  absorbing  J^OO  H.P.  If  a  market  can  be  created 
for  such  products  in  America  it  is  probable  that  this  industry  will  grow  rapidly 
in  magnitude  and  importance.  At  present  the  work  carried  out  by  Rossi  would 
appear  to  be  largely  experimental  in  character.  Full  details  of  these  experiments 
will  be  found  in  the  paper  read  by  Rossi  before  the  Franklin  Institute.** 

Glass. — A  brief  reference  was  made  by  me  in  The  Mineral  Industry,  Vol. 
X.,  to  the  proposed  use  of  the  electric  furnace  for  glass  manufacture.  In  spite 
of  the  unfavorable  economic  conditions  which  appear  to  render  such  use  of  the 
electric  furnace  doomed  to  failure,  the  two  engineers,  Becker  and  Volcker  of 
Cologne,  who  have  devoted  time  and  attention  to  this  subject,  have  been  able  to 
raise  the  capital  required  for  trial  of  their  electric-glass  furnaces  upon  an  in- 
dustrial scale.  At  Matrei,  in  the  Tyrol,  the  power  originally  developed  for  car- 
bide manufacture,  is  to  be  applied  to  this  new  use,  and  furnaces  to  use 
3.000  H.P.  are  now  being  erected.  A  similar  works  at  Plettenburg  in  Germany, 
is  reported  to  be  already  in  operation.  At  this  works  2,000  H.P.  is  available. 
The  Aktien  Oesellschaft  fuer  Elektrokeramic  is  the  name  of  the  company  which 
has  been  floated  to  develop  industrially  the  Becker  and  Volcker  patents  relating 
to  glass  manufacture.  I  am  doubtful  concerning  the  financial  success  of  these 
attempts  to  compete  with  the  regenerative  gas  furnace,  and  I  shall  be  much 
surprised  if  the  electric  glass  manufacture  becomes  an  established  industry,  until 
the  coal  fields  of  Europe  are  more  nearly  exhausted  than  is  the  case  at  the 
present  time. 

Graphite, — (See  page  343  of  this  volume.) 

Hypochlorites. — ^Little  information  has  been  published  during  1902,  relating 

!•  mektroehemitehe  ZeiUehrift  February,  1008.  »♦  Ctnnptea  rendtu.  Vol  IM,  p.  881. 

i>  ZeiimkHft  pkvr  EUktro^^emie,  May  16, 1909.  >•  JourruU  of  the  Frankiin  Inttitute,  1008. 


230  THE  MINERAL  INDUaTRT, 

to  the  progress  of  the  electrolytic  bleaching  industry.  The  fall  of  50% 
in  the  price  of  bleaching  powder  in  Europe,  will  for  the  time  stop  expansion  in  the 
use  of  electrolytic  bleach  solutions,  and  possibly  some  of  the  plants  already  in- 
stalled may  be  compelled  to  cease  operations.  Foerster  &  MuUer  have  published 
details  of  laboratory  investigations  relating  to  the  behavior  of  hypochlorite 
solutions  on  electrolysis.*^  A  new  form  of  electrolytic  cell  for  producing  hypo- 
chlorites, has  been  patented,  and  is  described  in  the  paper  named  below.*^  With 
this  cell,  a  current  of  50  amperes  and  100  volts,  is  reported  to  produce  1  kg. 
active  CI  per  hour.  This  cell  is  manufactured  by  the  Fabrik  Elektrischer 
Bleichapparate  at  Pfronten  in  Bavaria.  Ahlin  has  patented  an  improved  process 
for  bleaching  wood-pulp,  in  which  the  exhausted  hypochlorite  liquors  are  emul- 
sified with  air,  and  are  again  used  for  bleaching  the  pulp.  Remarkable  effects, 
as  regards  the  color  of  the  bleached  pulp,**  are  obtained,  supposed  to  be  due  to 
mechanically  held  oxygen. 

Iron  and  Steel, — The  direct  production  of  iron  and  steel  in  the  electric  furnace 
by  heating  the  ores  with  the  theoretically  necessary  weight  of  coke,  has  con- 
tinued to  receive  much  attention  throughout  1902,  and  a  very  large  number  of 
patents  are  being  taken  out  in  connection  with  this  use  of  the  electric  current. 
The  unsatisfactory  position  of  the  calcium  carbide  market,  and  the  closing  down 
of  a  large  number  of  the  carbide  works  in  Europe,  has  rendered  it  comparatively 
easy  for  the  inventors  to  obtain  trial  of  their  processes  on  an  industrial  scale;  and 
in  every  country  of  Europe  where  such  works  are  in  existence,  experimental  trials 
of  the  electrometallurgical  processes  for  iron  and  steel  production  are  now  taking 
place.  So  far  as  the  limits  of  space  allow,  the  various  patented  processes  are  dealt 
with  below : — 

The  Conley  Furnace. — In  this  furnace  the  reduction  is  effected  by  contact 
of  the  ore  and  coke  with  transverse  plates,  placed  in  the  throat  of  a  conically- 
shaped  furnace.  A  current  is  passed  through  these  plates  sufficient  to  keep  them 
at  a  red  heat,  and  the  hearth  of  the  furnace  is  further  heated  by  an  electricallv 
heated  belt.  It  is  estimated  that  for  a  Conley  furnace  of  100  tons  per  day 
capacity,  5,000  E.H.P.  would  be  required,  and  that  steel  could  be  produced  at  a 
cost  of  $11-85  per  ton.  The  patents  for  this  process  are  owned  by  the  Electric 
Furnace  Co.  of  New  York,  and  it  is  stated  that  the  company  is  now  engaged  in 
erecting  an  8.000-II.P.  plant  at  Elizabethtown,  N.  Y.  The  Massena  Electric 
Steel  Co.  with  a  capital  of  $500,000,  has  also  been  formed  to  erect  and  work  a 
similar  plant  at  Massena.*® 

The  Harmet  Furnace. — The  Harmet  furnace  consists  of  a  smelting-furnace, 
a  reduction  furnace  and  a  refining  furnace,  using  both  resistance  and  arc-heating. 
The  waste-gases  from  the  reduction  and  refining  divisions  of  the  furnace  are 
utilized  for  heating  the  raw  materials  with  which  the  furnace  is  fed.  According 
to  the  inventor,  3.600  E.H.P.  hours  are  required  to  produce  1  ton  of  steel  at  an 
estimated  cost  of  $5-61.**^  The  furnace  is  reported  to  be  operating  successfully 
at  St.  Etienne  in  France. 

>•  Zeitachrifi  ffier  Elektrochemie,  Aug.  28  and  Sept.  4,  190B. 

«▼  FJ^ktrochewische  Zeitachriff,  October,  1902. 

>»  Pnpier  Zeifuitg,  Vol   20. 1901. 

"  El^ctrorhemint  and  MfiaUurgUt,  Mnrch,  1903. 

»•  l^'RJertrochemie,  July,  1902. 


PROGRESS  IN  BLBGTROGEEMiaTRY.  231 

The  Heroult  Furnace. — This  furnace  is  still  undergoing  industrial  trial  at 
Le  Praz  in  Savoy.  According  to  report,  representatives  of  Schneider  et  Cie., 
of  Crensot,  have  seen  the  Heroult  process  and  furnace  at  work,  but  did  not  enter 
into  negotiations  for  the  purchase  of  the  patents. 

The  Keller  Furnace. — This  furnace  is  based  on  the  blast-furnace  principle  of 
construction,  and  both  resistance  and  arc-heating  are  used.  The  furnace  has  been 
very  fully  described  by  Bertolus  at  the  September  (1902)  Congress  on  ^'White 
Coal''  in  France.  An  experimental  plant  has  been  erected  at  Kerrousse^  Morhi- 
ban,  where  550  H.P.  are  available.  According  to  the  inventor,  one  metric  ton 
of  steel  can  be  obtained  in  his  furnace,  with  an  expenditure  of  2,800  K.W.  hours 
of  electric  power;  and  the  cost  per  ton  is  stated  to  be  from  $17-28  to  $19-20.'^ 
The  furnace  at  present  in  use  at  Kerrousse  absorbs  375  H.P.  A  larger  furnace 
for  production  of  from  15  to  20  tons  steel  at  one  charge  is  to  be  erected.  The 
developments  at  this  place  are  controlled  by  the  Compagnie  Electrothermique 
Keller  Leleux  &  Co.,  which  is  exploiting  the  Keller  patents.  New  Zealand  iron- 
sand  from  Taranaki  is  reported  to  be  used  as  raw  material  at  Kerrousse. 

The  Kjellin  Furnace. — The  operation  of  this  furnace  at  Gussingen  in  Sweden, 
yas  referred  to  in  The  Mineral  Industry,  Vol.  X.  Little  new  information 
concerning  this  experimental  plant  has  been  published  during  1902.  According 
to  a  United  States  consular  report,  a  larger  furnace  was  to  be  erected  and  an 
output  of  1,800  tons  steel  per  annum  with  a  300-H.P.  plant  was  contemplated.** 
This  is  equivalent  to  1,162  kw.  hours  per  ton  of  steel. 

The  Stassano  Furnace. — Practically  nothing  has  been  published  during  1902 
relating  to  the  progress  made  with  the  Stassano  furnace  trials  in  Italy,  and  it  is 
impossible  to  say  whether  the  plant  erected  at  Darfo  has  realized  expectations. 
It  is,  however,  ominous  that  the  Societa  Elettro-sidercorgica  Camuna,  the  com- 
pany which  was  exploiting  the  process,  has  come  to  the  end  of  its  resources,  and 
is  now  in  liquidation." 

With  regard  to  the  prospects  of  these  processes  generally,  I  see  as  yet  no  occa- 
sion to  revise  the  forecast  given  in  an  article  written  and  published  two  and  a 
half  years  ago.  After  an  examination  of  the  figures  published  for  the  operation 
of  the  experimental  Stassano  furnace  in  Home  (2,700  E.H.P.  hours  per  1  ton 
of  steel),  I  stated  my  belief  that  the  electric  furnace  methods  of  iron  and  steel 
production,  could  only  hope  to  succeed  in  countries  where  fuel  was  expensive, 
water  power  abundant,  and  where  heavy  protective  tariffs  on  iron  and  steel  shut 
out  products  of  the  ordinary  blast-furnace  and  Bessemer  processes.**  Given 
such  conditions,  in  conjunction  with  a  brisk  home  demand  for  the  products,  these 
electrical  processes  may  pay.  But  this  combination  of  favoring  conditions  is 
somewhat  unusual,  and  the  general  adoption  of  electric  furnace  methods  in  iron 
and  steel  manufacture  is  improbable.  Many  of  the  present  attempts  in  my 
opinion  are  doomed  to  failure. 

Lead. — ^The  process  operated  by  the  Electrical  Lead  Reduction  Co.,  at  Niagara 
Falls,  N.  Y.,  has  been  fully  described  during  1902,  in  a  paper  read  by  the  in- 
ventor Mr.  Pedro  G.Salom  before  the  newly  formed  American  Electrochemical 

M  VKcUUrage  El*fctHque,  Vol.  88,  p.  45, 1908.  •*  SSeiiachrift /tier  Elektrochemie,  Jan.  83. 1008 

•»  EleeMeity^  New  York,  July  80, 1908.  ««  Electrical  J^evieio,  London,  June  15, 1900. 


232  THE  MINERAL  INDUSTRY, 

Society-*^  Lead  sulphide  is  used  as  cathode  in  an  acid  solution,  and  the  reduc- 
tion occurs  as  the  result  of  the  action  of  nascent  hydrogen  upon  the  sulphide, 
with  the  formation  of  spongy  lead  and  hydrogen  sulphide  gas.  The  chief  diffi- 
culties met  with  in  operating  the  process  are  due  to  incomplete  reduction  of  the 
sulphide,  and  to  the  escapes  of  HjS  gas.  Two  pounds  of  lead  are  stated  to  be 
obtained  per  E.H.P.  hour.  In  August,  1902,  a  report,  was  current  in  New  York 
that  the  company  was  in  financial  trouble;  and  possibly  the  difficulties  referred 
to  above  have  proved  insurmountable.  A  new  electrolytic  process  for  treatment 
of  lead  bullion  is  reported  by  Titus  Ulke  to  be  in  use  at  Trail,  B.  C.^^  The  process 
which  has  been  patented  bv  Anson  G.  Betts,  is  based  on  the  solubility  of  lead  in 
an  acid  solution  of  lead  fluosilicate.  The  E.M.F.  required  to  deposit  the  lead 
from  this  solution  is  only  0-2  volt;  the  slimes  are  worked  up  for  gold  and  silver. 
The  works  using  this  process  are  designed  for  the  treatment  of  10  tons  lead 
bullion  per  day,  averaging  8,000  oz.  gold  and  silver  per  ton. 

Magnesium. — There  is  nothing  new  to  report  concerning  the  electrolytic 
method  of  producing  magnesium  from  fused  camallite. 

Molybdenum  and  Other  Rare  Metals, — In  the  United  Kingdom  a. company 
entitled  the  Tungsten  &  Rare  Metals  Co.  has  recently  been  floated  with  a  capital 
of  $96,000  to  purchase  and  work  patents  granted  to  Steinhart  &  Vogel  for  the 
production  of  rare  metals.  The  methods  by  which  these  are  to  be  obtained  from 
their  ores,  are  presumably  electrometallurgical  in  character;  $22,560  has  been 
paid  for  the  patents  and  the  supervision  by  the  inventors  for  five  years. 

Nickel. — The  chief  event  of  1902  with  regard  to  the  nickel  mining  and  re- 
fining industry  has  been  the  formation  of  the  International  Nickel  Co., 
with  a  capital  of  $24,000,000.  This  company  has  absorbed  the  Nickel  Corpora- 
tion of  London,  and  several  other  large  companies  interested  in  the  metal,  and 
with  the  Rothschilds  of  Paris,  this  company  now  practically  controls  the* world's 
output  of  nickel.  The  following  figures  have  been  published  during  1902  for 
the  world  production:    1899,  6,460  tons;  1900,  7,892  tons;  1901,  10,401  tons. 

As  regards  the  progress  of  the  Hoepfuer  process  at  Papenburg  in  Germany, 
little  fresh  information  has  been  published  during  1902.  Replying  to  state- 
ments that  the  process  was  a  failure,  Dr.  L.  Hoepfner  has  published  official 
figures  showing  that  in  1901,  150  tons  nickel  were  produced  at  Papenburg,  and 
that  in  April,  1902,  the  output  of  the  metal  at  this  works  amounted  to  800  kg. 
per  day.*^ 

The  Frasch  extraction  process  at  Hamilton,  Ontario,  is  reported  to  have  failed, 
and  the  same  result  is  believed  to  have  attended  the  trial  of  the  Hoepfner 
process  at  this  place. 

The  development  of  nickel  mining  properties  in  the  Sudbuiy  district  of 
Canada  is  proceeding  rapidly,  but  the  latest  reports  do  not  indicate  that  either 
electrometallurgical  or  electrolytic  methods  of  treatment  are  yet  being  used 
lor  the  ores  obtained.  The  pure  nickel  ore  from  this  district  is  to  be  smelted 
with  iron  ore  in  ordinary  blast  furnaces  at  Saulte  Sainte  Marie.  These  furnaces 
are  now  being  erected.     The  mixed  ores  of  iron  and  copper  are  being  smelted 

••  Bleetrical  Times.,  June  2«.  tiiba.  '•  Engineering  and  Mining  Journal,  Oct.  11«  ImE 

»»  ZeiUehrift  fuer  Elektrochemie,  April  84, 1908. 


FROORESS  IN  ELECTROCHEMiaTRY,  233 

at  the  mines,  and  the  matte  thus  obtained  containing  16%  Ni  and  8%  Cu,  is 
to  be  purified  by  treatment  in  a  Bessemer  plant  An  electrolytic  refinery  is  pro- 
jected for  separating  the  nickel  and  copper  in  the  refined  matte,  at  Saulte  Sainte 
Marie,  but  no  details  have  been  published  concerning  the  process  which  is  to  be 
used.  According  to  Ulke,  the  Browne  process,  the  details  of  which  have  been 
worked  out  at  the  experimental  works  of  the  Canadian  Copper  Co.,  at  Cleve- 
land, Ohio,  is  the  only  electrolytic  process  for  separating  nickel  and  copper  in 
actual  use  in  America  at  present.*'  The  process  is  based  upon  the  use  of  the 
copper-nickel  matte  as  anode  material  in  an  electrolyte  composed  of  nickel  and 
copper  chlorides.  The  copper  is  deposited  first  from  this  electrolyte,  and  the 
last  traces  of  copper  and  impurities  are  removed  by  a  chemical  treatment, 
before  the  nickel  is  deposited. 

The  development  of  the  Mond  process  at  Clydach,  in  South  Wales,  has  been 
hindered  during  1902  by  strikes  and  by  a  mysterious  illness  among  the  work- 
people. One  of  the  men  taken  ill  died  in  December,  and  medical  efxperts  are 
now  engaged  in  trying  to  ascertain  the  cause  of  the  trouble. 

As  regards  the  use  of  nickel  and  nickel-steel,  there  is  little  new  to  report. 
Capt.  Longridge,  in  his  papei:  upon  "Motor-Car  Construction,"  read  before  the 
Institution  of  Mechanical  Engineers,  in  London,  recommended  the  use  of  an 
alloy  containing  6%  Ni  and  0*35%  C  for  rivets,  pins,  springs,  etc." 

Nitric  Acid  and  Nitrates, — Darling  has  worked  out  the  details  of  a  process 
by  which  metallic  sodium  and  nitric  acid  can  be  obtained  by  electrolysis  of  fused 
sodium  nitrate,  and  the  John  Scott  premium  and  medal  have  been  awarded  to  the 
inventor  by  the  Franklin  Institute  of  Philadelphia,  Pa.  The  chief  feature  of 
the  invention  is  the  use  of  the  diaphragm  walls  as  secondary  anodes,  in  order  to 
protect  them  from  the  action  of  the  fused  salts.'®  This  process  has  not  hitherto 
been  applied  upon  an  industrial  scale,  but  it  is  possible  that  more  will  be  heard 
of  it.  At  Niagara  Falls,  N.  Y.,  the  production  of  nitric  acid  or  nitrates  by  high 
tension  spark  discharges  through  the  air,  has  been  the  subject  of  experiments  for 
many  monthf?,  and  according  to  the  latest  report  this  method  of  producing  combi- 
nation of  the  oxygen  and  nitrogen  of  the  air,  promises  to  develop  into*  a  com- 
mercially successful  process.  The  Atmospheric  Products  Co.,  with  a  capital  of 
$1,000,000,  has  been  formed  to  exploit  the  Bradley  &  Lovejoy  patents  relating 
to  this  process.  The  experimental  plant  absorbs  45  K.W.,  electrical  energy, 
and  a  direct  current  of  from  8,000  to  15,000  volts  is  used.  Mechanical  devices 
have  been  planned  for  breaking  the  138  arcs  3,000  times  per  minute.  The  air 
after  passing  through  the  apparatus  contains  2*5%  nitrogen  oxides.  A  2,000- 
H.P.  plant  is  to  be  erected  shortly.'*  The  fundamental  idea  of  this  process  is 
old,  but  Bradley  &  Lovejoy  are  the  first  engineers  who  have  obtained  anything 
approaching  commercial  success  with  their  experimental  plant,  and  the  dream  of 
Sir  William  Crookes,  of  Niagara  Falls  supplying  the  world  with  sodium  nitrate, 
is  thus  one  step  nearer  realization. 

Organic  Products. — There  have  been  a  large  number  of  laboratory  researches 
relating  to  the  electrolytic  production  of  organic  compounds   published  during 

**  EieetroeKemiMehe  Zeittehri/t,  December,  1908.         *•  Journal  of  the  Franklin  Institute.  January,  1902. 
*•  Engineering.  Nov.  7, 1902.  "  Electrochemical  Induetry,  No.  1,  Sei>tember,  1900. 


234  THE  MINERAL  INDUSTRT, 

1902.  As  regards  the  industrial  application  of  these  methods,  there  is  nothing 
to  add  to  the  paragraph  devoted  to  this  subject  in  The  Mineral  Industry, 
Vol.  X. 

Oxygen  and  Hydrogen. — There  is  nothing  new  to  report  relating  to  the  com- 
mercial production  of  these  gases  by  the  electrolysis  of  water,  beyond  the  publica- 
tion of  a  hand-book  devoted  solely  to  this  branch  of  the  electrochemical  industry. 
The  author  is  Dr.  Victor  Engelhardt,  of  Vienna,  and  his  work  forms  the  first  of 
a  projected  series  entitled,  Monograph ien  ueber  angewcmdte  Elektrockemie, 
by  authors  who  may  be  regarded  as  experts  in  the  various  subjects  dealt  with. 

Ozone. — The  year  1902  has  been  marked  by  a  distinct  revival  of  interest  in 
the  applications  of  ozonized  air  for  water  purification  and  sterilization.  At  Lea 
Bridge,  London,  the  East  London  Water  Co.  has  been  carrying  out  experiments 
with  this  method  of  water  sterilization.  No  official  results  of  these  trials  have 
yet  been  published.  In  Holland  the  noted  chemist,  Prof.  Van't  HoflF,  has  been 
devoting  some  attention  to  the  subject,  and  has  read  a  paper  describing  trials 
with  the  Vosmaer-Lebret  ozonizer  and  process  at  Schiedam.  These  trials  were 
satisfactory,  and  it  is  possible  that  the  process  may  be  tried  on  a  larger  scale  at 
Rotterdam.'*  In  Germany,  Siemens  &  Halske  Ijas  devoted  much  attention  to 
the  problem,  and  has  erected  small  plants  which  are  operating  on  a  commercial 
basis  at  Schierstein  and  at  Paderborn,  two  small  towns  in  western  Germany. 
Satisfactory  results  are  stated  to  have  been  obtained.  Illustrated  descriptions 
of  these  two  installations  may  be  found  in  the  paper  named  below.'* 

As  regards  the  Marmier  &  Abraham  ozonizer  and  process,  full  details  of 
which  have  appeared  in  earlier  volumes  of  The  Mineral  Industry,  a  small 
plant  has  been  erected  in  the  brewery  of  M.  Velten,  at  Marseilles,  using  a  voltage 
of  30,000;  a  concentration  of  12  g.  ozone  per  cubic  meter  of  air,  is  obtained 
with  a  discharge  equivalent  to  5  K.W.  per  sq.  m.  of  electrode  surface." 

Sodium,  Sodium  Peroxide  and  Sodium  Cyanide. — There  is  little  to  add  to 
the  information  given  in  The  Mineral  Industry,  Vol.  X.,  relating  to  the 
electrolytic  production  of  metallic  sodium,  or  of  its  derivatives,  sodium  peroxide 
and  sodium  cyanide.  The  English,  German  and  French  firms  engaged  in  this 
industry  convert  most  of  their  sodium  into  the  peroxide  or  the  cyanide.  At 
Niagara  Falls,  N.  Y.,  according  to  Prof.  Richards,  the  Niagara  Electro-Chemi- 
cal Co.  is  employing  1,000  H.P.  in  the  manufacture,  and  is  producing  daily 
6,250  lb.  of  metallic  sodium.'" 

Swinburne,  in  the  presidential  address  delivered  early  in  December  in  London 
before  the  members  of  the  Institution  of  Electrical  Engineers,  referred  to  the 
attempts  that  have  been  made  to  electrolyze  fused  sodium  chloride,  and  to  separate 
metallic  sodium  and  chlorine  from  this  salt.  Though  these  experiments  failed 
he  IS  still  hopeful  concerning  this  process,  and  predicts  that  in  a  few  years 
metallic  sodium  will  be  sold  for  a  few  dollars  per  ton.  In  this  connection.  Darl- 
ing's process  for  electrolyzing  fused  sodium  nitrate  (see  nitric  acid),  and  the 
laboratory  research  carried  out  by  I^  Plane  &  Erode  on  the  chemistry  of  th^ 
Castner  process,'*  are  of  interest. 

n  ZeiUchrift  fuer  Ele'ctrochemie,  July  84. 1902.  >«  Revue  de  Chimie  Tndutttrielle,  Aiiinist,  1908. 

»  Ibid.,  Nov.  87, 1902  "  K'-rfm^h^micnl  tnduaU-y.  September,  190«. 

»•  ZeitKhrift  fner  Elektrochemie,  Sept.  11  and  18, 1902. 


PROGRESS  IN  BLEGTROCHEMiaTRT,  236 

Tanning, — There  is  nothing  to  add  to  the  iiifonnation  contained  in  Thk 
Mineral  Ixdusthy,  Vol.  X.,  relating  to  the  use  of  the  electric  current  for 
tanning  purposes. 

Tin. — The  electrol}i:ic  method  of  stripping  tin  from  tin  scrap  and  waste 
appears  to  be  extending,  and  in  a  recently  published  memoir  upon  the  subject^^ 
Mennicke  gave  a  list  of  eight  factories  in  Germany  and  Austria,  where  the 
electrolytic  method  is  employed. 

The  consumption  of  tin  scrap  in  Germany  alone  is  said  to  reach  30,000  tons 
per  annum,  and  as  this  is  greater  than  the  total  production  of  the  country, 
scrap  is  being  imported  from  Switzerland  and  other  countries.  Mennicke 
recommends  sodium  hydrate  as  electrolyte,  and  it  is  believed  that  this  is  the 
process  generally  used.  At  Manchester,  England,  trial  has  been  made  with 
the  Gelstharpe  process,  which  is  based  upon  the  use  of  an  electrolyte  containing 
V25%  hydrochloric  acid  free  from  arsenic,  and  a  small  percentage  of  sulphuric 
acid.  Sixty  tons  of  waste  cuttings  are  ^aid  to  have  been  treated  by  this  plant.** 
Neuhardt  has  described  the  use  of  an  electrolyte  containing  ammonium  sulphate, 
and  10%  sulphuric  acid,  but  this  process  does  not  appear  to  have  been  worked  on 
an  industrial  scale.'* 

As  regards  the  electrolytic  extraction  of  tin  from  ores  or  slags,  Bergsoe  has 
patented  a  process  based  on  the  use  of  a  stannic  chloride  solution  for  leaching 
the  ore.  It  is  doubtful  if  this  will  be  successful,  since  the  diflBculties  that  have 
checked  the  development  of  the  Hoepfner  process  for  extracting  copper,  will 
be  met  with  in  this  procedure.  The  Robertson  &  Bense  process  for  the  treatment 
of  slags  at  Tostedt,  in  Germany,  has  been  referred  to  in  previous  reports,  and 
the  only  new  fact  concerning  this  process  is  that  the  plant  at  Tostedt  is  to  be 
enlarged. 

Zinc. — The  electrolytic  zinc  industry  has  not  made  much  progress  during 
1902.  At  the  Winnington  works  of  Brunner,  Mond  &  Co.,  England,  where  the 
Hoepfner  process  is  employed,  1,663  tons  of  zinc  are  said  to  have  been  obtained 
up  to  April  30,  1901,  together  with  5,000  tons  of  bleaching  powder  as  a  by- 
product. The  present  output  is  reported  to  be  3  tons  zinc,  and  9  tons  bleach 
per  day.***  The  bulk  of  this  company's  output  of  zinc  is  reported  to  be  used,  aftei^ 
alloying  with  copper,  for  the  manufacturing  of  cartridge  cases. 

As  regards  the  Swinburne  &  Ashcroft  fusion  process  (see  Thk  Mineral 
Industry,  Vol.  X.),  the  erection  of  the  plant  at  Weston  Point,  Lancashire, 
has  been  completed  during  1902,  but  the  patentees  in  answer  to  direct  inquiry 
state  that  at  present,  they  prefer  to  say  nothing  concerning  the  progress  made 
with  the  development  of  the  process.  (See  also  under  the  caption  ''Zinc,"  else- 
where in  this  volume.) 

The  Casaretti  &  Bertani  process  for  the  treatment  of  zinc  ores  in  the  electric 
furnace  and  volatilization  of  the  zinc  bv  heat,  which  was  referred  to  in  The 
MiNEiUL  Industry,  Vol.  X.,  does  not  appear'  to  have  yet  been  tried  upon  an  in- 

>T  Zeitachrift  fner  Elektrochemie,  May  22,  June  6  and  18, 1902. 

*"  ElectrochemUt  and  Metallurgist ,  December,  1901. 

>•  Chemiker  Zeitung,  Jan.  15,  1902,  and  German  Parent  No.  118,868, 1900. 

«•  ZeitschHft  fwsr  Elektrochemie,  April  84,  1908. 


236  THB  MINERAL  INDUSTRY. 

diiBtrial  scale.  An  illustrated  description  of  the  furnace  and  details  of  its  work- 
ing will,  however,  be  found  in  the  journal  named  below.** 

The  Strozda  process  (see  The  Mineral  Industry,  Vol.  X.)  is  reported  to  be 
in  operation  at  two  works  in  Germany.  According  to  Danneel  its  success  is 
doubtful.  The  electrolytic  process  introduced  at  Friedrichshiitte  for  parting 
silver  and  zinc,  has  proved  unsuccessful,  and  according^  to  the  same  authority 
its  use  is  to  be  dropped. 

Borchers  in  a  paper  read  before  the  general  meeting  of  the  'fVerein''  of 
German  chemists  in  May,  1902,  gave  details  of  several  electrolytic  processes  for 
extracting  zinc  from  mixed  ores  and  other  materials  now  wasted.  Blende 
carrying  lead  sulphide  is  charged  into  a  revolving  drum  containing  a  dilute 
solution  of  sodium  chloride,  and  chlorine  gas  is  passed  into  the  mixture.  The 
sulphur  separates  in  solid  form,  and  the  metals  are  converted  into  chlorides  and 
pass  into  solution.  The  solution  is  freed  from  the  insoluble  gangue  by  filtrations 
and  from  impurities  by  chemical  treatment;  after  concentration  and  fusion  the 
mixed  chlorides  are  electrolyzed.  Zinc  ores  containing  heavy  spar  as  an  im- 
purity, can  also  be  worked  by  this  method.  For  zinc  ores  containing  silicates 
Borchers  recommends  Dorsenmagen's  procedure,  which  is  based  on  reduction  in 
an  electric  furnace  with  distillation  of  the  zinc  and  formation  of  silicon  carbide. 
This  same  procedure  can  also  be  applied  to  mixtures  of  iron  and  zinc  sulphides, 
sufficient  quartz  being  added  to  convert  all  the  iron  into  ferrosilicon. 

As  regards  electro-galvanizing,  there  is  little  that  is  new  to  report.  Each 
country  now  possesses  one  or  more  of  these  works,  but  the  electrolytic  method 
does  not  extend  rapidly,  and  its  competition  with  the  older  dipping  method  is 
hardly  felt.  Paweck  has  patented  the  use  of  boric  acid  and  borates  in  the  gal- 
vanizing baths.**  I  am  unable  to  say  whether  this  addition  is  being  employed  in 
any  of  the  electro-galvanizing  works  situated  in  France  or  other  European 
countries. 

«>  KUktroehemitthe  Zeittehrift,  December,  \VB.  «*  French  Patent  No.  818,168,  IMS. 


FELDSPAR. 

The  statistics  of  the  production  of  feldspar  in  1902  are  not  yet  available^  but 
the  output  in  1901  amounted  to  31,019  long  tons,  valued  at  $220,422,  as  com- 
pared with  29,447  long  tons,  valued  at  $136,773  in  1900,  and  26,968  tons  ($137,- 
886)  in  1899.  During  1902,  veins  of  feldspar  were  worked  in  Connecticut,  Mary- 
land, Maine,  New  York  and  Pennsylvania. 

For  a  detailed  account  of  the  occurrence,  mining  and  uses  of  feldspar,  refer- 
ence may  be  made  to  the  article  by  T.  C.  Hopkins  in  The  Mineral  Industry, 
Vol.  VII. 

PRODUCTION  OP  FELDSPAR  (CRUDB  AND  GROUND)   IN  THE  UNITED  STATES  IN  1901. 


Stete. 

Crude. 

Qround. 

Quaatity. 

Value. 

Quantity. 

Value. 

CtmnMtkmt 

Short  Tom. 
8,614 
896 
1,000 

4,4go 

$4,908 
8,400 
1,000 

18,807 

Short  Tons. 
7,8^5 

14,108 

80,000 

Maine t.,,,,.tt r-rt-T 

New  York 

i8s.m 

.    TOtalfl ......,,  r  T  ...  r  ,,..  r,  - 

9,900 
8,898 

181,009 
81,009 

84,781 
88,180 

$196,768 

Totals  in  loDR  tons. 

198,768 

(a)  Inciuded  with  New  York. 
PRODUCTION  OP  PELD8PAR  IN  THE  UNITED  STATES  IN  1898,  1899  AND  1900. 


State. 

1896. 

1899. 

1900. 

Long  Tons 

Value. 

Long  Tons. 

VahK. 

Long  Tons. 

Value. 

Ooonectlcat 

Maine  and  Peuniylvania 

0,090 

18,964 

160 

1,660 

$87,M4 
9,785 

11,104 

14,044 

160 

1,000 

71,756 

600 

4,840 

18,166 

14,481 

800 

1,000 

$08,878 
66,901 

8,800 

New  York 

4,800 

Tntahi. ..., 

81,860 

$107,147 

80,908 

$187,860 

89,447 

$180,778 

The  price  of  feldspar  did  not  vary  throughout  the  year  1902,  the  ground  prod- 
uct bringing  $8@$9  per  short  ton,  as  compared  with  $7  per  short  in  1901.  In 
1901,  unground  feldspar  was  sold  in  bulk  at  the  mine  from  $3@$6  per  short  ton. 


FLUORSPAR. 

BT  HRNRT  FI8HBB. 

The  production  of  fluorspar  in  the  United  States  continues  to  be  derived  chiefly 
from  the  mines  in  Crittenden,  Caldwell  and  Livingston  counties,  Ky.,  and  Har- 
din and  Pope  counties,  111.,  and  in  1902  the  quantity  produced  was  27,127  short 
tons,  valued  at  $143,520,  as  compared  with  19,586  short  tons,  valued  at  $113,803, 
in  1901.  The  producers  of  fluorite  were  the  Kentucky  Fluor  Spar  Co.,  the  Fluor- 
spar Co.,  Western  Kentucky  Mining  Co.,  and  Lucile  Mining  Co.,  all  of  Marion, 
Ky.;  the  Eagle  Fluorspar  Co.,  at  Salem,  Ky.,  the  Rosiclaire  Lead  &  Fluorspar 
Mines  at  Rosiclaire,  111.,  and  the  Tennessee  Fluor  Spar  Co.,  at  Nashville,  Tenn. 
Early  in  1902,  the  Kentucky  Fluor  Spar  Co.,  which  has  been  the  chief  producer  of 
fluorspar  in  recent  years,  absorbed  The  Fluorspar  Co.,  and  is  now  by  far  the  largest 
producer  in  Kentucky.  This  company  and  the  Rosiclaire  Lead  &  Fluorspar 
Mines  produced  nearly  80%  of  the  total  output  during  1902. 


PRODUCTION  OK  FLUORSPAR  IN  THE  UNITED  STATES.       (iN 

SHORT  TONS.) 

Year. 

Tons. 

Value.   1  Per  Ton 

Year. 

Tons. 

Value. 

Per  Ton 

Year. 

Tons. 

Value.    Per  Ton 

1891.... 
1898.... 
1898.... 
1894.... 

6,890 
9,000 
9,700 
6,400 

$38,000      $6-00 
54,000        600 
68,060        6-50 
88,400        600 

1896 

1896 

1897 

1898  .... 

I 

4,000 
6,000 
4,879 
12,146 

48,000 
86,264 
86,985 

$600 
800 
7-66 
7- 16 

1899 

1900 

1901 

1908...^. 

24,080 
21,666 
19,586 
27,187 

$182,656      $6-86 
118,480        5  24 
118,808         5-81 
148,690-       5  29 

For  the  American  market  fluorspar  is  divided  into  six  grades,  namely,  Ameri- 
can lump  No.  1,  American  lump  No.  2,  gravel,  crushed,  ground  fine,  and  ground 
extra  fine.     The  foreign  product  appears  in  two  grades  only — ^lump  and  fine. 

The  prices  for  fluorspar  per  short  ton  during  1902  did  not  change  throughout 
the  year,  and  were  as  follows:  American  lump,  first  grade,  $14-40;  second  grade, 
$13-90;  gravel  and  crushed,  first  grade,  $13-40;  second  grade,  $12-40;  ground, 
first  grade,  $17-90;  second  grade,  $16-50.  The  prices  of  the  foreign  fluorspar 
were:  lump,  $8@$12;  ground,  $11  50@$14.  The  average  value  of  fluorspar  per 
short  ton,  f .  o.  b.  at  mines,  was :  lump,  $5 ;  gravel,  $4.  

Arizona.— The  fluorspar  mined  at  Castle  Dome,  Yuma  County,  is  being  shjipped 
to  California,  where  it  is  used  in  the  manufacture  of  Portland  cement.     .; 

Illinois. — Golconda,  on  the  Ohio  River,  is  the  shipping  point  of  the  Roiithern 
Illinois  fluorspar  fields.  The  Illinois  Central  Railroad  now  extends  from  €tol- 
conda  to  Reevesville,  and  will  help  the  development  of  the  mineral  resources  of 
both  Pope  and  Hardin  counties.  The  Rosiclaire  mine,  at  Rosiclaire,  operated 
by  the  Rosiclaire  T^ead  &  Fluorspar  Mines  has  attained  a  depth  of  300  ft.  in 
the  main  shaft,  and  has  four  levels,  the  first  at  a  depth  of  100  ft.  and  the  other 


FLU0B8PAR 


239 


three  50  ft.  apart.  The  levels  have  been  driven  700  ft.  on  each  side  of  the  shaft. 
At  the  300-ft.  level  the  vein  of  spar  is  20  ft.  wide.  The  eompan/s  mill  has  two 
large  boilers  and  hoisting  engines,  an  engine  for  operating  the  washing  plant, 
crusher,  bucket  elevator,  five  sets  of  jigs  and  a  GrifiBn  mill  for  crushing.  The 
large  lumps  of  spar  are  separated  by  hand,  the  rest  being  crushed,  screened  to 
tout  sizes  and  jigged.  The  capacity  of  the  mine  is  100  tons  of  spar  per  day.  The 
Fair  View  mine  near  the  Bosiclaire  mine  has  been  recently  sold  to  a  new  coiUpanjr 
after  having  been  idle  for  15  or  20  years,  'f he  old  mill  is  being  dismantled,  ^ 
new  building  erected,  and  improved  machinery  added.  The  Lead  Hill  mine  owned 
by  the.  Hardin  County  Mineral  &  Mining  Co.,  four  miles  north  of  Cave-in-Eock, 
began  operations  in  1902.  The  Empire  Mining  Co.  of  Cleveland,  0.,  is  mining 
fluorspar,  lead,  and  zinc  at  the  Empire  mine,  15  miles  from  Golconda.  The 
Grand  Pierre  Lead  &  Zinc  Mining  Co.  is  also  developing  its  fluorspar  property 
in  Pope  County.  There  are  other  fluorspar  mines  in  this  county,  not  as  yet  de- 
veloped, owing  to  lack  of  transportation  facilities. 

Kentucky, — The  Western  Kentucky  Mining  Co.  sold  its  property  to  a  new  cor- 
poration, the  Columbia  Mining  Co.,  which  is  now  erecting  a  plant.  The  Colum- 
bia mine,  where  lead  was  mined  25  years  ago,  and  which  was  abandoned  when 
lead  was  discovered  in  Colorado,  is  being  re-opened  and  will  be  worked  for  lead 
and  fluorspar.  The  Kentucky  Fluor  Spar  Co.  owns  and  operates  the  Memphis, 
Yandell  and  Hodge  mines.  At  the  Yandell  mine,  the  workings  extend  over  an 
era  of  1,000  ft.  and  three  shafts  each  100  ft.  deep  have  been  sunk.  At  the  Hodge 
mine,  at  a  depth  of  100  ft.  a  20-ft.  vein  is  being  developed.  This  company  not 
only  mines  the  mineral,  but  buys  the  production  of  nearly  all  the  small  operators. 
The  National  Lead,  Zinc  &  Fluor  Spar  Co.,  of  Cleveland,  0.,  has  erected  a  100- 
ton  concentrating  plant  at  the  Marble  mine  near  Crider,  Caldwell  County.  Two 
100-ft.  shafts  have  been  sunk.  The  Bonanza  mine,  near  Salem,  is  being  operated 
by  the  American  Lead,  Zinc  &  Fluor  Spar  Co.,  of  Cleveland,  0.  At  the  Cullen 
mine,  owned  by  the  Eagle  Fluorspar  Co.  experiments  are  being  made  to  separate 
the  fluorspar  and  the  zinc  blende  contained  in  the  ore. 

Tennessee. — Flourspar  is  being  mined  near  Home,  Smith  County,  by  the  Ten- 
nessee Fluor  Spar  Co.  and  shipped  to  Nashville.  The  fluorspar  occurs  in  crys- 
talline masses  in  a  vein,  reported  to  be  100  ft.  wide  in  some  places,  and  assays 
from  92  to  98"%  CaPj,  no  zinc  of  lead  being  present.  The  material  is  easily 
mined  and  the  cost  is  said  to  be  only  75c.  per  ton. 

PRODUCTION  OF  FLUORSPAR  IN  THE  PRINCIPAL  COUNTRIES  OP  THE  WORLD.      (o) 

(in  metric  TONS.) 


France. 

Spain. 

United 
Kingdom 

United 
States. 

Ye*r. 

Anhalt 

BararUL 

Prussia. 

Saxony. 

Schwarz- 
burg. 

Total. 

1807 

2.7» 
3,077 
5.140 
8,480 
3.970 

7,000 
6,415 
5.815 

5.707 

4.004 
4  440 
S«W1 
7.4,'5fi 
5.220 

10,095 
11. «« 
12a« 
I3.ft2n 

14,978 

592 

775 

i.aw 

f/»>  2.019 
(h)  1,825 

641 
2<M 

987 
1,016 

S 

5 

310 

4 

808 

5or 

796 
1.472 
4,232 

4,299 

11.018 
21.800 
19.646 
17.768 

84.678 

1808. 

88.894 

1809 

52.852 

1000 

.54.862 

1901  

Nil 

54.711 

(a)  From  the  official  reports  of  the  respective  cwratries  except  theUnit<»d  Stat«».  for  which  the  totals  are  based 
OD  direct  returns  of  the  producers,  and  for  Anhalt.  Saxe- Weimar  and  Schwarzbursr-So-derhansen,  whtch  are 
doe  to  the  oouii^v  of  Herr  von  Scheel,  director  de<  Kaiaerllchen  Statlstischen  Amts.  (b)  Includes  667  metric 
tons  from  Saxe- Weimar  in  1900,  anl  210  metric  tons  in  1001. 


240  THE  MINERAL  INDUSTRY. 

The  Use  of  Sodium  Fluoride  fob  the  Purification  of  Water. 
By  Charles  A.  Doebmus. 

Mechanical  filtration  of  water  was  first  applied  on  a  large  scale  during  the 
summer  of  1888.  Later  in  that  year  attempts  were  made  near  New  York  to 
use  caustic  alkali  to  soften  water,  but  with  very  imsatisfactory  results;  and 
numerous  tests  were  made  with  various  chemicals  to  precipitate  the  lime  and 
magnesia  contained  in  the  waters  in  common  use,  sodium  fluoride  being  finally 
selected.  This  salt,  however,  could  not  be  purchased,  so  that  when  .in  May,  1889, 
a  patent  for  its  use  as  a  precipitant  for  lime  and  magnesia  in  water  was  granted 
in  the  United  States  and  in  Europe,  the  question  of  getting  a  supply  of  the  salt 
became  a  serious  one.  It  was  thought  that  a  cheap  and  abundant  supply  could 
be  easily  obtained  from  cryolite,  a  compound  consisting  of  51%  NaF,  the  sale 
of  which  in  the  United  States  was  in  the  hands  of  the  Pennsylvania  Salt  Manu- 
facturing Co.  This  company  manufactured,  at  its  works  at  Natrona,  Pa.,  the 
first  large  quantity  used  in  this  country,  but  the  price  was  excessive  and  the 
sodium  fluoride  had  to  be  obtained  elsewhere,  chiefly  from  fluorspar  and  soda 
ash. 

Repeated  attempts  have  been  made  to  find  a  simple  method  to  cheapen  the 
manufacture  of  this  article.  In  1900  I  patented  a  method  which  consists  in  treat- 
ing the  cryolite  with  superheated  steam.  The  fluorine  of  the  cryolite  is  liberated 
as  hydrofluoric  acid,  while  the  residue  consists  of  sodium  aluminate,  a  commer- 
cial product.  Thus  the  cryolite  in  its  entirety  is  rendered  useful.  The  small 
quantity  of  impurities — iron,  lead,  etc. — ^is  left  as  a  residue  on  leaching  out  the 
sodium  aluminate.  The  small  proportion  of  silica  is  evolved  as  hydrofluosilicic 
acid,  or  it  can  be  removed  by  one  of  the  several  methods  in  common  use.  Experi- 
ments with  this  process  on  a  large  scale  have  not  been  a  commercial  success. 

The  chief  use  of  sodium  fluoride  is  to  prevent  incrustations  in  steam  boilers. 
The  precipitated  calcium  and  magnesium  fluorides  form  a  non-adherent  sludge 
which  is  easily  blown  out,  and  as  the  calcium  or  magnesium  salts  present  react 
to  form  fluorides,  the  grains  per  gallon  of  calcium  and  of  magnesium  need  only 
be  known  in  order  to  calculate  the  weis^ht  of  sodium  fluoride  necessary  to  pre- 
cipitate them.  If  water  is  to  be  softened,  the  chemically  equivalent  proportion 
of  sodium  fluoride  must  be  added,  but  in  practice  one-quarter  of  the  theoretical 
quantity  will  prevent  incrustation,  the  physical  properties  of  the  sludge  pre- 
venting the  precipitated  calcium  and  magnesium  salts  from  adhering  to  the 
sides  of  the  boiler. 


FULLERS  EARTH. 

By  Hbnbt  Fisher. 

The  production  of  fullers  earth  in  the  United  States  during  1902  was  14,100 
short  tons,  valued  at  $109,980,  as  compared  with  14,112  short  tons,  valued  at 
$96,835  in  1901.  The  greater  part  of  the  product  continues  to  be  supplied  from 
the  mines  at  Quincy,  Fla.,  the  balance  being  obtained  from  the  mines  in  Arkansas, 
California,  Colorado,  Georgia,  and  New  York. 

Imports. — ^The  imports  of  fullers  earth  in  1902  were  13,513  long  tons,  valued 
at  $102,580,  as  compared  with  10,769  long  tons,  valued  at  $80,697  in  1901. 

New  York  Market. — ^The  consumption  of  English  fullers  earth  during  1902 
was  greater  than  it  has  been  for  a  number  of  years;  the  demand  for  the  earth 
was  steady  and  active  throughout  the  year.  It  has  been  used  in  preference  to  the 
domestic  product  for  refining  vegetable  and  animal  oils.  Owing  to  the  fact  that 
the  bulk  of  the  domestic  production  is  generally  contracted  for  in  advance,  quota- 
tions remain  practically  unchanged  throughout  the  year.  Prices  for  ordinary 
lump  during  1902  were  75c.  per  100  lb.,  and  for  powdered,  85c.  per  100  lb.  during 
the  first  half  of  the  year,  and  80c.  per  100  lb.  during  the  second  half. 

Arkansas. — ^The  Arkansas  Fullers  Earth  Co.  did  no  mining  in  1902,  but  sank 
more  prospect  shafts  and  developed  the  ore  bodies  on  its  property. 

Florida. — ^According  to  T.  W.  Vaughan^  fullers  earth  occurs  near  Biver  Junc- 
tion, Mosquito  Creek  and  Quincy  in  Oadsden  County;  near  Tallahassee,  Leon 
County,  and  near  Alachua,  Alachua  County.  The  deposits  vary  in  thickness  up 
to  10  ft.  The  fullers  earth  varies  in  its  bleaching  properties,  but  it  is  not  equal 
to  the  English  product.  Analysis  shows:  SiO^,  36-73  to  70-78%.;  Fe^Oj  and 
AlA,  11;38  to  30-99% ;  CaO,  0-81  to  6% ;  MgO,  064  to  315% ;  H,0,  7-72  to 
10-3%,  and  moisture,  6*41  to  7-45%.  The  Chesebrough  Manufacturing  Co. 
in  February,  1902,  discontinued  the  mining  of  fullers  earth  and  the  product  from 
Florida  is  now  limited  to  the  Owl  Commercial  Co.  at  Quincy  and  the  Standard 
Oil  interests  at  Manatee.  The  latter  company  does  not  mine  the  product,  but  pur- 
chases it  direct  from  small  producers. 

Georgia. — Fullers  earth  occurs  near  Attapulgus,  Decatur  County,  Qa.  Ten  pits 
have  been  sunk  in  the  deposit  of  earth  which  varies  in  width  from  25  to  9  ft. 

>  OontrOmiiom  to  Economic  Oeolofnf,  Uoit«d  States  Geological  Surrey,  1908,  p.  89S. 


242  THE  MINERAL  INDU8TRT. 

Two  samples  analyzed  showed  SiO^,  55-90%  (57-26%)  ;A1,0„  12-40%  (18-33%) ; 
Fe^O,,  2-40%  (187%);  CaO,  1%  (2  58%);  MgO,  812%  (106%);  H,0, 
10-50%  (9  40%)  ;  and  moisture,  940%  (9%).  Deposits  of  fullers  earth  occur 
also  in  this  county  near  Sears,  WolflEs  and  Withlacooche  creeks. 

France. — In  1901,  France  produced  3,400  metric  tons  of  fullers  earth,  valued 
at  $3,400,  as  compared  with  3,700  metric  tons,  valued  at  $3,580  in  1900.  The 
output  in  1901  was  obtained  near  Louviers  in  the  Department  of  Eure. 

Turkey. — Fullers  earth  is  quarried  on  a  large  scale  in  Turkey,  the  deposits 
extending  over  60  ihiles  in  length.  The  mines  are  located  mainly  in  the  caza 
of  Eskichehir  in  the  Kutahia  district,  between  the  Poursaktchai  and  the  Sakaria 
Rivers.  In  the  caza  of  Killis  there  is  a  mine  which  has  been  in  operation  many 
years,  the  product  being  exported  to  all  parts  of  Syria  and  Anatolia. 

Technology. 

In  his  paper*  entitled  Experiments  on  the  Diffusion  of  Crude  Petroleum 
through  Fullers  Earth,  Dr.  D.  T.  Day  reviews  a  series  of  experiments,  which  he 
has  carried  on  during  the  past  five  years,  on  the  changes  which  take  place  when 
crude  oils  are  diffused  through  various  substances.  Quartz  sand,  amorphous 
silica  and  powdered  limestone  exhibit  practically  no  selective  action.  Different 
clays  show  greatly  differing  capacities  for  separating  the  oils;  the  greatest  effec- 
tiveness being  secured  as  the  clay  approaches  fullers  earth  in  composition  and 
texture.  When  crude  petroleum  was  allowed  to  pass  through  finely  powdered 
fullers  earth,  it  became  separated  into  a  series  of  oils  differing  in  color  and  specific 
gravity  from  the  original  product.  The  fractions  varied  in  color  from  dark  brown 
to  clear  white,  and  the  specific  gravity  from  0-70  to  085.  The  differences  in 
the  resulting  products  are  entirely  physical,  no  chemical  changes  whatever  tak- 
ing place  during  the  process  of  diffusion. 

*  Read  at  the  meeting  of  the  Geological  Society  of  Waahington,  April  88, 1Q06;  abstract  in  Science^  June 
96, 1908,  p.  1007. 


GARNET. 

The  production  of  gamet  for  abrasive  purposes  in  the  United  States  during 
1902  amounted  to  3,722  short  tons,  valued  at  $88,270,  as  compared  with  4,444 
short  tons,  valued  at  $168,100  in  1901.  The  output  was  derived  mainly  from 
the  mines  in  the  vicinity  of  Ticonderoga,  N.  Y.  The  prices  for  garnet  remained 
unchanged  throughout  the  year,  being  $26@$35  per  short  ton,  according  to 
quality.  In  New  York  there  were  no  new  developments  during  1902,  the  output 
of  gamet  for  abrasive  purposes  in  the  North  Creek  section  being  but  slightly 
greater  than  that  of  1901.  H.  H.  Barton  &  Sons,  of  Philadelphia,  Pa.,  con- 
tinues to  mine  its  supply  of  gamet  for  its  sandpaper  factory  in  Philadelphia 
from  its  mine  located  on  Gore  Mountain.  The  North  Eiver  Gamet  Co. 
mines  and  concentrates  during  the  summer  months  enough  gamet  to  supply  the 
demands  for  the  Adirondack  mineral  of  the  other  large  sandpaper  manufacturers. 
A  new  mine  has  been  opened  in  St.  Lawrence  County  by  the  Gouvemeur  Lead 
&  Gamet  Co.  The  ore  is  composed  mainly  of  quartz  containing  very  small  pink 
garnets,  unlike  the  standard  Adirondack  mineral.  This  company  has  erected 
a  concentrating  plant,  and  is  trying  to  establish  a  market  for  its  product.  The 
concentrates  carry  a  considerable  percentage  of  quartz. 

The  geology  and  mineralogical  character  of  the  Adirondack  deposits  and  the 
preparation  and  uses  of  the  mineral  product  are  given  in  The  Mineral  Indus- 
try, Vol.  VI.,  pp.  20-22. 


GEMS  AND  PRECIOUS  STONES. 

By  Joseph  Stbuthebs  and  Henry  Fisher. 

The  value  of  the  precious  stones  produced  in  the  United  States  in  1902  wjia 
$318,300,  as  compared  with  $289,050  in  1901.  Of  the  total,  the  value  of  the 
sapphires  and  turquoises  produced  aggregated  $245,000.  In  1902,  the  imports 
were  as  follows :  uncut  diamonds,  $8,230,735 ;  cut  diamonds,  $13,852,949 ;  other 
uncut  precious  stones,  $52,025,  and  other  cut  precious  stones,  including  natural 
pearls,  $4,641,339 ;  a  total  of  $26,777,048. 

The  following  table  gives  the  value  of  the  production  of  precious  stones  in 
the  United  States,  according  to  Mr.  George  P.  Kunz : — 


Variety. 


1901. 


190S. 


Variety. 


1901. 


1908. 


Agate 

Agate  (moss) 

AmazoD  stone 

Amethjrst 

Anthracite  ornaments. . . . 

Arrow  points 

Berrl  (aquamarine,  etc.). 

Catlinite  (pIpestone) 

Chlorastrolite 

Chrysoprase 

Diamond 

Emerald 

Fossil  coral 

Qamet  (almandite) 

Garnet  (pyrope) 

Malachite 

Mesolite  (thomsonite) 


$1,000 

500 

900 

500 

2,000 

500 

5,000 

8,000 

8,000 

1,500 

100 

1,000 

100 

100 

1,000 

100 

1,000 


$1,000 

500 

500 

8,000 

8,000 


Peridot . 
Pyrite... 


4,000 
8,000 
4,000 
10,000 


1,000 


1,000 

'i',666' 


luartz,  nitilated 

!uartz,  smoky 

luartz,  tourmallnated . . 

;hodolite 

Ruby 

Sapphire *. 

Sillcifledwood 

Tourmaline 

Turquoise 

UtahUte  (variscite) 


Total. 


$500 

8,000 

10,000 

8,000 

150 

60 

1,000 

1,000 

81,000 

500 

90,000 

7,000 

16,000 

118,000 

860 


$600 
8,000 
18,000 
8,000 

800 
100 

8,000 


1,600 


115.000 

7,000 

16,000 

180,000 


$889,050 


$818,800 


Diamonds. — United  States.^ — ^There  were  no  diamonds  found  during  1902, 
as  compared  with  an  output  valued  at  $100  in  1901.  There  was,  however,  a 
diamond  discovered  in  a  meteorite  from  Canon  Diablo,  at  the  foot  of  Crater 
Mountain,  Ariz.  The  stone  is  of  irregular  shape  and  so  hard  that  when  at- 
tempts were  made  to  cleave  and  to  polish  it,  two  chisels  were  broken  and  an 
emery  wheel  ruined. 

South  Africa, — The  report  of  the  De  Beers  Consolidated  Mines,  Ltd.,  for  the 
fiscal  year  ending  June  30,  1902,  shows  that  the  value  of  the  diamonds  sold 
amounted  to  £4,687,194.  After  deducting  expenditures  of  £2,524,485,  the  profit 
balance  for  thq  year  was  £2,162,709.  The  balance  brought  forward  from  the 
previous  year  amounted  to  £1,277,342,  which,  added  to  the  profit  balance,  together 
with    interest   and    revenue   from    various   sources,    increased   the   balance   to 

>  The  diamond  deposiU  in  the  United  States  were  fully  described  by  William  H.  Hobbs  in  Tbk  Mihkbax. 
Ikdustbt,  Vol.  IX.,  pp.  801-801 


&EM8  AMD  PRECIOUS  STONES.  245 

£3,660,280.  From  this  amount  dividends  and  bonuses  amounting  to  £2,445,000, 
and  life  governors'  remuneration  of  £316,594  were  paid,  leaving  a  balance  of 
£798,696  to  be  carried  forward.  The  output  of  blue  ground  was  4,347,641  loads, 
equal  to  3,478,113  short  tons;  3,734,241  loads  were  washed,  yielding  2,025,224 
carats  of  diamonds.  There  were  also  1,151,816  loads  of  tailings  treated,  yielding 
202,830  carats  of  diamonds,  and  18,728  carats  of  diamonds  were  recovered  from, 
old  concentrates.  The  average  yield  per  load  of  blue  ground  and  lumps  from  the 
De  Beers  and  Kimberley  mines  for  the  fiscal  year  was  0*76  carat,  at  an  average 
value  of  46s.  5-7d.  per  carat.  The